Flavobacterium
Columnaris disease (Flavobacterium columnare) in the gill of a chinook salmon
Columnaris disease (Flavobacterium columnare) in the gill of a chinook salmon
Scientific classification e
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Bacteroidota
Class: Flavobacteriia
Order: Flavobacteriales
Family: Flavobacteriaceae
Genus: Flavobacterium
Bergey et al. 1923 (Approved Lists 1980)
Species

See text

Flavobacterium is a genus of Gram-negative, nonmotile and motile, rod-shaped bacteria that consists of 130 recognized species.[1][2] Flavobacteria are found in soil and fresh water in a variety of environments. Several species are known to cause disease in freshwater fish.[3]

Flavobacterium psychrophilum causes the bacterial cold water disease on salmonids and the rainbow trout fry disease on rainbow trout. F. columnare causes the cotton-wool disease on freshwater fishes. F. branchiophilum causes the bacterial gill disease on trout. Another member of this genus, F. okeanokoites is the original source for the type IIs restriction endonuclease FokI, used in Zinc finger nucleases and TALENs.[4]

Nylon-eating bacteria are a strain of Flavobacterium that is capable of digesting certain by-products of nylon 6 manufacture.

Species who are a part of the genus Flavobacterium are most likely found scattered along in nature. These creatures are mostly found in aquatic ecosystems and wet areas with freshwater or seawater. The Flavobacterium species are in most if not all cases found in some type of hypersaline water which is very halotolerant of the Antarctic species of [F.] gondwanense and [F.] salegens Which are the most important members of Flavobacteriaceae.

Species

The genus Flavobacterium comprises the following species:

