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Flores de Mayo (Spanish for "flowers of May") is a festival held in the Philippines in the month of May. It is one of the May devotions to the Blessed Virgin Mary and lasts for the entire year.
The Santacruzan (from the Spanish santa cruz, "holy cross") is the ritual pageant held on the last day of the Flores de Mayo. It honors the finding of the True Cross by Helena of Constantinople (known as Reyna Elena) and Constantine the Great. Its connection with May stems from the May 3 date of Roodmas, which Pope John XXIII deleted in the 1960s due to the trend at the time to abolish holy days that were either duplicates or dedicated to ahistorical saints. The Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross on September 14, which commemorates the recovery of the relic by Emperor Heraclius from the Persians instead of the finding by Saint Helena combines that occasion with Roodmas in the present General Roman Calendar.
The name of the festival is derived from the Spanish language word flores meaning "flowers." Other names are "Flores de María" ("Flowers of Mary") and "Álay" (Filipino for "offering").
In the Bicolandia
In the Bicol Region, the ritual begins with the recitation of the rosary, and the last day is simply called the "katapusan".
The traditional "María" with its respective meaning is said after the recitation of the Salve Regina in Spanish and the Litany of Loreto. After the ceremony, simple snacks are given to the children who attended the devotion. Alabasyón (from the Spanish for "praising") is the term for prayers sung in honor of the Holy Cross.
In Western Visayas
The towns particularly in Iloilo has their respective puroks or streets and the barangays which has their respective chapel or house of prayer or even in the church where an image of the Virgin Mary is venerated and children gathers to have a simple catechism and teachings about the life and story of Mary, history of Marian apparitions, Christian doctrines and values, holistic values and virtues and other life's teachings. They were also taught some prayers and some songs uniquely recited only during the Flores de Mayo and the children offer some flowers before the image of the Virgin Mary as a symbol of love, affection and veneration. This is a commemoration and reminiscent of the Our Lady of Fatima apparition to the three children which first took place on the 13th of May in 1917. After a while, they were offered some snacks. Some churches and areas are giving children some paper tickets for actively participating and doing well during the catechism in which at the end of the month of May which also coincides with the end of the Flores de Mayo, the children redeem the value of the tickets which are school supplies ready for the school opening in June. Santacrusan is usually held during the last few days of May to coincide with the end of the catechism for children.
In the Katagalugan
Amongst the Tagalog people, the custom began after the proclamation of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception in 1854 and after the circa 1867 publication of Mariano Sevilla's translation of the devotional "Flores de María" ("Flowers of Mary"), also known by its longer title "Mariquít na Bulaclac nasa Pagninilaynilay sa Buong Buannang Mayo ay Inihahandog nañg mañga Devoto cay María Santísima" ("Beautiful Flowers that in the Meditations in the Whole Month of May are Presented by Devotees to Mary Most Holy").
One famous May tradition in Batangas (particularly in Lipa) is the Luglugan, or nightly devotion and party honoring the Virgin Mary. Held in structures called tuklóng, devotees offer flowers and prayers to an image of Mary every night. After the prayer, the Hermanos or Hermanas for the day will give away treats to the participants, followed by the party. The Luglugan lasts for a month until the Tapusan ("ending") which is marked with a Mass, a Santacruzan and procession of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and capped with a final Luglugan that lasts until the following morning.
A Santacruzan is a religio-historical beauty pageant held in many cities, towns, and even in small communities throughout the Philippines during the month of May. One of the most colorful aspects of this festival, the pageant depicts the finding of the True Cross by Queen Helena, mother of Constantine the Great. Many movie and television personalities participate in the events and are featured in major santacruzan. This festival became part of Filipino traditions identified with youth, love, and romance.
A replica of the True Cross in solemn procession during the Flores de Mayo
Prior to the Santacruzan, a novena is held in honor of the Holy Cross. The procession itself commemorates the search of the Holy Cross by Reyna Elena and her son, Emperor Constantine. It is said to have roots in the joyous thanksgiving celebrations that followed the finding of the Holy Cross in Jerusalem and its translation to Constantinople (now İstanbul).
