Mongolia
NameMongolian State Flag
UseNational flag
Proportion1:2
Adopted10 June 1945; 76 years ago (1945-06-10) (original version with star)
12 January 1992; 29 years ago (1992-01-12) (star removed)
9 July 2011; 10 years ago (2011-07-09) (colours standardised)
DesignA vertical triband of red (hoist-side and fly-side) and blue with a Soyombo symbol centered on the hoist-side of the red band.
Designed byDodiin Choidog

The flag of Mongolia (Mongolian: Монгол улсын төрийн далбаа, romanized: Mongol ulsyn töriin dalbaa, lit.'State flag of Mongolia') is a vertical triband with a red stripe at each side and a blue stripe in the middle, with the Mongolian Soyombo symbol centering on the leftmost stripe. The blue stripe represents the eternal blue sky, and the red stripes thriving for eternity. The Soyombo symbol is a geometric abstraction that represents fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and a Taijitu symbol representing the duality of yin and yang.

The current flag was adopted on 12 January 1992,[1] with the current official colour standards being set on 8 July 2011. Until 1992, the flag had a communist star above the Soyombo, during the final 47 years of the Mongolian People's Republic. The flag was originally designed by artist Dodiin Choidog (Додийн Чойдог).[2]

It has been commonplace among Mongolians in the Inner Mongolia to hang the flag.[3]

Historical flags

Flag Date Description
1911–1920 Following the 1911 Mongolian declaration of independence during the fall of the Chinese Qing dynasty, the Bogd Khanate of Mongolia adopted a national flag as symbol of this independence.[4][5] The decision to adopt a national flag was also made to follow the international standard at the time in order to promote the image of a modern independent state.[6] A decree established the colours and dimensions of the flag; a yellow oblong rectangle with religious prayer text and a Soyombo, the letters "E" and "Bam", and lotus flower in the middle, with red silk tails containing the letters "Ohm", "Aa", and "Hum".[4][6] Larger flags were intended for government use while smaller versions were intended for ordinary people.[7] Surviving flags can be seen with minor individual differences of the complex design.[6][8][9][10][11]
1920–1921 In late 1919 Chinese troops began occupying Mongolia. On 1 January 1920 a large ceremony was held which revoked Mongolian autonomy and incorporated it into China, raising the five-striped flag of the Republic of China.[12][13]
1921–1924 Following the communist Revolution of 1921 Mongolian independence was restored. The country was formally still a monarchy and its flag remained, which had been carried by many of the revolutionary soldiers.[4]

1924–1940 Following the death of the Bogd Khan in 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was proclaimed. The new republic's first constitution was adopted on 26 November 1924 and described its first flag.[14][15][16] The flag's exact shape and design was not completely standardised and only defined as "the flag is red with the state emblem at the center."[15] It can therefore be seen with some variations, such as without any text or using a rectangular shape without the three tails.[17][18][19][20][21][22]
1940–1945

In November 1939 Mongolian leader Khorloogiin Choibalsan discussed the adoption of a new constitution with the leadership of the Soviet Union while visiting there. On 30 July 1940 the second constitution of the Mongol People's Republic was adopted, and with it, the second flag.[14] After having reviewed a draft of the new state emblem, Joseph Stalin advised that "in order to show that there are many animals, the coat of arms should have a man with a horse in the middle and various animal figures around him".[4] This new emblem was present on the new flag, which was described as "consisting of 1:2 sized red cloth with the state emblem in the center and "Mongol People's Republic" written on either side".[23][15][24]

1945–1992 At the Yalta Conference, towards the end of World War II, it was agreed to preserve the status quo of Mongolia's existence. A new flag was then considered necessary to help the success of Soviet and Mongolian attempts at negotiating Chinese recognition of Mongolian Independence. Choibalsan brought up the issue of adopting a new flag at the 43rd meeting of the Presidium of the State Conference on 10 July 1945, where the new flag's design was approved.[4][7] Choibalsan chose to restore the Soyombo as a national symbol on the flag and described its adoption as a high celebration of Mongolia's independence.[4][7] The new flag was amended into the constitution in 1949 and was included from the beginning in the constitution adopted in 1960.[16][4][7] The flag was used until the adoption of the democratic constitution and current flag in 1992.

