|Name||Mongolian State Flag|
|Use||National flag |
|Adopted||10 June 1945 (original version with star)|
12 January 1992 (star removed)
9 July 2011 (colours standardised)
|Design||A vertical triband of red (hoist-side and fly-side) and blue with a Soyombo symbol centered on the hoist-side of the red band.|
|Designed by||Dodiin Choidog|
The flag of Mongolia (Mongolian: Монгол улсын төрийн далбаа, romanized: Mongol ulsyn töriin dalbaa, lit. 'State flag of Mongolia') is a vertical triband with a red stripe at each side and a blue stripe in the middle, with the Mongolian Soyombo symbol centering on the leftmost stripe. The blue stripe represents the eternal blue sky, and the red stripes thriving for eternity. The Soyombo symbol is a geometric abstraction that represents fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and a Taijitu symbol representing the duality of yin and yang.
The current flag was adopted on 12 January 1992, with the current official colour standards being set on 8 July 2011. Until 1992, the flag had a communist star above the Soyombo, during the final 47 years of the Mongolian People's Republic. The flag was originally designed by artist Dodiin Choidog (Додийн Чойдог).
It has been commonplace among Mongolians in the Inner Mongolia to hang the flag.
|1911–1920||Following the 1911 Mongolian declaration of independence during the fall of the Chinese Qing dynasty, the Bogd Khanate of Mongolia adopted a national flag as symbol of this independence. The decision to adopt a national flag was also made to follow the international standard at the time in order to promote the image of a modern independent state. A decree established the colours and dimensions of the flag; a yellow oblong rectangle with religious prayer text and a Soyombo, the letters "E" and "Bam", and lotus flower in the middle, with red silk tails containing the letters "Ohm", "Aa", and "Hum". Larger flags were intended for government use while smaller versions were intended for ordinary people. Surviving flags can be seen with minor individual differences of the complex design.|
|1920–1921||In late 1919 Chinese troops began occupying Mongolia. On 1 January 1920 a large ceremony was held which revoked Mongolian autonomy and incorporated it into China, raising the five-striped flag of the Republic of China.|
|1921–1924||Following the communist Revolution of 1921 Mongolian independence was restored. The country was formally still a monarchy and its flag remained, which had been carried by many of the revolutionary soldiers.|
|1924–1940||Following the death of the Bogd Khan in 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was proclaimed. The new republic's first constitution was adopted on 26 November 1924 and described its first flag. The flag's exact shape and design was not completely standardised and only defined as "the flag is red with the state emblem at the center." It can therefore be seen with some variations, such as without any text or using a rectangular shape without the three tails.|
In November 1939 Mongolian leader Khorloogiin Choibalsan discussed the adoption of a new constitution with the leadership of the Soviet Union while visiting there. On 30 July 1940 the second constitution of the Mongol People's Republic was adopted, and with it, the second flag. After having reviewed a draft of the new state emblem, Joseph Stalin advised that "in order to show that there are many animals, the coat of arms should have a man with a horse in the middle and various animal figures around him". This new emblem was present on the new flag, which was described as "consisting of 1:2 sized red cloth with the state emblem in the center and "Mongol People's Republic" written on either side".
|1945–1992||At the Yalta Conference, towards the end of World War II, it was agreed to preserve the status quo of Mongolia's existence. A new flag was then considered necessary to help the success of Soviet and Mongolian attempts at negotiating Chinese recognition of Mongolian Independence. Choibalsan brought up the issue of adopting a new flag at the 43rd meeting of the Presidium of the State Conference on 10 July 1945, where the new flag's design was approved. Choibalsan chose to restore the Soyombo as a national symbol on the flag and described its adoption as a high celebration of Mongolia's independence. The new flag was amended into the constitution in 1949 and was included from the beginning in the constitution adopted in 1960. The flag was used until the adoption of the democratic constitution and current flag in 1992.|
|1921–1924||Reconstruction of the flag of the Communist Revolutionary Provisional Government of Mongolia used during the Mongolian Revolution of 1921. There exists no images or surviving examples of this flag, only descriptions. Therefore, dimensions of the flags shape and the exact position of the symbol is unknown.|
|1930–1940||Flag of unclear type used between 1930 and 1940. Some sources list it as the national flag between 1930 and 1940, but no clear adoption date or amendment into the constitution exists, while evidence shows the 1924 flag being used well into the 1930s. Possibly a civil or naval ensign of the very small Mongolian Navy, which was established in 1930. It is listed among flags and maritime ensigns in a Soviet Red Army atlas from 1938.|
|1924–1940||Erroneous flag of the Mongolian People's Republic with an unusual blue Soyombo which appears in several Western sources. This contradicts Mongolian sources, contemporary depictions, and photographic evidence of the real 1924 flag in use at the time.|
|Flag of the Mongolian National Olympic Committee.|
|Flag of the Mongolian Armed Forces.|
|Flag of the Mongolian Ground Force|
|Flag of the Mongolian Air Force|
Official colour standards for the flag were approved in July 2011.
|Pantone||300 C||Red 032 C||Medium Yellow C|