The Family Shakespeare, Thomas Bowdler's famous reworked edition of William Shakespeare's plays. 1818
The Family Shakespeare, Thomas Bowdler's famous reworked edition of William Shakespeare's plays. 1818

Expurgation, also known as bowdlerization, is a form of censorship that involves purging anything deemed noxious or offensive from an artistic work, or other type of writing or media.

The term bowdlerization is a pejorative term for the practice, particularly the expurgation of lewd material from books. The term derives from Thomas Bowdler's 1818 edition of William Shakespeare's plays, which he reworked in ways that he felt were more suitable for women and children.[1] He similarly edited Edward Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.[2]

A fig-leaf edition is such a bowdlerized text, deriving from the practice of covering the genitals of nudes in classical and Renaissance statues and paintings with fig leaves.







See also


  1. ^ "Censorship" (PDF).
  2. ^ Gibbon, Edward (1826). Gibbon's History of the decline and fall of the Roman empire, repr. with the omission of all passages of an irreligious or immoral tendency, by T. Bowdler.
  3. ^ Popper, William (1889). The Censorship of Hebrew Books. Knickerbocker Press. pp. 13–14.
  4. ^ Greenfield, Jeanette (1996-01-26). The Return of Cultural Treasures. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-47746-8.
  5. ^ Carus, Paul (1925). The Open Court. Open Court Publishing Company.
  6. ^ a b Frederick J. Furnivall, ed. (1867). Bishop Percy's Folio Manuscript: loose and humorous songs. London. p. 100.
  7. ^ "The Crabfish".
  8. ^ "Crayfish".
  9. ^ Bussacco, Michael C. (2009). Heritage Press Sandglass Companion Book: 1960–1983. Tribute Books (Archibald, Penn.). p. 252. ISBN 9780982256510. Retrieved September 23, 2010.
  10. ^ Curtis, Jack (February 17, 2008). "Blood from Oil". Boston Globe. Retrieved September 23, 2010.
  11. ^ Sinclair, Mary Craig (1957). Southern Belle. New York: Crown Publishers. p. 309. ISBN 9781578061525. Retrieved September 23, 2010.
  12. ^ Lyngstad, Sverre (2005). Knut Hamsun, Novelist: A Critical Assessment. Peter Lang. ISBN 978-0-8204-7433-5.
  13. ^ Tomasky, Michael (January 7, 2011). "The New Huck Finn". The Guardian. Retrieved September 6, 2013.
  14. ^ Lowenthal, David (October 2015). The Past is a Foreign Country - Revisited. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-85142-8.
  15. ^ Fulton, Joe B. (1997). Mark Twain's Ethical Realism: The Aesthetics of Race, Class, and Gender. University of Missouri Press. ISBN 978-0-8262-1144-6.
  16. ^ Bunson, Matthew (2000). The Complete Christie: An Agatha Christie Encyclopedia. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-02831-2.
  17. ^ Marshall, Elizabeth; Sensoy, Özlem (2011). Rethinking Popular Culture and Media. Rethinking Schools. ISBN 978-0-942961-48-5.
  18. ^ I. Opie and P. Opie, The Oxford Dictionary of Nursery Rhymes (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1951, 2nd edn., 1997), pp. 156-8.
  19. ^ Pourciau, Lester J.; Press, Purdue University (1999). Ethics and Electronic Information in the Twenty-first Century. Purdue University Press. ISBN 978-1-55753-138-4.
  20. ^ Ng, Jason (2013-08-27). Blocked on Weibo: What Gets Suppressed on ChinaÕs Version of Twitter (And Why). New Press, The. ISBN 978-1-59558-871-5.
  21. ^ Wikipedia, Source (September 2013). Internet Censorship: Content-Control Software, History of Wikipedia, Wikileaks, 2010-2011 Middle East and North Africa Protests, Criticism of Facebook. General Books. ISBN 978-1-230-60168-7.
  22. ^ Smith, Caspar Llewellyn (2010-11-14). "Cee Lo Green: 'I've been such an oddball my whole life' | Q&A". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2020-10-10.
  23. ^ "South Park: The Fractured But Whole was originally called South Park: The Butthole of Time". 2016-07-25. Retrieved 2021-12-25.
  24. ^ "'South Park: The Fractured But Whole' game – everything you need to know". NME. 2017-09-25. Retrieved 2021-12-25.