1936 Men's Olympic Football Tournament
Tournament details
Host countryGermany
Dates3–15 August
Teams16 (from 4 confederations)
Venue(s)4 (in 1 host city)
Final positions
Champions Italy (1st title)
Runners-up Austria
Third place Norway
Fourth place Poland
Tournament statistics
Matches played16
Goals scored78 (4.88 per match)
Attendance507,469 (31,717 per match)
Top scorer(s)Italy Annibale Frossi (7 goals)
1928
1948

Football at the 1936 Summer Olympics was won by Italy. After the introduction of the first FIFA World Cup in 1930 (which had, in itself led to the absence of a football tournament from the 1932 Games programme), competing nations would from now on only be permitted to play their best players if those players were amateur or (where national associations were assisted by interested states to traverse such a rule) where professional players were state-sponsored.[1][2] However, since amateur players were counted as senior squad players, their results would be still counted as senior side's results until 1992.

Venues

Berlin Berlin
Olympiastadion Stadion am Gesundbrunnen
Capacity: 100,000 Capacity: 35,239
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R82532, Berlin, Olympia-Stadion (Luftaufnahme).jpg
Berlin Berlin
Poststadion Mommsenstadion
Capacity: 45,000 Capacity: 15,005
Poststadion main stand far.jpg
WestendMommsenstadion-4.JPG

Squads

Medalists

Gold Silver Bronze
 Italy (ITA)
Bruno Venturini
Alfredo Foni
Pietro Rava
Giuseppe Baldo
Achille Piccini
Ugo Locatelli
Annibale Frossi
Libero Marchini
Luigi Scarabello
Carlo Biagi
Giulio Cappelli
Sergio Bertoni
Alfonso Negro
Francesco Gabriotti
 Austria (AUT)
Franz Fuchsberger
Max Hofmeister
Eduard Kainberger
Karl Kainberger
Martin Kargl
Josef Kitzmüller
Anton Krenn
Ernst Künz
Adolf Laudon
Franz Mandl
Klement Steinmetz
Karl Wahlmüller
Walter Werginz
 Norway (NOR)
Henry Johansen
Fredrik Horn
Nils Eriksen
Frithjof Ulleberg
Jørgen Juve
Rolf Holmberg
Sverre Hansen
Magnar Isaksen
Alf Martinsen
Reidar Kvammen
Arne Brustad
Øivind Holmsen
Odd Frantzen
Magdalon Monsen

Final tournament

Peruvian goalkeeper Juan Valdivieso reaches out for the football during match between Austria and Peru.
Peruvian goalkeeper Juan Valdivieso reaches out for the football during match between Austria and Peru.

The Italians, winners against the Austrians at the 1934 World Cup now found the Olympic side, with ten changes, a completely different proposition. The Azzurri included players such as Alfredo Foni, Pietro Rava and Ugo Locatelli, who would all play in their World Cup victory in Paris. That they eventually prevailed was due to two incidents: the first when their bespectacled forward Frossi scored, the second when Weingartner, the German referee, was literally restrained from sending off Archille Piccini after fouling two Americans. Italian players held both his arms and covered his mouth in protest. Piccini stayed on the park, Italy won.[3] This was something more than Sweden managed in their tie with Japan the next day in Berlin. Two-nil up within 45 minutes, their loss was recorded by the Swedish commentator, Sven Jerring, calling “Japanese, Japanese, Japanese, Japanese all over” (Japaner, japaner, japaner, överallt japaner) during the final minutes as the Japanese defenders held out to run out as winners 3–2. It marked the first time an Asian side had participated in either the World Cup or Olympic Games football competition and the first time an Asian side emerged victorious. Their neighbours, China, lost 0–2 to Great Britain on the next day. Otherwise there were wins for Peru and the hosts, 9–0 versus Luxembourg.

First round

Italy 1–0 United States
Frossi 58' Report
Berlin Poststadion
Attendance: 9,000
Referee: Carl Weingartner (GER)

Norway 4–0 Turkey
Martinsen 30', 70'
Brustad 53'
Kvammen 80'
Report
Berlin Mommsenstadion
Attendance: 8,000
Referee: Giuseppe Scarpi (ITA)

Japan 3–2 Sweden
Kawamoto 49'[4]
Ukon 62'
Matsunaga 85'
Report Persson 24', 37'
Berlin Hertha-BSC-Platz
Attendance: 5,000
Referee: Wilhelm Peters (GER)

Germany 9–0 Luxembourg
Urban 16', 54', 75'
Simetsreiter 32', 48', 74'
Gauchel 49', 89'
Elbern 76'
Report
Berlin Poststadion
Attendance: 12,000
Referee: Pál von Hertzka (HUN)

