Fistula
Abdominal CT scan with right colocutaneous fistula and associated subcutaneous pneumatosis
Pronunciation
SpecialtyGeneral surgery

In anatomy, a fistula (pl.: fistulas or fistulae /-li, -l/; from Latin fistula, "tube, pipe") is an abnormal connection (i.e. tube) joining two hollow spaces (technically, two epithelialized surfaces), such as blood vessels, intestines, or other hollow organs to each other, often resulting in an abnormal flow of fluid from one space to the other.[2][3][4] An anal fistula connects the anal canal to the perianal skin. An anovaginal or rectovaginal fistula is a hole joining the anus or rectum to the vagina. A colovaginal fistula joins the space in the colon to that in the vagina. A urinary tract fistula is an abnormal opening in the urinary tract or an abnormal connection between the urinary tract and another organ. An abnormal communication (i.e. hole or tube) between the bladder and the uterus is called a vesicouterine fistula, while if it is between the bladder and the vagina it is known as a vesicovaginal fistula, and if between the urethra and the vagina: a urethrovaginal fistula. When occurring between two parts of the intestine, it is known as an enteroenteral fistula, between the small intestine and the skin as an enterocutaneous fistula, and between the colon and the skin as a colocutaneous fistula.[3]

A fistula can result from an infection, inflammation, injury or surgery.[5] Sometimes a fistula is deliberately surgically created as part of a treatment, for example in the case of an arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis.[6]

The treatment for a fistula varies depending on the cause and extent of the fistula, but often involves surgical intervention combined with antibiotic therapy. In some cases the fistula is temporarily covered using a fibrin glue or plug. A catheter may be required to drain a fistula.[3]

Globally, every year between 50,000 and 100,000 women are affected by one or more fistulas relating to childbirth.[7] In botany, the term is most common in its adjectival forms, where it is used in binomial names to refer to a species that is distinguished by one or more hollow or tubular structures. Monarda fistulosa, for example, has tubular flowers.[8] The term was first used in the 14th century.[2]

Definition

A fistula is an abnormal connection between vessels or organs that do not usually connect. It can be due to a disease or trauma, or purposely surgically created.[3][5]

Classification

Various types of fistulas include:

Although most fistulas are in forms of a tube, some can also have multiple branches.[9]

Location

Types of fistula can be described by their location. Anal fistulas connect between the epithelialized surface of the anal canal and the perianal skin. Anovaginal or rectovaginal fistulas occur when a hole develops between the anus or rectum and the vagina. Colovaginal fistulas occur between the colon and the vagina. Urinary tract fistulas are abnormal openings within the urinary tract or an abnormal connection between the urinary tract and another organ such as between the bladder and the uterus in a vesicouterine fistula, between the bladder and the vagina in a vesicovaginal fistula, and between the urethra and the vagina in urethrovaginal fistula. When occurring between two parts of the intestine, it is known as an enteroenteral fistula, between the small intestine and the skin as an enterocutaneous fistula, and between the small intestine and the colon as a colocutaneous fistula.[3]

The following list is sorted by the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems.

H: Diseases of the eye, adnexa, ear, and mastoid process

I: Diseases of the circulatory system

J: Diseases of the respiratory system

K: Diseases of the digestive system

Duodeno Biliary Fistula

M: Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue

N: Diseases of the urogenital system

Q: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities

T: External causes

Causes

Probed surgically excised gastrocutaneous fistula tract, that resulted from a previous gastrostomy tube.

Treatment

Treatment for fistula varies depending on the cause and extent of the fistula, but often involves surgical intervention combined with antibiotic therapy. In some cases the fistula is temporarily covered, using a fibrin glue or plug. Catheters may be required to drain a fistula.[3]

Surgery is often required to assure adequate drainage of the fistula (so that pus may escape without forming an abscess). Various surgical procedures are used, most commonly fistulotomy, placement of a seton (a cord that is passed through the path of the fistula to keep it open for draining), or an endorectal flap procedure (where healthy tissue is pulled over the internal side of the fistula to keep feces or other material from reinfecting the channel).[19]

Management involves treating any underlying causative condition. For example, surgical treatment of fistulae in Crohn's disease can be effective, but if the Crohn's disease itself is not treated, the rate of recurrence of the fistula is very high (well above 50%).

