|Expressway network of Vietnam|
(Hệ thống đường cao tốc Việt Nam)
|Length||1,276 km (793 mi)|
The Expressway network of Vietnam is a recent addition to the transport network of Vietnam. The first expressways were opened in the mid-2000s, by 2020, the expressway network is expected to stretch 1,276 kilometres (793 mi) and plans are for over 7,000 kilometres (4,300 mi) of expressway by 2030.
Expressways are a rather recent addition to the Vietnamese road network, and standardization has not been fully implemented. Ownership varies by expressway, they are financed, developed, owned and operated by either state-owned or private companies on behalf of the Ministry of Transport. For example, state-owned Vietnam Expressway Corporation owns and operates four expressways, but toll collection is done by subcontracted companies. The companies operating the expressways have to report traffic numbers and toll revenue to the Ministry of Transport and the Directorate for Roads of Vietnam. This construction has been subject of fraud investigations several times, as toll revenue was falsified by the collecting companies in order to take advantage of the difference. The government has also threatened operating companies to revoke their toll collection licence after lack of maintenance caused dangerous situations on several expressways. In 2019 it was reported that the Vietnam Expressway Corporation was $3.7 billion USD in debt, and earning $137 million in revenue each year.
The total cost of the planned expressway network is estimated at $47.9 billion. Lack of funding has been an issue throughout the development of the expressway network, with both the government and private investors having difficulty in raising the required investment costs.
In 2019, the Ministry of Transport decided to exclude foreign investors from bidding on the North-South expressway, mainly to prevent Chinese companies from participating. Public backslash – due to strong anti-Chinese sentiment in the country – was feared if Chinese companies would collect toll fees, as well national security concerns playing a role in this decision. However, lack of bidders has led to low competition between the bids,  and two out of five sections had not attracted any bids.
In 2020, Minister of Planning and Investment Nguyễn Chí Dũng petitioned to the National Assembly to switch development of the remaining sections of the North–South expressway to state funding instead of build-operate-transfer contracts, in order to avoid delays in raising capital and to reduce interest amount. He noted that Chinese provinces Yunnan and Guangxi built 2,000 kilometres (1,243 mi) of expressways in three years, whereas 1,300 kilometres (808 mi) of planned expressway in Vietnam should have been completed decades ago. If public funding would be approved, construction on the sections Vĩnh Hảo (vi)–Phan Thiết, Mai Son (Ninh Bình)–Highway 45 (Thanh Hóa) and Phan Thiết–Dầu Giây (connection to Ho Chi Minh City–Long Thanh–Dau Giay Expressway) would start in 2021.
A new draft plan is for 2,542 km (1,580 mi) of new expressways to be completed before 2025 and an additional 1,339 km (832 mi) for before 2030.
Generally all cars, buses and trucks are permitted on the expressway but công nông (agricultural vehicles) and most notably all types motorcycles are not.
A minimum speed of 70 kilometres per hour (43 mph) is generally in effect, and the maximum speed is 120 kilometres per hour (75 mph), although sections with a lower maximum speed are common.
