Expressway network of Vietnam
(Hệ thống đường cao tốc Việt Nam)
CT 01, VNM.svg
Highway shield of the North-South Expressway
Vietnam Expressway map - Numbered.png
System information
Length1,276 km[1] (793 mi)
Highway names
Hanoi–Ninh Bình Expressway, part of the North–South expressway
Hanoi–Ninh Bình Expressway, part of the North–South expressway

The Expressway network of Vietnam is a recent addition to the transport network of Vietnam. The first expressways were opened in the mid-2000s, by 2020, the expressway network is expected to stretch 1,276 kilometres (793 mi) and plans are for over 7,000 kilometres (4,300 mi) of expressway by 2030.[1]

Development

Toll booth in Ninh Bình
Toll booth in Ninh Bình

Expressways are a rather recent addition to the Vietnamese road network, and standardization has not been fully implemented. Ownership varies by expressway, they are financed, developed, owned and operated by either state-owned or private companies on behalf of the Ministry of Transport.[2] For example, state-owned Vietnam Expressway Corporation owns and operates four expressways,[3] but toll collection is done by subcontracted companies. The companies operating the expressways have to report traffic numbers and toll revenue to the Ministry of Transport and the Directorate for Roads of Vietnam.[4] This construction has been subject of fraud investigations several times, as toll revenue was falsified by the collecting companies in order to take advantage of the difference.[5] The government has also threatened operating companies to revoke their toll collection licence after lack of maintenance caused dangerous situations on several expressways.[6] In 2019 it was reported that the Vietnam Expressway Corporation was $3.7 billion USD in debt, and earning $137 million in revenue each year.[7]

The total cost of the planned expressway network is estimated at $47.9 billion.[8] Lack of funding has been an issue throughout the development of the expressway network, with both the government and private investors having difficulty in raising the required investment costs.[9][10]

In 2019, the Ministry of Transport decided to exclude foreign investors from bidding on the North-South expressway, mainly to prevent Chinese companies from participating. Public backslash – due to strong anti-Chinese sentiment in the country – was feared if Chinese companies would collect toll fees, as well national security concerns playing a role in this decision.[11][12] However, lack of bidders has led to low competition between the bids, [13] and two out of five sections had not attracted any bids.[14]

In 2020, Minister of Planning and Investment Nguyễn Chí Dũng petitioned to the National Assembly to switch development of the remaining sections of the North–South expressway to state funding instead of build-operate-transfer contracts, in order to avoid delays in raising capital and to reduce interest amount. He noted that Chinese provinces Yunnan and Guangxi built 2,000 kilometres (1,243 mi) of expressways in three years, whereas 1,300 kilometres (808 mi) of planned expressway in Vietnam should have been completed decades ago. If public funding would be approved, construction on the sections Vĩnh Hảo (vi)Phan Thiết, Mai Son (Ninh Bình)–Highway 45 (Thanh Hóa) and Phan Thiết–Dầu Giây (connection to Ho Chi Minh City–Long Thanh–Dau Giay Expressway) would start in 2021.[15]

A new draft plan is for 2,542 km (1,580 mi) of new expressways to be completed before 2025 and an additional 1,339 km (832 mi) for before 2030.[16]

Expressway use

Speed on the Expressway/Expressway starts sign
Speed on the Expressway/Expressway starts sign

Generally all cars, buses and trucks are permitted on the expressway but công nông (agricultural vehicles) and most notably all types motorcycles are not.[17]

A minimum speed of 70 kilometres per hour (43 mph) is generally in effect, and the maximum speed is 120 kilometres per hour (75 mph), although sections with a lower maximum speed are common.

List of Expressways

North-South Expressway

Number Name Length Lanes Notes
CT 01, VNM.svg
CT.01
North–South Expressway 2,063 kilometres (1,282 mi)[18] 4-10 Completed many expressway sections
CT 02, VNM.svg
CT.02
North–South Expressway West 1,205 kilometres (749 mi)[18] 4-6 Completed many expressway sections