Therapeutic use

In people with kidney failure, requiring dialysis, a cimino fistula is often deliberately created in the arm by means of a short day surgery in order to permit easier withdrawal of blood for hemodialysis.[citation needed]

As a radical treatment for portal hypertension, surgical creation of a portacaval fistula produces an anastomosis between the hepatic portal vein and the inferior vena cava across the omental foramen (of Winslow). This spares the portal venous system from high pressure which can cause esophageal varices, caput medusae, and hemorrhoids.[citation needed]

Epidemiology

Globally, every year between 50,000 and 100,000 women are affected by fistula relating to childbirth.[7]

Botany

In botany, the term is most common in its adjectival forms, where it is used in binomial names to refer to species that are distinguished by hollow or tubular structures. Monarda fistulosa, for example, has tubular flowers;[8] Eutrochium fistulosum has a tubular stem; Allium fistulosum has hollow or tubular leaves, and Acacia seyal subsp. fistula is the subspecies with hollow spines.[citation needed]

Society and culture

The term was first used in the 14th century.[2]

See also

References

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Archived 2021-12-08 at the Wayback Machine. OED 2nd edition, 1989. (subscription required)
  2. ^ a b c d "Definition of Fistula". www.merriam-webster.com. Archived from the original on 24 April 2009. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "What Is A Fistula? Types, causes and treatments explained". Urinary incontinence education; National Association for Continence. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  4. ^ Garefalakis, Maria; Hickey, Martha; Johnson, Neil (2016). "Gynecological Morbidity". In Quah, Stella R.; Cockerham, William C. (eds.). International Encyclopedia of Public Health (Second ed.). Elsevier. pp. 342–353. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-803678-5.00178-8. ISBN 978-0-12-803678-5. A fistula is an abnormal connection or passageway between organs or vessels that are not normally connected.
  5. ^ a b c d e Rao, Jyotsna (2019). "Section II. General Surgery: Wounds, Sinuses, Fistulae". Qrs for Bds III Year-E Book (Third ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 256. ISBN 978-81-312-5535-3.
  6. ^ a b "Arteriovenous fistula - Symptoms and causes". Mayo Clinic. Archived from the original on 26 November 2020. Retrieved 5 December 2019.
  7. ^ a b "Obstetric fistula". www.who.int. Archived from the original on 25 August 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  8. ^ a b Identification of Monarda fistulosa Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine subpage of Discover Life Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine , 2014.
  9. ^ Abou-Zeid, Ahmed A. (28 July 2011). "Anal fistula: Intraoperative difficulties and unexpected findings". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 17 (28): 3272–3276. doi:10.3748/wjg.v17.i28.3272. PMC 3160529. PMID 21876613.
  10. ^ a b c d "Fistulas: What are Fistulas? Fistulas Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis - UCLA". www.uclahealth.org. Archived from the original on 10 April 2020. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  11. ^ Carr, S; Velasco, AL (January 2020). "Fistula In Ano". StatPearls Publishing. PMID 32491449. Archived from the original on 12 January 2023. Retrieved 29 December 2020. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  12. ^ Seksik, Philippe; Contou, Jean-Francois; Cosnes, Anne; Cosnes, Jacques (2006). "7. Hidradenitis Suppurativa and Crohn's Disease". In Jemec, Gregor B. E.; Revuz, Jean; Leyden, James J. (eds.). Hidradenitis Suppurativa. Springer. p. 53. ISBN 978-3-540-33100-1.
  13. ^ Crespi, M.; Montecamozzo, G.; Foschi, D. (2 June 2021). "Diagnosis and Treatment of Biliary Fistulas in the Laparoscopic Era". Gastroenterology Research and Practice. 2016: 1–6. doi:10.1155/2016/6293538. PMC 4706943. PMID 26819608.
  14. ^ Singhal, Shashideep MD2; Malieckal, Anju MD2; Culliford, Andrea MD1 Over the Scope Clip (OTSC) Closure of Persistently Leaking Gastrocutaneous Fistula after Failed Conventional Endoscopic Clipping Presidential Poster, American Journal of Gastroenterology: October 2012 - Volume 107 - Issue - p S532-S533
  15. ^ "Stephanie Nolen, "Not Women Anymore…" Ms. Magazine, Spring 2005". Archived from the original on 20 January 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
  16. ^ "UNFPA: United Nations Population Fund. Press Release, 22 June 2006. "More Funding Needed to Help Victims of Sexual Violence"". Archived from the original on 4 October 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
  17. ^ Emily Wax, Washington Post Foreign Service. Saturday, October 25, 2003; Page A01 "A Brutal Legacy of Congo War"
  18. ^ Nagpal, Kamal; Ahmed, Kamran; Cuschieri, RJ (2 June 2021). "Diagnosis and management of acute traumatic arteriovenous fistula". The International Journal of Angiology. 17 (4): 214–216. doi:10.1055/s-0031-1278313. PMC 2728918. PMID 22477453.
  19. ^ Golub, R (1997). "Endorectal mucosal advancement flap: the preferred method for complex cryptoglandular fistula-in-ano". Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery. 1 (5). Elsevier BV: 487–491. doi:10.1016/s1091-255x(97)80138-2. ISSN 1091-255X. PMID 17061335. S2CID 19188977.