General order of the procession
The participants of this pageant would follow this typical arrangement:
- Cross is used for Santa Cruzan , while the Image of Blessed Mother is used for Flores de Mayo that is the distinction of the two festivals but some organizer mixed the two festivals together in one celebration. Flores and Sta. Cruzan
Biblical Figures and Traditional Personifications
- Matusalém (Methuselah) – bearded and bent with age, he is depicted as riding a cart and looking preoccupied with toasting grains of sand in a pan over a fire. It is an allegory of the transience of the world, which will be like the dust he is toasting.
- Reyna Banderada (Queen with a Banner) – a young lady dressed in a long red gown, bearing a yellow pennant. She represents the arrival of Christianity.
- Aetas – represents the dark-skinned indigenous peoples of the Philippines such as the Aeta and Ati. These aboriginal groups predate the ancestors of today's majority Austronesian Filipinos by tens of thousands of years.
- Reyna Mora (Queen Moor) – represents Muslim Filipinos, who are concentrated in Mindanao and large cities such as Manila. Islam arrived in the archipelago two centuries before Christianity, and is now the country's second-largest religion. Mary is also honoured in Islam, and her story is found in the 19th sura (chapter) of the Qur'an.
- Reyna ng Saba (Queen of Sheba) – represents the unnamed queen who visited King Solomon, and was overwhelmed by his wisdom, power, and riches. She carries a jewellery box. She is included in the Santacruzan because the Legenda Aurea describes how she venerated the beam of a bridge she was crossing, prophesying the wood's future role as part of the True Cross.
- Rut at Noemi (Ruth and Naomi) – the Moabite convert to Judaism and her mother-in-law, from whom she was inseparable. Ruth is an ancestress of King David, and is one of four women listed in the genealogies of Jesus found in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke.
- Reyna Judít (Queen Judith) – represents the Biblical widow Judith of Bethulia, who saved her city from the Assyrians by slaying the cruel general Holofernes. Also known as "Infanta (Princess) Judít", she carries Holofernes' head in one hand and a sword in the other.
- Reyna Ester (Queen Esther) – the Jewish queen of Persia, who spared her people from death at the hands of Haman through her timely intervention with King Xerxes. She carries a sceptre.
- Cleopatra – represents Cleopatra VII Philopator (69-30 BC), the famous last active pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. Her male escort is often understood to represent the Roman senator and general Mark Antony (83-30 BC).
- Samaritana/Sta. Photina (The Female Samaritan) – the Samaritan woman at the well (traditionally named Photini) with whom Christ conversed. She carries a water jug on her shoulder.
- Sta. Verónica – the woman who wiped the face of Jesus who bears her Veil; in traditional Hispanic-Filipino iconography, the cloth bears three miraculous imprints of the Holy Face of Jesus instead of one.
- Tres Marías (Three Marys) – each Mary holds a unique attribute associated with the Entombment of Christ
- Sta. María Magdalena (Mary Magdalene) – a bottle of perfume, as Catholic tradition once conflated her with Mary of Bethany as the woman who anointed and wiped Jesus' feet.
- Sta. María Cleofe (Mary, the mother of James, wife of Clopas) – bears a whisk broom
- Sta. María Salome (Mary Salome) – a Thurible or a bottle of oil, alluding to her role as a Myrrhbearer.
- Reyna Fé (Queen Faith) – symbolises Faith, the first of the theological virtues. She carries a cross.
- Reyna Esperanza (Queen Hope) – symbolises Hope, the second theological virtue. She carries an anchor.
- Reyna Caridad (Queen Charity) – symbolises Charity, the third theological virtue. She carries a red-coloured heart.
- Reyna Sentenciada (Queen Convicted) – has her hands bound by a rope, she stands for the Early Christians, particularly virgins, who were persecuted and martyred for the faith. She is sometimes accompanied by two Roman soldiers.