F. acidificum[1]
F. aciduliphilum[1]
F. acidurans[1]
F. agri[1]
F. agrisoli[1]
F. ahnfeltiae[1]
F. ajazii[1]
F. album[1]
F. algicola[1]
F. alkalisoli[1]
F. ammonificans[1]
F. ammoniigenes[1]
F. amnicola[1]
F.amnigenum[1]
F. anatoliense[1]
F. anhuiense[1]
F. antarcticum[1]
F. aquaticum[1]
F. akiainvivens
F. aquariorum[1]
F. aquatile
F. aquicola[1]
F. aquidurense[1]
Flavobacterium aquimarinumF. aquimarinum[1]
F. araucananum[1]
F. arcticum[1]
F. arsenatis[1]
F. arsenitoxidans[1]
F. aurantiibacter[1]
F. aureus
F. banpakuense[1]
F. baculatum[1]
F. beibuense[1]
F. bernardetii[1]
F. bizetiae[1]
F. bomense[1]
F. bomensis[1]
F. branchiarum[1]
F. branchiicola[1]
F. branchiophilum
F. breve
F. brevivitae[1]
F. buctense[1]
F. caeni[1]
F. caseinilyticum[1]
F. cauense[1]
F. cellulosilyticum[1]
F. ceti[1]
F. cerinum[1]
F. cheniae[1]
F. cheongpyeongense[1]
F. cheonanense[1]
F. cheonhonense[1]
F. chilense[1]
F. chryseum[1]
F. chungangense[1]
F. chungbukense[1]
F. chungnamense[1]
Flavobacterium circumlabensF. circumlabens[1]
F. collinsense[1]
F. collinsii[1]
F. columnare
F. compostarboris[1]
F. commune[1]
F. coralii[1]
F. covae[1]
F. crassostreae[1]
F. croceum[1]
F. crocinum[1]
F. cucumis[1]
F. cupreum[1]
F. cutihirudinis[1]
F. cyanobacteriorum[1]
F. daejeonense[1]
F. daemonensis[1]
F. dankookense[1]
F. dasani[1]
F. dauae[1]
F. davisii[1]
F. defluvii[1]
F. degerlache[1]
F. denitrificans
F. devorans[1]
F. difficile[1]
F. dispersum[1]
F. dongtanense[1]
F. eburneum[1]
F. endophyticum[1]
F. endoglycinae[1]
F. enshiense[1]
F. faecale[1]
F. ferrugineum[1]
F. filum[1]
F. flaviflagrans[1]
F. flevense
F. fluviale[1]
F. fluviatile[1]
F. fluvii[1]
F. fontis[1]
F. franklandianum[1]
F. frigidarium
F. frigidimaris[1]
F frigoris[1]
F. fryxellicola[1]
F. fulvum[1]
F. gelidilacus[1]
F. gawalongense[1]
F. gillisiae[1]
F. ginsengisoli[1]
F. ginsenosidimutans[1]
F. glaciei[1]
F. glycines[1]
F. granuli[1]
F. halmophilum[1]
F. hankyongi[1]
F. haoranii[1]
F. hauense[1]
F. hercynium[1]
F. hibernum[1]
F. hiemivividum[1]
F. humi[1]
F. humicola[1]
F. hydatis
F. hydrocarbonoxydans[1]
F. hydrophilum[1]
F. ichthyis[1]
F. indicum[1]
F. inkyongense[1]
F. inviolabile[1]
F. jejuense[1]
F. jocheonensis[1]
F. johnsoniae
F. jumunjinense[1]
F. kingsejongi[1]
F. knui[1]
F. koreense[1]
F. kyungheense[1]
F. lacicola[1]
F. lacunae[1]
F. lacus[1]
F. laiguense[1]
F. limicola[1]
F. limnosediminis[1]
F. lindanitolerans[1]
F. longum[1]
F. lotistagni[1]
F. luticocti[1]
F. lutivivi[1]
F. macrobrachii[1]
F. magnum[1]
F. maotaiense[1]
F. marinum[1]
F. maris[1]
F.microcysteis[1]
F. micromati[1]
F. mizutaii[1]
F. muglaense[1]
F. myungsuense[1]
F. multivorum
F. nackdongense[1]
F. naphthae[1]
F. nitratireducens[1]
F. nitrogenifigens[1]
F. niveum[1]
F. noncentrifugens[1]
F. notoginsengisoli[1]
F. oceanosedimentum[1]
F. omnivorum[1]
F. oncorhynchi[1]
F. okeanokoites
F. orientale[1]
F. oreochromis[1]
F. oryzae[1]
F. panici[1]
F. palustre[1]
F. paronense[1]
F. parvum[1]
F. pectinovorum
F. pedocola[1]
F. petrolei[1]
F. phocarum[1]
F. phragmitis[1]
F. phycosphaerae[1]
F. piscinae[1]
F. piscis[1]
F. plurextorum[1]
F. pokkalii[1]
F. ponti[1]
F. procerum[1]
F. profundi[1]
F. psychrolimnae[1]
F. psychrophilum
F. psychroterrae[1]
F. psychrotolerans[1]
F. qiangtangense[1]
F. rakeshii[1]
F. ranwuense[1]
F. reichenbachii[1]
F. resistens[1]
F restrictum[1]
F. rhamnosiphilum[1]
Flavobacterium riviphilumF. riviphilum[1]
F. rivuli[1]
F. saccharophilum
F. saliperosum[1]
F. salilacus[1]
F. salmonis[1]
F. sandaracinum[1]
F. sangjuense[1]
F. sasangense[1]
F. segetis[1]
F. sediminilitoris[1]
F. sediminis[1]
F. selenitireducens[1]
F. seoulense[1]
F. sharifuzzamanii[1]
F. silvaticum[1]
F. silvisoli[1]
F. sinopsychrotolerans[1]
F. soli[1]
F. solisilvae[1]
F. spartansii[1]
F. squillarum[1]
F. stagni[1]
F. suaedae[1]
F. subsaxonicum[1]
F. succinans
F. suncheonense[1]
F. supellecticarium[1]
F. suzhouense[1]
F. swingsii[1]
F. tagetis[1]
F. tangerina[1]
F. tangerinum[1]
F. tegetincola[1]
F. terrae[1]
F. terrigena[1]
F. terriphilum[1]
F. thermophilum[1]
F. tiangeerense[1]
F. tibetense[1]
F. tilapiae[1]
F. tistrianum[1]
F. tructae[1]
F. tyrosinilyticum[1]
F. ummariense[1]
F. undicola[1]
F. ureilyticum[1]
F. urocaniciphilum[1]
F. urumqiense[1]
F. verecundum[1]
F. vireti[1]
F. viscosum[1]
F. weaverense[1]
F. xanthum
F. xinjiangense[1]
F. xueshanense[1]
F. yanchengense[1]
F. yonginense[1]
F. zaozhuangense[1]
F. zepuense[1]
F. zettnowii[1]
F. zhairuonense[1]
F. zhairuonensis[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hq hr hs ht hu hv hw hx hy hz ia ib ic id ie if ig ih ii ij ik il im Parte, A.C. "Flavobacterium". LPSN.
  2. ^ Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd ed., vol. 1 (The Archaea and the deeply branching and phototrophic Bacteria) (D.R. Boone and R.W. Castenholz, eds.), Springer-Verlag, New York (2001). pp. 465-466.
  3. ^ Bernardet, J.-F.; Segers, P.; Vancanneyt, M.; Berthe, F.; Kersters, K.; Vandamme, P. (1 January 1996). "Cutting a Gordian Knot: Emended Classification and Description of the Genus Flavobacterium, Emended Description of the Family Flavobacteriaceae, and Proposal of Flaviobacterium hydatis nom. nov. (Basonym, Cytophaga aquatalis Strohl and Tait 1978)". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 46 (1): 128–148. doi:10.1099/00207713-46-1-128.
  4. ^ Bitinaite, Jurate; Wah, David A.; Aggarwal, Aneel K.; Schildkraut, Ira (1 September 1998). "FokI dimerization is required for DNA cleavage". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 95 (18): 10570–10575. Bibcode:1998PNAS...9510570B. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.18.10570. PMC 27935. PMID 9724744.