Other flags of Mongolia

Flag Date Description
1921–1924 Reconstruction of the flag of the Communist Revolutionary Provisional Government of Mongolia used during the Mongolian Revolution of 1921. There exists no images or surviving examples of this flag, only descriptions. Therefore, dimensions of the flags shape and the exact position of the symbol is unknown.[16]
1930–1940 Flag of unclear type used between 1930 and 1940.[25][16] Some sources list it as the national flag between 1930 and 1940, but no clear adoption date or amendment into the constitution exists, while evidence shows the 1924 flag being used well into the 1930s. Possibly a civil or naval ensign of the very small Mongolian Navy, which was established in 1930.[citation needed] It is listed among flags and maritime ensigns in a Soviet Red Army atlas from 1938.[26]
1924–1940 Erroneous flag of the Mongolian People's Republic with an unusual blue Soyombo which appears in several Western sources. This contradicts Mongolian sources, contemporary depictions, and photographic evidence of the real 1924 flag in use at the time.
Flag of the Mongolian National Olympic Committee.
Flag of the Mongolian Armed Forces.
Flag of the Mongolian Ground Force
Flag of the Mongolian Air Force

Administrative divisions

Colours

Flag of Mongolia (2009)
Flag of Mongolia (2009)

Official colour standards for the flag were approved in July 2011.[27]


Colours scheme
Blue Red Yellow
RAL 5015 2002 1021
Pantone 300 C Red 032 C Medium Yellow C
CMYK 100-60-0-0 10-100-90-0 0-15-100-0
HEX #0066B3 #DA2032 #FFD400
RGB 0-102-179 218-32-50 255-212-0

See also

References

  1. ^ FOTW:Flag Dates by country
  2. ^ "Монгол төрийн далбааг зохиосон Додийн Чойдог" [Dodiin Choidog, who designed the Mongolian flag]. Choibalsan.mn (in Mongolian). 19 April 2015.
  3. ^ "Southern Mongolia: School Under Investigation for Displaying Flag of Independent Mongolia". 11 January 2019.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "1921 оны хувьсгал ба коминтерн". bolod.mn. Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  5. ^ "Богд хаант Монгол улсын төрийн далбаа". unuudur.mn/. Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  6. ^ a b c "БОГД ХААНТ МОНГОЛ УЛСЫН ТӨРИЙН БЭЛГЭДЭЛ". touristinfocenter.mn. Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  7. ^ a b c d "ӨНӨӨДӨР ТӨРИЙН ДАЛБААНЫ ӨДӨР". www.19001950.mn. Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  8. ^ "National Museum of Mongolia - 17th-Early 20th century". masterpieces.asemus.museum/. Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  9. ^ "БОГД ХААНТ МОНГОЛ УЛСЫН ТӨРИЙН ТУГИЙГ ХҮНДЭТГЭХ АРГА ХЭМЖЭЭ 2019 ОНЫ 12 ДУГААР САРЫН 29 НИЙ НЯМ ГАРАГТ БАРУУН ХҮРЭЭ ХИЙДЭД БОЛНО". kharkhorum.mn/. Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  10. ^ "Flag of Bogd Khaanate Mongolia (1)". markodehaeck.free.fr. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  11. ^ "Flag of Bogd Khaanate Mongolia (2)". markodehaeck.free.fr. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  12. ^ "Гадаад Монголын өөртөө эзэрхэх засгийг устгасан нь". mongoltoli.mn. Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  13. ^ Ceremony marking the abolition of Mongolian autonomy
  14. ^ a b "Монгол Улс ҮНДСЭН ХУУЛИА өөрчиллөө". eguur.mn. Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  15. ^ a b c Inner Asia Volume 9. Global Oriental. 2007.
  16. ^ a b c d "Mongolia". crwflags.com.
  17. ^ Наминчимэд, Баасангийн. "Жинхэнэ эх орончдыг үгүйлэх цаг..." trends.mn. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  18. ^ "Mongolian Statehood History Museum (1924 Flag)". markodehaeck.free.fr. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  19. ^ https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/mn/1/14/Mongol-Manjur_border_conference_1937.jpg Photo from the Manzhouli conference (1935-1936) which shows the flag of Manchukuo and Mongolia
  20. ^ Л.Отгонбаатар. "Ялалтын "Дайчин туг"-ийн аялал, уулзалт болов". montsame.mn. Retrieved 1 September 2020. Divisional flag from the Battle of Khalkhin Gol (1939), based on the national flag
  21. ^ Д.Батбаяр. "Anti-Buddhism poster, 1932". newspress.mn. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  22. ^ Л.Отгонбаатар. "Улс тунхагласны баярт зориулан туг далбаагаар үзэсгэлэн гаргажээ". archive.olloo.mn. Retrieved 1 September 2020. Provincial flag from 1923, based on the national flag
  23. ^ Peaslee, A.J. (1956). Constitutions of Nations. Second Edition. Martinus Nijhoff.
  24. ^ "Constitution of the Mongol People's Republic (June 30, 1940)". markodehaeck.free.fr. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  25. ^ "Mongolian Statehood History Museum (2)". markodehaeck.free.fr. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  26. ^ ru:Файл:Флаги.jpg[circular reference]
  27. ^ "Төрийн далбаа стандарттай болов". Ерөнхийлөгчийн тамгын газар 100-60-0-0 10-100-90-0 0-15-100-0. 8 July 2011. Archived from the original on 16 April 2012. Retrieved 13 March 2012.