Football club (German: Fußballclub) (FC) was a designation for a specially promoted club for elite football in East Germany. The football clubs were formed during the winter break 1965-1966 as centers of excellence in East German football. The football clubs enjoyed considerable advantages over other sports communities in East German football. In addition to the ten designated football clubs, SG Dynamo Dresden was also promoted in a similar way to the designated football clubs from 1968.[1][2][3]

General

The football departments of the sports clubs (German: Sportclub) (SC) had dominated the DDR-Oberliga since the introductions of the sports club system in the mid 1950s. Football was then given a special position in East German sports after a decision by the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the Socialist Unity Party (SED) on 18 August 1965.[4] The decision evisioned the formation of dedicated football clubs. Ten football departments were then separated from their sports clubs and re-organized as ten dedicated football clubs by two resolutions from the German Gymnastics and Sports Federation (German: Deutscher Turn- und Sportbund) (DTSB) and the German Football Association of the GDR (German: Deutscher Fußball-Verband der DDR) (DFV). The ten football clubs were formed from December 1965 to January 1966.[5]

History

Founding

The sports clubs were supposed to develope sports in general. However, the main interest of the club management was often football. This was reflected in the use of personnel and other resources in the clubs. The neglect of others sports was one of the reasons for the decision to separate football from the sports clubs.[4] An analysis by the DTSB during the summer of 1964 also showed that football in East Germany had slipped behind the rest of the world. East German football teams had only made small progress compared with the extraordinary development of world football since 1945.[6]

The DTSB and the DFV proposed two solutions to tackle the problem: the best football players should be concentrated in a few football teams and the football departments should be separated from the sports clubs and re-organized as independent football clubs. The concentration of the best football players in the football clubs should be facilitated by better salaries and bonuses, but also through better professional opportunities, such as the prospect of a place at a university.[6] The decision by the Secretariat of the SED Central Committee on 18 August 1965 to form football clubs was an attempt to get football back under the political and technical control of the DTSB in order to "ensure a considerable increase in performance in football".[4] The football clubs were meant to provide stability to the game at the top level and to supply the national team with talent.[7][8]

The new football clubs were planned to be evenly spread out among the regional districts of East Germany. However, there was no interest of founding football clubs in Bezirk Neubrandenburg, Bezirk Potsdam and Bezirk Suhl.[6] Also Bezirk Frankfurt, Bezirk Cottbus and Bezirk Schwerin would eventually be without a football club.[6] Ten football departments were eventually separated from their sports club and re-organized as football clubs from December 1965 to January 1966.[6] All football clubs except FC Carl Zeiss Jena in Bezirk Gera were located in regional district capitals or in East Berlin.

The local derby between BFC Dynamo and FC Vorwärts Berlin in the 1966-67 DDR-Oberliga at the Dynamo-Stadion im Sportforum on 13 August 1966.
The local derby between BFC Dynamo and FC Vorwärts Berlin in the 1966-67 DDR-Oberliga at the Dynamo-Stadion im Sportforum on 13 August 1966.

The original plan had envisioned only one football club per regional district.[9] However, a total of three football were eventually founded in East Berlin. They were FC Vorwärts Berlin, BFC Dynamo and 1. FC Union Berlin.[6] Only two football clubs had been planned for East Berlin.[5] 1. FC Union Berlin was not part of the original plan. The founding of the club likely owed much to the intervention of the powerful chairman of the national state trade union FDGB and Politburo member Herbert Warnke.[10][11][9] Both FC Vorwärts Berlin and BFC Dynamo were associated with the armed organs (German: Bewaffnete Organe der DDR). Herbert Warnke therefore argued for the formation of a civil football club for the working population in East Berlin.[9][6][5] The founding of 1. FC Union Berlin was even more remarkable as the football team of sports club TSC Berlin only played in the second tier DDR-Liga at the time.[9][5] All other teams of football clubs played in the first tier DDR-Oberliga. 1. FC Union Berlin was thus elevated into the upper tier of elite clubs.[10][12][nb 1]

The ten football clubs were made into centers of excellence (German: Leistungszentrum) in East German football and were given the same rights a sports clubs.[8][14] They were given permission to draw on the best players in the country.[14] Promising players would be ordered to play for them.[8] Liberal financial support from the DTSB and from large state-owned enterprises were meant to ensure their autonomy.[14] The football clubs would have privileged access to talents within designated geographical and administrative areas.[14] All football clubs were assigned one or two regional districts as catchments areas by their funding.[15] The three football clubs in East Berlin also had access to one third each of East Berlin. The football clubs should take a more methodical approach to the youth work.[6] They should form youth teams in all age groups and the training in the youth classes should be improved.[6][5] As an example, BFC Dynamo immediately planned to expand its number of youth teams from 14 to 26 by its founding.[16] The football clubs would be able to establish structured programs for the development of young talented players in special training centers (TZ) and sports schools.[7] The DFV would gradually build 196 training centers (TZ) based on guidelines from the DTSB across East Germany from the beginning of 1970.[17] Young talents from the age of 13 started to be enrolled into elite Children and Youth Sports Schools (German: Kinder- und Jugendsportschule) (KJS) at the same time.[18]