|North–South Expressway||2,063 kilometres (1,282 mi)||4-10||Completed many expressway sections|
|North–South Expressway West||1,205 kilometres (749 mi)||4-6||Completed many expressway sections|
|Hanoi -Hoa Binh - Son La - Dien Bien Expressway||450 kilometres (280 mi)||4-6||Completed Thang Long Boulevard expressway section|
|Hanoi-Haiphong Expressway||105 kilometres (65 mi)||6||Fully opened|
|Hanoi–Lao Cai Expressway||264 kilometres (164 mi)||6||Connects to China's G8011. Complete between Hanoi Noi Bai Airport and the border with China|
|Haiphong - Halong - Van Don - Mong Cai Expressway||175 kilometres (109 mi)||6||Fully opened|
|Hanoi – Thai Nguyen - Bac Kan - Cao Bang Expressway||227 kilometres (141 mi)||4-6||Fully completed the Hanoi - Thai Nguyen expressway section|
|Ninh Binh - Hai Phong Expressway||109 kilometres (68 mi)||4||Proposed|
|Noi Bai - Bac Ninh - Halong Expressway||146 kilometres (91 mi)||4||N/A|
|Tien Yen - Lang Son - Cao Bang Expressway||215 kilometres (134 mi)||4||Proposed|
|Phu Ly - Nam Dinh Expressway||50 kilometres (31 mi)||4||Proposed|
|Hanoi - Lao Cai Expressway connect Ha Giang||81 kilometres (50 mi)||4||Proposed|
|Bao Ha - Lai Chau Expressway||203 kilometres (126 mi)||4||Proposed|
|Cho Ben - Yen My Expressway||45 kilometres (28 mi)||4||Proposed|
|Tuyen Quang - Ha Giang Expressway||165 kilometres (103 mi)||4||Under Construction|
|Hung Yen - Thai Binh Expressway||70 kilometres (43 mi)||4||Proposed|
|Vinh - Thanh Thuy Expressway||85 kilometres (53 mi)||6||Proposed|
|Vung Ang - Cha Lo Expressway||115 kilometres (71 mi)||4||Proposed|
|Cam Lo - Lao Bao Expressway||70 kilometres (43 mi)||4||Funding phase|
|Quy Nhon - Pleiku - Le Thanh Expressway||230 kilometres (140 mi)||4||Proposed|
|Danang - Thach My - Ngoc Hoi - Bo Y Expressway||281 kilometres (175 mi)||4||Proposed|
|Quang Nam - Quang Ngai Expressway||100 kilometres (62 mi) ||4||Proposed|
|Phu Yen - Dak Lak Expressway||220 kilometres (140 mi)||4||Proposed|
|Khanh Hoa - Buon Ma Thuot Expressway||130 kilometres (81 mi)||4||Funding phase|
|Nha Trang - Lien Khuong Expressway||85 kilometres (53 mi)||4||Proposed|
|Lien Khuong - Buon Ma Thuot Expressway||115 kilometres (71 mi)||4||Proposed|
|Dau Giay-Dalat Expressway||220 kilometres (140 mi)||4||Completed between Lien Khuong and Pass Prenn (Da Lat)|
|Bien Hoa-Vung Tau Expressway||54 kilometres (34 mi)||6-8||Funding phase|
|Ho Chi Minh City- Long Thanh- Dau Giay Expressway||115 kilometres (71 mi)||6-10||Proposed|
|Ho Chi Minh -Chon Thanh - Hoa Lu Expressway||130 kilometres (81 mi)||6||Proposed|
|Ho Chi Minh City - Moc Bai Expressway||53.5 kilometres (33.2 mi)||6||Will connect to Cambodia's |
|Go Dau - Xa Mat Expressway||65 kilometres (40 mi)||4||Proposed|
|Ho Chi Minh City - Tien Giang -Ben Tre- Tra Vinh - Soc Trang Expressway||150 kilometres (93 mi)||4||Proposed|
|Chau Doc - Can Tho - Soc Trang Expressway||191 kilometres (119 mi)||6||Proposed|
|Ha Tien - Rach Gia - Bac Lieu Expressway||212 kilometres (132 mi)||4||Proposed|
|Hong Ngu - Tra Vinh Expressway||188 kilometres (117 mi)||4||Proposed|
|Hanoi Ring Road 3||55 kilometres (34 mi)||6||Fully completed|
|Hanoi Ring Road 4||102 kilometres (63 mi)||6||Funding phase|
|Hanoi Ring Road 5||272 kilometres (169 mi)||6||Proposed|
|Ho Chi Minh City Ring Road 3||92 kilometres (57 mi)||8||Completed many expressway sections|
|Ho Chi Minh City Ring Road 4||199 kilometres (124 mi)||8||Funding phase|
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