Poland 3–0 Hungary
Gad 12', 27'
Wodarz 88'
Report
Berlin Poststadion
Attendance: 5,000
Referee: Raffaele Scorzoni (ITA)

Austria 3–1 Egypt
Steinmetz 4', 65'
Laudon 7'
Report Sakr 85'
Berlin Mommsenstadion
Attendance: 6,000
Referee: Arthur James Jewell (GBR)

Peru 7–3 Finland
Fernández 17', 33', 47', 49', 70'
Villanueva 21', 67'
Report Kanerva 42' (pen.)
Grönlund 75'
Larvo 80'
Berlin Hertha-BSC-Platz
Attendance: 2,500
Referee: Rinaldo Barlassina (ITA)

Great Britain 2–0 China
Dodds 55'
Finch 65'
Report[5]
Mommsenstadion, Berlin
Attendance: 8,000
Referee: Helmut Fink (GER)

Quarter-finals

The Italian squad that won the Gold Medal
The Italian squad that won the Gold Medal
A ball of the competitions is on display at the German Leather Museum.
A ball of the competitions is on display at the German Leather Museum.

See also: Peru 4–2 Austria (1936 Summer Olympics association football)

Italy defeated Japan after Pozzo's decision to include Biagi, who scored goals. The same day at the Poststadion, Berlin before a crowd that included Goebbels, Göring, Hess and Hitler, Germany were knocked out 2–0 by Norway. Goebbels wrote: "The Führer is very excited, I can barely contain myself. A real bath of nerves." Norway went on to draw with Italy in the first round of the 1938 FIFA World Cup. Germany lost 2–0 and Hitler, who had never seen a football match before, and had originally planned to watch the rowing, left early in a huff.[6]

The following day at the Hertha Platz, Austria played Peru. The match was highly contested, and the game went into overtime when the Peruvians drew with the Austrians after being two goals behind. Peru 'scored' five goals during extra time, of which three were disallowed by the referee, and won 4–2.[7][8] The Austrians demanded a rematch on the grounds that Peruvian fans had stormed the field, and because the field did not meet the requirements for a football game.[8][9] Austria further claimed that the Peruvian players had manhandled the Austrian players and that spectators, one holding a revolver, had "swarmed down on the field."[10] Peru was notified of this situation, and they attempted to go to the assigned meeting but were delayed by a German parade.[8] In the end, the Peruvian defence was never heard, and the Olympic Committee and FIFA sided with the Austrians. The rematch was scheduled to be replayed behind closed doors on 10 August, and later rescheduled to be taken on 11 August.[9][10]

As a sign of protest against these actions, which the Peruvians deemed as insulting and discriminatory, the complete Olympic delegations of Peru and Colombia left Germany.[11][12] Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, and Mexico expressed their solidarity with Peru.[10] Michael Dasso, a member of the Peruvian Olympic Committee, stated: "We've no faith in European athletics. We have come here and found a bunch of merchants."[13] The game was awarded to Austria by default.[10] In Peru, angry crowds protested against the decisions of the Olympic Committee by tearing down an Olympic flag, throwing stones at the German consulate, refusing to load German vessels in the docks of Callao, and listening to inflammatory speeches, which included President Oscar Benavides Larrea's mention of "the crafty Berlin decision."[10] To this day, it is not known with certainty what exactly happened at Germany, but it is popularly believed that Adolf Hitler and the Nazi authorities might have had some involvement in this situation.[12]

In the last of the quarter-finals Poland, assisted by their forward, Hubert Gad, played out a nine-goal party to defeat the British side; at one time they were 5–1 to the better. The Casual's Bernard Joy scored two as Britain fought back gamely but they ran out of time. Prior to the Games Daniel Pettit received a letter from the Football Association which dealt mostly with the uniform he would wear. As he explained to the academic Rachel Cutler there was a handwritten PS that said: 'As there is a month to go before we leave for Berlin kindly take some exercise.' Pettit ran around his local park. [6]

Italy 8–0 Japan
Frossi 14', 75', 80'
Biagi 32', 57', 81', 82'
Cappelli 89'
Report
Berlin Mommsenstadion
Attendance: 8,000
Referee: Otto Ohlsson (SWE)

Germany 0–2 Norway
Report Isaksen 7', 83'
Berlin Poststadion
Attendance: 55,000
Referee: Arthur Willoughby Barton (GBR)

Poland 5–4 Great Britain
Gad 33'
Wodarz 43', 48', 53'
Piec 56'
Report Clements 26'
Shearer 71'
Joy 78', 80'
Berlin Poststadion
Attendance: 6,000
Referee: Rudolf Eklow (SWE)

Peru 4–2 (a.e.t.) 1 Austria
Alcalde 75'
Villanueva 81', 117'
Fernández 119'
Report Werginz 23'
Steinmetz 37'
Berlin Hertha-BSC Platz
Attendance: 5,000
Referee: Thoralf Kristiansen (NOR)

1 Due to a pitch invasion, the match was declared null and void, and ordered to be replayed on 10 August. Peru objected to the replay decision and withdrew from the tournament.