No football club had been founded in Bezirk Dresden. It had long been planned to merge SG Dynamo Dresden with the football department of sports club SC Einheit Dresden, in order concentrate the best footballer in the regional district in one club. A similar thing had been done in Leipzig.[3][nb 2] However, a tug of war developed between the President of SV Dynamo Erich Mielke and the SED First secretary in Bezirk Dresden Werner Krolikowski.[3] Mielke did not want to give up SG Dynamo Dresden, while Krolikowski advocated for the establishment of a civil football club.[3] The stalemate continued for one and a half year. The football department of SC Einheit Dresden was then reorganized as FSV Lokomotive Dresden on 12 January 1966.[3] SG Dynamo Dresden was then declared a regional district center of excellence in Bezirk Dresden by the district board of the DTSB on 5 August 1968.[3][1] The club could now draw on the best talents in the whole regional district.[1][3] SG Dynamo Dresden would enjoy the same funding and the same privileges as a designated football club, although it retained its designation as a "Sports Community" (German: Sportgemeinschaft) (SG).[6] Without this support, the club's future success would have been hard to achieve.[6]

Further developments

East German sports was fundamentally reformed in the 1969 Competitive Sports Resolution (German: Leistungssportbeschluss).[nb 3] The 1969 Competitive Sports Resolution was adopted by the SED Politburo on 8 April 1969 and then by the Presidium of the DTSB on 22 April 1969.[20] The resolution was based on the comprehensive sports policy document "Baseline for the Development of Performance sport in the GDR up until 1980" (German: Grundlinie der Entwicklung des Leistungssports in der DDR bis 1980).[21][22] The sports policy document has been adopted by the Secretariat of the SED Central Committee on 19 March 1969.[19]

The 1969 Competitive Sports Resolution divided East German sports into two categories "Sport I" and "Sport II". The resolution aimed to concentrate resources on those sports with the greatest record and medal potential. The sports that were considered worth pursuing for Olympic medals were allocated to Sport I.[22] The sports in Sport I were eligible for generous state subsidies, access to the comprehensive system of training centers (TZ) and Children and Youth Sports Scools (KJS) in East Germany as well, as well as the services of full-time coaches and trainers.[23][14] Other sports were allocated to Sport II. The sports in Sport II were thus denied the full range of advantages and privileges of the East German elite sports system.[14] Football was allocated to Sport I, together with sports such as swimming, athletics and weightlifting. Sports such as tennis, water polo and basketball were instead allocated to Sports II. The allocation of football to Sport I owed much to the backing of the Head of the Stasi Erich Mielke and other top SED politicians, who were aware of the popularity of football in East Germany.[14]

1. FC Magdeburg celebrating the victory in the 1977-78 FDGB-Pokal at the Stadion der Weltjugend on 29 April 1978. Sparwasser with the trophy, next to him Raugust, Seguin and Streich.
1. FC Magdeburg celebrating the victory in the 1977-78 FDGB-Pokal at the Stadion der Weltjugend on 29 April 1978. Sparwasser with the trophy, next to him Raugust, Seguin and Streich.

The 1969 Competitive Sports Resolution was then complemented by the 1970 Football Resolution (German: Fußballbeschluss).[7] Among the main points of the 1970 Football Resolution were the further separation of the football clubs from their sponsors, a more rigorous implementation of centrally conceived and monitored training plans based on the latest scientific findings from other sports and the concentration of top-class football in a number of specially promoted focus clubs.[24][7] The football clubs were now placed directly under the jurisdicion of the DTSB and the DFV.[7] They would also be directly financed by the DTSB and would have to adhere to its financial regulations.[25] The East German Ministry of Finance would release additional financing to fulfil the reform.[7]

The 1970 Football Resolution also aimed to root out the system of unauthoritzed financial incentives and bonuses to players that had developed.[7] Other points of the 1970 Football Resolution were a reducion of salaries, introduction of uniform salary and bonus payments, payments according to professional qualification within a certain framework, as well as the prohibition of additional financial incentives.[24] Players in football clubs would now be able to train as de facto professionals.[7] Players in enterprise sports communities (German: Betriebssportgemeinschaften) (BSG), on the other hand, were expected to work morning shifts and only be paid according occupational qualifications.[7] The players in the football clubs were nominally employees of their sponsors. There were officially no professional players in East Germany until the late 1980s. Players were paid through their sponsors and the enterprises were then compensated by the DTSB for the release of players for trainings and matches.[26][14] However, players in football clubs would in reality not be required to attend their workplaces.[26] Of the additional 7 million Marks released by the East Germany Ministry of Finance for the 1970 Football Resolution, 2 million Marks were provided to compensate the enterprises.[14]

