Food physical chemistry is considered to be a branch of Food chemistry[1][2] concerned with the study of both physical and chemical interactions in foods in terms of physical and chemical principles applied to food systems, as well as the applications of physical/chemical techniques and instrumentation for the study of foods.[3][4][5][6] This field encompasses the "physiochemical principles of the reactions and conversions that occur during the manufacture, handling, and storage of foods"[7]

Food physical chemistry concepts are often drawn from rheology, theories of transport phenomena, physical and chemical thermodynamics, chemical bonds and interaction forces, quantum mechanics and reaction kinetics, biopolymer science, colloidal interactions, nucleation, glass transitions and freezing,[8][9] disordered/noncrystalline solids.

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Techniques utilized range widely from dynamic rheometry, optical microscopy, electron microscopy, AFM, light scattering, X-ray diffraction/neutron diffraction,[10] to MRI, spectroscopy (NMR,[11] FT-NIR/IR, NIRS, ESR and EPR,[12][13] CD/VCD,[14] Fluorescence, FCS,[15][16][17][18][19] HPLC, GC-MS,[20][21] and other related analytical techniques.

Understanding food processes and the properties of foods requires a knowledge of physical chemistry and how it applies to specific foods and food processes. Food physical chemistry is essential for improving the quality of foods, their stability and food product development. Because food science is a multi-disciplinary field, food physical chemistry is being developed through interactions with other areas of food chemistry and food science, such as: food analytical chemistry, food process engineering/food processing, food and bioprocess technology, food extrusion, food quality control, food packaging, food biotechnology and food microbiology.

Topics in Food physical chemistry

The following are examples of topics in food physical chemistry that are of interest to both food industry and food science:

Food physical chemistry
Italian ice cream.jpg
Ice cream or gelato in Rome, Italy
Alternative namesGelato, sorbet, frozen custard
CourseDessert
Main ingredientsMilk/Cream, water ice, sugar
Starch, 800x magnified, under polarized light
Starch, 800x magnified, under polarized light
Macaroni is an extruded hollow pasta.
Macaroni is an extruded hollow pasta.

Related fields

Visualisation of the human interactome network topology with the blue lines between proteins (represented as points) showing protein-protein interactions.
Visualisation of the human interactome network topology with the blue lines between proteins (represented as points) showing protein-protein interactions.

Techniques gallery: High-Field NMR, CARS (Raman spectroscopy), Fluorescence confocal microscopy and Hyperspectral imaging

See also

Example of a GC-MS instrument
Example of a GC-MS instrument
An FTIR interferogram. The central peak is at zero retardation, ZPD) where the maximum amount of light passes through the interferometer to the detector.
An FTIR interferogram. The central peak is at zero retardation, ZPD) where the maximum amount of light passes through the interferometer to the detector.

Notes

  1. ^ John M. de Man.1999. Principles of Food Chemistry (Food Science Text Series), Springer Science, Third Edition
  2. ^ John M. de Man. 2009. Food process engineering and technology, Academic Press, Elsevier: London and New York, 1st edn.
  3. ^ Pieter Walstra. 2003. Physical Chemistry Of Foods. Marcel Dekker, Inc.: New York, 873 pages
  4. ^ Physical Chemistry Of Food Processes: Fundamental Aspects.1992. van Nostrand-Reinhold vol.1., 1st Edition,
  5. ^ Henry G. Schwartzberg, Richard W. Hartel. 1992. Physical Chemistry of Foods. IFT Basic Symposium Series, Marcel Dekker, Inc.:New York, 793 pages
  6. ^ Physical Chemistry of Food Processes, Advanced Techniques, Structures and Applications. 1994. van Nostrand-Reinhold vols.1-2., 1st Edition, 998 pages; 3rd edn. Minuteman Press, 2010; vols. 2-3, fifth edition (in press)
  7. ^ Pieter Walstra. 2003. Physical Chemistry Of Foods. Marcel Dekker, Inc.: New York, 873 pages
  8. ^ Pieter Walstra. 2003. Physical Chemistry Of Foods. Marcel Dekker, Inc.: New York, 873 pages
  9. ^ Physical Chemistry Of Food Processes: Fundamental Aspects.1992.van Nostrand-Reinhold vol.1., 1st Edition,
  10. ^ Physical Chemistry of Food Processes, Advanced Techniques, Structures and Applications.1994. van Nostrand-Reinhold vols.1-2., 1st Edition, 998 pages; 3rd edn. Minuteman Press, 2010; vols. 2-3, fifth edition (in press)
  11. ^ https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1952/ First Nobel Prize for NMR in Physics, in 1952
  12. ^ http://www.ismrm.org/12/aboutzavoisky.htm ESR discovery in 1941
  13. ^ Abragam, A.; Bleaney, B. Electron paramagnetic resonance of transition ions. Clarendon Press:Oxford, 1970, 1,116 pages.
  14. ^ Physical Chemistry of Food Processes, Advanced Techniques, Structures and Applications.1994. van Nostrand-Reinhold vols.1-2., 1st Edition, 998 pages; 3rd edn. Minuteman Press, 2010; vols. 2-3, fifth edition (in press)
  15. ^ Magde D.; Elson E. L.; Webb W. W. (1972). "Thermodynamic fluctuations in a reacting system: Measurement by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, (1972)". Phys Rev Lett. 29 (11): 705–708. doi:10.1103/physrevlett.29.705.
  16. ^ Ehrenberg, M., Rigler, R. (1974). "Rotational brownian motion and fluorescence intensity fluctuations". Chem Phys. 4 (3): 390–401. doi:10.1016/0301-0104(74)85005-6. ISSN 0301-0104.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  17. ^ Elson E. L., Magde D. (1974). "Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy I. Conceptual basis and theory, (1974)". Biopolymers. 13: 1–27. doi:10.1002/bip.1974.360130102. S2CID 97201376.
  18. ^ Magde D.; Elson E. L.; Webb W. W. (1974). "Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy II. An experimental realization, (1974)". Biopolymers. 13 (1): 29–61. doi:10.1002/bip.1974.360130103. PMID 4818131. S2CID 2832069.
  19. ^ Thompson N L 1991 Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Techniques vol 1, ed J R Lakowicz (New York: Plenum) pp 337–78
  20. ^ Gohlke, R. S. (1959). "Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry and Gas-Liquid Partition Chromatography". Analytical Chemistry. 31 (4): 535–541. doi:10.1021/ac50164a024.
  21. ^ Gohlke, R; McLafferty, Fred W. (1993). "Early gas chromatography/mass spectrometry". Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry. 4 (5): 367–71. doi:10.1016/1044-0305(93)85001-E. PMID 24234933.

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