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Federal Parliament of Nepal

संघीय संसद, नेपाल
1st Federal Parliament
Emblem of Nepal
HousesNational Assembly
(upper house)
House of Representatives
(lower house)
Founded5 March 2018 (4 years ago) (2018-03-05)
Preceded byConstituent Assembly of Nepal
Nanda Kishor Pun
since 31 October 2015
Chairman of the National Assembly
Ganesh Prasad Timilsina
since 15 March 2018
Deputy Chairman of the National Assembly
since 4 March 2022
Speaker of the House of Representatives
Agni Prasad Sapkota[1]
since 26 January 2020
Deputy Speaker of the House of Representatives
Pushpa Bhusal Gautam
since 15 July 2022
Sher Bahadur Deuba, NC
since 13 July 2021
Leader of the Opposition
KP Sharma Oli, CPN (UML)
since 13 July 2021
59 assemblymen
275 representatives
HouseOfRepresentatives Nepal August2021.svg
House of Representatives political groups
Government (158)
  •   NC: 63
  •   CPN (MC): 49
  •   CPN (US): 25[2]
  •   PSPN: 16
  •   SPN: 5

External Support (18)

Opposition (95)

Vacant (4)

  •   Vacant: 4
Nepal NationalAssembly Jan2022election.svg
National Assembly political groups
Government (39)

External Support (2)

Opposition (18)

First-past-the-post & proportional representation
Single transferable vote & First-past-the-post
26 November and 7 December 2017
National Assembly last election
26 January 2022
by November 2022
National Assembly next election
Meeting place
Nepalese Constituent Assembly Building.jpg
International Convention Centre,
Kathmandu, Nepal
Constitution of Nepal

The Federal Parliament of Nepal (संघीय संसद नेपाल, Saṅghīya Sansada Nēpāla) is the bicameral federal and supreme legislature of Nepal established in 2018. It consists of the National Assembly and the House of Representatives as parallel houses.


Legislatures of Kingdom of Nepal

Main article: Legislatures of Kingdom of Nepal

The former Parliament of Nepal was dissolved by King Gyanendra in 2002, on the grounds that it was incapable of handling the Maoist rebels. The country's five main political parties had staged protests against the king, arguing that he must either call fresh elections or reinstate the elected legislature. In 2004, the king announced that parliamentary elections would be held within twelve months; in April 2006, in response to major pro-democratic protests, it was announced that Parliament would be reestablished.[7]

Interim Legislature of Nepal

Main articles: Interim legislature of Nepal and 1st Nepalese Constituent Assembly

After the success of the April 2006 people's movement, on 15 January 2007, the old parliament was dissolved and replaced by a 330-member interim legislature of Nepal.[8] The legislature drafted an interim constitution and a constituent assembly election was held in April 2008. The 601-member assembly on 28 May 2008 abolished the 238-year-old monarchy and declared the country a republic. The constituent assembly, which was initially given two years to draft a new constitution, was dissolved on 27 May 2012 after its failure to draft a new constitution due to differences over restructuring the state.[citation needed]

Legislature Parliament of Nepal

Main article: Legislature Parliament of Nepal

The second Nepalese Constituent Assembly was converted into a legislative parliament of Nepal after the promulgation of the constitution on 20 September 2015.[9] The second Nepalese Constituent Assembly was formed after the failure of the first Constituent Assembly to draft a new constitution. The Legislature Parliament of Nepal was dissolved on 21 January 2018 (7 Magh, 2074 BS).[10]


According to the Constitution of Nepal 2015, Nepal has a two-chamber parliament (संसद), consisting of the House of Representatives and the National Assembly, with the President of Nepal acting as their head.[11]

President of Nepal

Main article: President of Nepal

The President of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (नेपालको राष्ट्रपति, Nēpālakō rāṣṭrapati) is the head of state of Nepal and commander in chief of the Nepalese Armed Forces. The office was created in May 2008 after the country was declared as a republic. The first President of Nepal was Ram Baran Yadav. The current president is Bidhya Devi Bhandari, elected in October 2015. She is the first female president of the country. The President is to be formally addressed as "The Right Honourable" (सम्माननीय, Sam'mānanīya).

House of Representatives

Main article: House of Representatives (Nepal)

The House of Representatives (प्रतिनिधि सभा, Pratinidhi Sabha) has 275 members. 165 members are elected from single-member constituencies by first-past-the-post voting and 110 elected through proportional electoral system where voters vote for political parties, considering the whole country as a single election constituency. The members of the house hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers.

National Assembly

Main article: National Assembly (Nepal)

The National Assembly (राष्ट्रिय सभा, Rastriya Sabha) has 59 members. Eight members are elected from each of the seven provinces by an electoral college of each province, and three are appointed by the President on recommendation of the government. They must include at least three women, one Dalit, and one member from disabled groups. Members serve staggered six year terms such that the term of one-third members expires every two years.

Parliamentary committees

There are 16 thematic committees in the federal parliament: ten in the House of Representatives, four in the National Assembly and two joint committees.[12]

House of Representatives

National Assembly


Women's representation

Main article: Women's representation in the Parliament of Nepal

The constitution of Nepal guarantees a 33% reservation for women in all public offices including the federal parliament. On 16 March 2018, Dr. Shiva Maya Tumbahamphe was elected as the deputy speaker of the house.[13] Women's representation in the parliament has increased since the Constituent Assembly, which eventually guaranteed provisions for women's representation on the constitution.[7]

Parliament House

Main article: International Convention Centre, Nepal

Both houses of the federal parliament currently meet at the International Convention Centre in New Baneshwor, Kathmandu.

A new parliament building is being constructed in the premises of the Singha Durbar complex, which houses most government offices.[14]

See also

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ 15 elected and 1 nominated
  2. ^ 8 elected and 1 nominated
  3. ^ 17 elected (including chairperson) and 1 nominated


  1. ^ "Elected Speaker". Nepal Republic Media. Kathmandu, Nepal. 26 January 2020. Archived from the original on 16 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  2. ^ "देउवालाई विश्वासको मत दिने यी हुन् एमालेका २२ सांसद". Online Khabar (in Nepali). 18 July 2021.
  3. ^ "महन्थ ठाकुर पक्ष आन्तरिक छलफलमा, सरकारमा सहभागी नहुने". eKantipur (in Nepali). 12 September 2021.
  4. ^ "सरकारमा सहभागिताबारे लोसपामा दुईधार". eKantipur (in Nepali). 12 September 2021.
  5. ^ "DSP's executive committee meeting underway". Khabarhub. 12 September 2021.
  6. ^ "Sher Bahadur Deuba wins vote of confidence in Nepal Parliament". The Indian Express. 19 July 2021.
  7. ^ a b "Nepal's Political Development: Nepal Constituent Assembly Portal". Archived from the original on 3 August 2010. Retrieved 10 April 2010.
  8. ^ Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld | Freedom in the World 2008 – Nepal". Refworld. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
  9. ^ "Nepal elects first woman speaker of parliament – Times of India". The Times of India.
  10. ^ "संविधानसभा प्रथम". Archived from the original on 13 December 2017. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  11. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 December 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2015.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ "All parliamentary committees in place". The Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  13. ^ "CPN-UML leader Tumbahamphe elected to Deputy Speaker of HoR". 16 March 2018.
  14. ^ "New building for federal parliament to cost Rs5 billion rupees". The Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 14 June 2020.