Semi-finals

Italy 2–1 (a.e.t.) Norway
Negro 15'
Frossi 96'
Report Brustad 58'
Berlin Olympic Stadium (Berlin)
Attendance: 95,000
Referee: Pál von Hertzka (HUN)

Austria 3–1 Poland
Kainberger 14'
Laudon 55'
Mandl 88'
Report Gad 73'

Bronze medal match

Norway 3–2 Poland
Brustad 15', 21', 84' Report Wodarz 5'
Peterek 24' (pen.)
Berlin Olympic Stadium (Berlin)
Attendance: 95,000
Referee: Alfred Birlem (GER)

The Final (Gold medal match)

Italy now overcame Austria in a match refereed by Dr Peco Bauwens; the Austrians having defeated Poland to attend the final. Not that there was much in it; Frossi again scoring for the Azzurri and getting the winner just as extra-time got underway.

Italy 2–1 (a.e.t.) Austria
Frossi 70', 92' Report Kainberger 79'
Berlin Olympic Stadium (Berlin)
Attendance: 85,000
Referee: Peco Bauwens (Germany)

Bracket

 
Round of 16Quarter-finalsSemi-finalsFinal
 
              
 
3 August – Berlin
 
 
 Italy 1
 
7 August – Berlin
 
 United States 0
 
 Italy 8
 
4 August – Berlin
 
 Japan 0
 
 Japan 3
 
10 August – Berlin
 
 Sweden 2
 
 Italy (a.e.t.)2
 
3 August – Berlin
 
 Norway1
 
 Norway 4
 
7 August – Berlin
 
 Turkey 0
 
 Norway 2
 
4 August – Berlin
 
 Germany 0
 
 Germany 9
 
15 August – Berlin
 
 Luxembourg 0
 
 Italy (a.e.t.)2
 
5 August – Berlin
 
 Austria 1
 
 Austria 3
 
8 August – Berlin
 
 Egypt 1
 
 Austria 2
 
6 August – Berlin
 
 Peru (a.e.t.)42
 
 Peru 7
 
11 August – Berlin
 
 Finland 3
 
 Austria 3
 
5 August – Berlin
 
 Poland 1 Third place
 
 Poland 3
 
8 August – Berlin13 August – Berlin
 
 Hungary 0
 
 Poland 5  Norway 3
 
6 August – Berlin
 
 Great Britain4  Poland 2
 
 Great Britain 2
 
 
 China 0
 
2 Withdrew.

Goalscorers

7 goals
6 goals
5 goals
4 goals
3 goals
2 goals
1 goal

References

  1. ^ Politika, October 18, 1935, p. 11 Archived 13 May 2018 at the Wayback Machine (in Serbian)
  2. ^ "Football at the 1936 Berlin Summer Games". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2018.
  3. ^ "Olympic Games : Football Facts - Knowledge Quest - by Snehal". Archived from the original on 30 August 2006. Retrieved 26 September 2006.
  4. ^ This goal belongs to Taizo Kawamoto according to this website Archived 19 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ English football statistics said that in this game played Daniel Pettit (instead of John Sutcliffe)
  6. ^ a b "Hitler, huffs and Kanu's 'beautiful moment' - Special reports - guardian.co.uk". www.theguardian.com. Archived from the original on 16 September 2016.
  7. ^ Doyle, Paul (24 November 2011). "The forgotten story of … football, farce and fascism at the 1936 Olympics - Paul Doyle". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015.
  8. ^ a b c "Las épocas doradas del fútbol peruano y las Olimpiadas de 1936" (PDF). Beta.upc.edu.pe (in Spanish). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2009.
  9. ^ a b "Controversia Berlín 36. Un mito derrumbado" (in Spanish). Larepublica.com.pe. Archived from the original on 22 March 2009. Retrieved 15 February 2009.
  10. ^ a b c d e "Sport: Olympic Games (Concl'd)". Time.com. 24 August 1936. Archived from the original on 29 June 2009. Retrieved 24 January 2010.
  11. ^ "BERLIN, 1936...¡ITALIA CAMPIONE!". 4 July 2007. Archived from the original on 4 July 2007.
  12. ^ a b "Las Olimpiadas de Berlín". futbolperuano.com (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 23 August 2007. Retrieved 21 August 2007.
  13. ^ "Sport: Olympic Games (Concl'd)". Time. 24 August 1936. Archived from the original on 21 November 2010. Retrieved 2 May 2010.