Each figure in this group alludes to a title of the Virgin Mary (usually found in the Litany of Loreto) or to a figure associated with her. Each letter of the angelic salutation "AVE MARÍA" is borne by an "angel", or a girl wearing a white dress and wings.
- Reyna Abogada (Queen Advocate/Lawyer) – defender of the poor and the oppressed, she wears a black mortarboard cap, Graduation gown, and carries a large book. Her appearance is a representation of Mary, Help (Advocate) of Christians. In some processions, the figure of the Reyna Doctora ("Queen Doctor") also makes an appearance, which may allude to "Mary, Health of the Sick".
- Reyna Justícia (Queen Justice) – a personification of the "Mirror of Justice", her attributes are a weighing scale and a sword.
- Divina Pastora (Divine Shepherdess) – bears a shepherd's crook.
- Reyna de los Ángeles (Queen of the Angels) – bears a bouquet of white flowers, and is escorted by children dressed as angels.
- Luklukan ng Karunungan (Seat of Wisdom) – carries a Bible, she represents Mary as the Sedes Sapiaentiæ
- Susì ng Langit (Key of Heaven) – bears two keys, one gold and the other silver, adapted from the design of the Papal arms.
- Reyna de las Estrellas (Queen of the Stars) – holds a wand topped with a star.
- Rosa Mística (Mystical Rose) – carries a bouquet of roses.
- Pusò ni María/Corazón de María (Heart of Mary) – holds a pink heart.
- Reyna del Santísimo Rosario (Queen of the Most Holy Rosary) – carries a large rosary.
- Reyna Luna (Queen Moon) – she represents the moon, which serves as the footstool of Mary as the Woman of the Apocalypse.
- Reyna Candelaria (Queen of Candles) – she carries a long, lit taper, symbolising the Purification of Mary.
- Reyna de la Paz (Queen of Peace) – holds a dove, real or otherwise.
- Reyna de los Patriarcas (Queen of Patriarchs) – bears a wooden rod.
- Reyna de los Profetas (Queen of Prophets) – bears an hourglass.
- Reyna de los Confesores (Queen of Confessors) – holds a scroll.
- Reyna de los Mártires (Queen of Martyrs) – bears the Crown of Thorns or a pierced heart, as a second representation of the Mater Dolorosa.
- Reyna de los Apóstoles (Queen of Apostles) – holds the Palm of Martyrdom.
- Reyna de los Santos (Queen of Saints) – a golden wreath, symbolising the Crown of the Saints.
- Reyna del Cielo (Queen of Heaven) – a flower; often accompanied by two children dressed as angels.
- Reyna de las Vírgenes (Queen of Virgins) – a rosary or a lily, the latter signifying chastity; also escorted by two little angels.
- Reyna de las Flores (Queen of Flowers) – The Queen of the Flores de Mayo. She carries a bouquet of flowers.
- Reyna Emperatríz (Queen Empress) – a representation of Saint Helena of Constantinople, particularly her title of Augusta ('empress' or 'queen mother') which she received from Constantine in 325 AD.
- Reyna Elena (Queen Helena) – always the last member of the procession, she represents Saint Helena herself, whose discovery of the True Cross is symbolized by the cross or crucifix that she carries in her arms. This considerably prestigious role is usually awarded to the most beautiful girl or important matron in the pageant. In some communities, the identity of the woman playing Reyna Elena is a closely guarded secret until the Santacruzan itself. Other places are more accommodating, allowing three Reynas Elenas in their processions.
- Constantino - the escort of Reyna Elena, representing her son, Constantine the Great (272 – 337 AD). This role is almost always played by a small boy in princely raiment.
The procession is accompanied by the steady beat of a local brass band, playing and singing the Dios te salve (the Spanish version of the Hail Mary). Devotees hold lighted candles and sing the prayer as they walk. It is customary for males participating in the Santacruzan to wear the traditional Barong Tagalog and that the females wear any Filipiniana-inspired dress.