Northern Regional Expressway

Number Name Length Lanes Notes
CT 03, VNM.svg
CT.03
Hanoi -Hoa Binh - Son La - Dien Bien Expressway 450 kilometres (280 mi)[18] 4-6 Completed Thang Long Boulevard expressway section
CT 04, VNM.svg
CT.04
Hanoi-Haiphong Expressway 105 kilometres (65 mi)[18] 6 Fully opened
CT 05, VNM.svg
CT.05
Hanoi–Lao Cai Expressway 264 kilometres (164 mi)[18] 6 Connects to China's G8011. Complete between Hanoi Noi Bai Airport and the border with China
CT 06, VNM.svg
CT.06
Haiphong - Halong - Van Don - Mong Cai Expressway 175 kilometres (109 mi)[18] 6 Fully opened
CT 07, VNM.svg
CT.07
Hanoi – Thai Nguyen - Bac Kan - Cao Bang Expressway 227 kilometres (141 mi)[18] 4-6 Fully completed the Hanoi - Thai Nguyen expressway section
CT 08, VNM.svg
CT.08
Ninh Binh - Hai Phong Expressway 109 kilometres (68 mi)[18] 4 Proposed
CT 09, VNM.svg
CT.09
Noi Bai - Bac Ninh - Halong Expressway 146 kilometres (91 mi)[18] 4 N/A
CT 10, VNM.svg
CT.10
Tien Yen - Lang Son - Cao Bang Expressway 215 kilometres (134 mi)[18] 4 Proposed
CT 11, VNM.svg
CT.11
Phu Ly - Nam Dinh Expressway 50 kilometres (31 mi)[18] 4 Proposed
CT 12, VNM.svg
CT.12
Hanoi - Lao Cai Expressway connect Ha Giang 81 kilometres (50 mi)[18] 4 Proposed
CT 13, VNM.svg
CT.13
Bao Ha - Lai Chau Expressway 203 kilometres (126 mi)[18] 4 Proposed
CT 14, VNM.svg
CT.14
Cho Ben - Yen My Expressway 45 kilometres (28 mi)[18] 4 Proposed
CT 15, VNM.svg
CT.15
Tuyen Quang - Ha Giang Expressway 165 kilometres (103 mi)[18] 4 Under Construction
CT 16, VNM.svg
CT.16
Hung Yen - Thai Binh Expressway 70 kilometres (43 mi)[18] 4 Proposed

Central Regional Expressway

Number Name Length Lanes Notes
CT 17, VNM.svg
CT.17
Vinh - Thanh Thuy Expressway 85 kilometres (53 mi)[18] 6 Proposed
CT 18, VNM.svg
CT.18
Vung Ang - Cha Lo Expressway 115 kilometres (71 mi)[18] 4 Proposed
CT 19, VNM.svg
CT.19
Cam Lo - Lao Bao Expressway 70 kilometres (43 mi)[18] 4 Funding phase
CT 20, VNM.svg
CT.20
Quy Nhon - Pleiku - Le Thanh Expressway 230 kilometres (140 mi)[18] 4 Proposed
CT 21, VNM.svg
CT.21
Danang - Thach My - Ngoc Hoi - Bo Y Expressway 281 kilometres (175 mi)[18] 4 Proposed
CT 22, VNM.svg
CT.22
Quang Nam - Quang Ngai Expressway 100 kilometres (62 mi) [18] 4 Proposed
CT 23, VNM.svg
CT.23
Phu Yen - Dak Lak Expressway 220 kilometres (140 mi)[18] 4 Proposed
CT 24, VNM.svg
CT.24
Khanh Hoa - Buon Ma Thuot Expressway 130 kilometres (81 mi)[18] 4 Funding phase
CT 25, VNM.svg
CT.25
Nha Trang - Lien Khuong Expressway 85 kilometres (53 mi)[18] 4 Proposed
CT 26, VNM.svg
CT.26
Lien Khuong - Buon Ma Thuot Expressway 115 kilometres (71 mi)[18] 4 Proposed

