.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{box-sizing:border-box;width:100%;padding:5px;border:none;font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .hidden-title{font-weight:bold;line-height:1.6;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .hidden-content{text-align:left}You can help expand this article with text translated from the corresponding article in French. (November 2021) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the French article. Machine translation, like DeepL or Google Translate, is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 6,001 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing French Wikipedia article at [[:fr:Cinq journées de Milan]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|fr|Cinq journées de Milan)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.

Five Days of Milan
Part of the First Italian War of Independence

The Five Days of Milan by Carlo Bossoli
Date18–22 March 1848
Location45°28′01″N 09°11′24″E / 45.46694°N 9.19000°E / 45.46694; 9.19000

Milanese revolt victorious[1]

  • Radetzky retreats from Milan[2]
Milanese insurgents Austria
Commanders and leaders
Carlo Cattaneo
Gabrio Casati
Luciano Manara
Joseph Radetzky
Ludwig von Wohlgemuth
1,700 barricades[10]
armed with 600–650 firearms along with stones, bottles, clubs, pikes and swords [10][11]
12,000 garrison[7][12]
Casualties and losses
409–424 killed[3][6]
including 43 women and children
600+ wounded[6]
181 killed[13]
including 5 officers
235 wounded[6]
including 4 officers
150–180 captured[13]
Provisional Government of Milan
Governo provvisorio di Milano (in Italian)
Common languagesItalian, Lombard
Historical eraRevolutions of 1848
9 June 1815
• Insurrection against Habsburg rule
18 March 1848
• Radetzky withdraws to Quadrilatero
22 March 1848
24 June 1859
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
Kingdom of Sardinia

The Five Days of Milan (Italian: Cinque giornate di Milano [ˈtʃiŋkwe dʒorˈnaːte di miˈlaːno]) was an insurrection and a major event in the Revolutionary Year of 1848 that started the First Italian War of Independence. On 18 March, a rebellion arose in the city of Milan which in five days of street fighting drove Marshal Radetzky and his Austrian soldiers from the city.


In 1848, the Milanese launched an anti-Austrian campaign as early as 1 January.[14] On New Year's Day the Milanese started to boycott gambling and tobacco products, which were government monopolies that brought in over 5 million lire a year.[10] The boycott culminated in a bloody street battle on 3 January, when Austrian soldiers, in batches of three, were being insulted and pelted with stones by an angry crowd.[15][3] The soldiers then gathered together in groups of a dozen and charged the crowd with swords and bayonets, killing five and wounding another 59. Radetzky confined his troops to barracks for five days.[15] The protests were over, but two months later, when news reached Milan of the uprising in Vienna and the fall of Metternich, the Milanese took to the streets again, on 18 March.[10]


Statuary at the base of the Obelisk monument to Five Days of Milan in memory of the popular uprising in 1848 against Austrian rule, by Giuseppe Grandi.
A milanese barricade during the 'five days'

Almost simultaneous with the popular uprisings of 1848 in the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, on 18 March of that year, the city of Milan also rose. This was the first evidence of how effective popular initiative, guided by those in the Risorgimento, was able to influence Charles Albert of Sardinia.

The Austrian garrison at Milan was well equipped and commanded by an experienced general, Joseph Radetzky von Radetz, who despite being over 80 years old, was energetic and rigid. Radetzky had no intention of yielding to the uprising.

However, the whole city fought throughout the streets, raising barricades, firing from windows and roofs, and urging the rural population to join them. The populace was backed by the archbishop and at least 100 priests joined in the fighting against the Austrians. A bust of Pope Pius IX was hoisted onto the barricades.[16] A provisional government of Milan was formed and presided over by the podestà, Gabrio Casati and a council of war under Carlo Cattaneo. The Martinitt (orphanage children) worked as message runners to all parts of the town.

Radetzky saw the difficulty of resisting under siege in the city centre, but while afraid of being attacked by the Piedmontese army and peasants from the countryside, he preferred to withdraw after losing control of the Porta Tosa (now Porta Vittoria) to the rebels. On the evening of 22 March, the Austrians withdrew towards the "Quadrilatero" (the fortified zone made up of the four cities of Verona, Legnago, Mantua and Peschiera del Garda), taking with them several hostages arrested at the start of the uprising. Meanwhile, the rest of Lombard and Venetic territory was free.

In memory of these days, the official newspaper of the temporary government was called simply Il 22 marzo (22 March), which began publication on 26 March at the Palazzo Marino under the direction of Carlo Tenca.[17] A monument to the uprising by the sculptor Giuseppe Grandi was built at what is now Porta Vittoria.

Almost a century later, in 1943, the uprising of Naples against WWII Nazi occupation was named The Four Days of Naples, in conscious emulation of the earlier Milan event.

See also


  1. ^ Grenville, John Ashley Soames (2000). Europe reshaped, 1848–1878. Oxford.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  2. ^ a b Stillman, William James (1898). The union of Italy, 1815–1895. Cambridge.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  3. ^ a b c Ginsborg, Paul (1979). Daniele Manin and the Venetian revolution of 1848–49. Bristol. ISBN 9780521220774.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  4. ^ Maurice, Charles Edmund (1887). The revolutionary movement of 1848–9 in Italy, Austria Hungary, and Germany. New York.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  5. ^ American Bibliographical Center (1991). Historical abstracts: Volume 42, Issues 3–4. Santa Barbara.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  6. ^ a b c d Rüstow, Wilhelm (1862). Der italienische Krieg von 1848 und 1849. Zürich.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  7. ^ a b Whyte, Arthur James Beresford (1975). The political life and letters of Cavour, 1848–1861. Santa Barbara.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  8. ^ Svoboda, Johann (1870). Die Zöglinge der Wiener-Neustädter Militär-Akademie. Wien.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  9. ^ de Marguerittes, Julie (1859). Italy and the War of 1859. Philadelphia.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  10. ^ a b c d Chapman, Tim (2008). The risorgimento: Italy 1815–71. Penrith.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  11. ^ Stearns, Peter N. (1974). 1848: the revolutionary tide in Europe. New York.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  12. ^ Whittam, John (1977). Politics of the Italian Army, 1861–1918. London.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  13. ^ a b Wilhelm Meyer-Ott, Wilhelm Rüstow (1850). Die Kriegerischen Ereignisse in Italien in den Jahren 1848 und 1849. Zürich.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  14. ^ Gooch, John (1986). The unification of Italy. London.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  15. ^ a b Berkeley, George F.-H. (1940). Italy in the Making January 1st 1848 to November 16th 1848. Cambridge.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  16. ^ M. Clark, The Italian Risorgimento, Routledge 2013 p. 53.
  17. ^ Luseroni, Giovanni (2016). Giuseppe Mazzini e i Democratici nel Quarantotto Lombardo. Gangemi Editore spa. p. 130. ISBN 9788849299229.


In Italian

External links