Southern Regional Expressway

Number Name Length Lanes Notes
CT 27, VNM.svg
CT.27
Dau Giay-Dalat Expressway 220 kilometres (140 mi)[18] 4 Completed between Lien Khuong and Pass Prenn (Da Lat)
CT 28, VNM.svg
CT.28
Bien Hoa-Vung Tau Expressway 54 kilometres (34 mi)[18] 6-8 Funding phase
CT 29, VNM.svg
CT.29
Ho Chi Minh City- Long Thanh- Dau Giay Expressway 115 kilometres (71 mi)[18] 6-10 Proposed
CT 30, VNM.svg
CT.30
Ho Chi Minh -Chon Thanh - Hoa Lu Expressway 130 kilometres (81 mi)[18] 6 Proposed
CT 31, VNM.svg
CT.31
Ho Chi Minh City - Moc Bai Expressway 53.5 kilometres (33.2 mi)[19] 6 Will connect to Cambodia's
E4-KH.png
(E4) Phnom Penh-Bavet Expressway, parallels QL.22, Funding phase
CT 32, VNM.svg
CT.32
Go Dau - Xa Mat Expressway 65 kilometres (40 mi)[18] 4 Proposed
CT 33, VNM.svg
CT.33
Ho Chi Minh City - Tien Giang -Ben Tre- Tra Vinh - Soc Trang Expressway 150 kilometres (93 mi)[18] 4 Proposed
CT 34, VNM.svg
CT.34
Chau Doc - Can Tho - Soc Trang Expressway 191 kilometres (119 mi)[18] 6 Proposed
CT 35, VNM.svg
CT.35
Ha Tien - Rach Gia - Bac Lieu Expressway 212 kilometres (132 mi)[18] 4 Proposed
CT 36, VNM.svg
CT.36
Hong Ngu - Tra Vinh Expressway 188 kilometres (117 mi)[18] 4 Proposed

Hanoi Ring Road

Number Name Length Lanes Notes
CT 37, VNM.svg
CT.37
Hanoi Ring Road 3 55 kilometres (34 mi)[18] 6 Fully completed
CT 38, VNM.svg
CT.38
Hanoi Ring Road 4 102 kilometres (63 mi)[18] 6 Funding phase
CT 39, VNM.svg
CT.39
Hanoi Ring Road 5 272 kilometres (169 mi)[18] 6 Proposed

Ho Chi Minh City Ring Road

Number Name Length Lanes Notes
CT 40, VNM.svg
CT.40
Ho Chi Minh City Ring Road 3 92 kilometres (57 mi)[18] 8 Completed many expressway sections
CT 41, VNM.svg
CT.41
Ho Chi Minh City Ring Road 4 199 kilometres (124 mi)[18] 8 Funding phase

See also

Notes

References

  1. ^ a b "Vietnam to have more than 7,000km of expressways | Business | Vietnam+ (VietnamPlus)". VietnamPlus. 12 September 2018.
  2. ^ "Da Nang - Quang Ngai Expressway". www.roadtraffic-technology.com.
  3. ^ Giang Dang; Low Sui Pheng (18 October 2014). Infrastructure Investments in Developing Economies: The Case of Vietnam. Springer. p. 109. ISBN 978-981-287-248-7.
  4. ^ "Vietnam Expressway Corporation explains about loss of expressway tolls". VietnamPlus. 13 February 2019.
  5. ^ "Nine investigated for toll road fraud". vietnamnews.vn.
  6. ^ "Expressway maintenance failing to keep up". vietnamnews.vn.
  7. ^ "State-owned expressway builder weighed down by debt". VnExpress International.
  8. ^ Bui Dinh Tuan (September 2013). "Report On Viet Nam Expressway Development Plan" (PDF). Viet Nam Expressway Operation and Maintenance Limited Liability Company.
  9. ^ "Vietnam lacks funding for new expressway: Finance Ministry". VnExpress International.
  10. ^ "North-South Expressway faces lack of funds". VietNamNet.
  11. ^ "The China factor in Vietnam's infrastructure development dilemma". South China Morning Post. 11 October 2019.
  12. ^ "North-South Expressway bids open only to Vietnamese investors". VnExpress International.
  13. ^ "Vietnam rules out foreign investors for 8 North-South Expressway sections". VnExpress International.
  14. ^ "No bidders for two North-South Expressway sections". VnExpress International.
  15. ^ "Một tỉnh Trung Quốc 3 năm làm 2.000km cao tốc, Việt Nam 35 năm hơn 400km". Tuổi Trẻ. 9 June 2020.
  16. ^ "Đường cao tốc phủ khắp 80% tỉnh thành trong 10 năm tới?". zingnews.vn. Retrieved 19 April 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  17. ^ "Motorbikes entering expressways in Vietnam could be confiscated". Tuoi Tre News. 27 February 2015.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an "DANH MỤC CÁC TUYẾN ĐƯỜNG BỘ CAO TỐC". luatvietnam.
  19. ^ "Ho Chi Minh City-Moc Bai Expressway a driving force in southeast Vietnam". Tuoi Tre News (in Vietnamese). 25 November 2020. Retrieved 25 November 2020.

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