A match between FC Karl-Marx-Stadt and SG Dynamo Dresden in the 1988–89 FDGB-Pokal at the Dr.-Kurt-Fischer-Stadion on 29 October 1988.
A match between FC Karl-Marx-Stadt and SG Dynamo Dresden in the 1988–89 FDGB-Pokal at the Dr.-Kurt-Fischer-Stadion on 29 October 1988.

The promotion of football clubs as the only centers of excellence in East German football and the implementation of the 1970 Football Resolution led to a two-class society in the DDR-Oberliga: The best enterprise sports communities (BSG) were used as a pool for talented young players, who were later delegated to the football clubs. From the time when the sports clubs were first established in 1954, there is only one instance when a enterprises sports community (BSG) won the DDR-Oberliga. That was when BSG Chemie Leipzig won the DDR-Oberliga in the 1963-64 season. However, the team had been formed from players of two dissolved sports clubs the year before. Only football clubs finished in the top three in the DDR-Oberliga from 1968 to 1991.

Unauthoritzed financial incentives remained an issue in East German football until the end of East Germany. An audit by the East German Ministry of Finance in 1987 uncovered a series of offences among the sports communities in the second to fourth tier in the East German football league system. The fact that BSG Stahl Brandenburg managed to qualify for the 1986-87 UEFA Cup owed much to generous payments to players from the social and cultural funds of the local steel and rolling mill works. The SED eventually formulated a scheme to put football onto a contractual basis between clubs and players, with transparent transfers and payments, from the 1989-90 season. The scheme signalled a shift in the direction of an open professionalization of East German football. However, the scheme was interrputed by the fall of the SED regime and the dismantling of East German football by competition from West Germany.[27]

Football clubs after the end of East Germany

The football clubs were given new legal statuses as registered associations (eingetragener Verein) (e. V.) in 1990. Five football clubs retained their names after Die Wende: F.C. Hansa Rostock, 1. FC Magdeburg, 1. FC Union Berlin, FC Carl Zeiss Jena and FC Rot-Weiß Erfurt. The other five football clubs changed their names for various reasons in 1990 and 1991. BFC Dynamo became FC Berlin, HFC Chemie became Hallescher FC, FC Karl-Marx-Stadt became Chemnitzer FC, 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig became VfB Leipzig and FC Vorwärts Frankfurt became FC Victoria 91 Frankfurt (Oder). SG Dynamo Dresden also changed its name to 1. FC Dynamo Dresden. However, BFC Dynamo reverted to its traditional name in 1999, 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig was re-established in 2003 and SG Dynamo Dresden also reverted to its traditional name in 2007.

Four former East German football clubs including SG Dynamo Dresden have played in the Bundesliga: F.C Hansa Rostock, SG Dynamo Dresden, VfB Leipzig and 1. FC Union Berlin.[nb 4] F.C. Hansa Rostock and SG Dynamo Dresden qualified for the 1991-92 Bundesliga by finishing in first and second place in the 1990-91 NOFV-Oberliga. F.C Hansa Rostock was immediately relegated to the 2. Bundesliga, but SG Dynamo Dresden remained in the Bundesliga until the 1996-97 season. VfB Leipzig then qualified for the 1993-94 Bundesliga as runners-up in the 1992-93 2. Bundesliga. Two former East German clubs were thus again playing in the Bundesliga in the 1993-94 season. However, VfB Leipzig finished the 1993-94 Bundesliga in last place and was relegated back to the 2. Bundesliga. SG Dynamo Dresden was also relegated two seasons later. F.C. Hansa Rostock then returned to the Bundesliga in the 1995-96 season. The club managed to establish itself in the Bundesliga this time and played in the league until the 2005-06 season. 1. FC Union Berlin qualified for the 2019-20 Bundesliga after defeating VfB Stuttgart in promotion play-offs. 1. FC Union Berlin is the only former East German football club playing in the Bundesliga as of the 2021-22 season.

The football clubs in East Germany

Name Founded Sports club
SG Dynamo Dresden° 12 April 1953 SG Dynamo Dresden
1. FC Magdeburg 22 December 1965 SC Magdeburg
F.C. Hansa Rostock 28 December 1965 SC Empor Rostock
BFC Dynamo 15 January 1966 SC Dynamo Berlin
FC Karl-Marx-Stadt 15 January 1966 SC Karl-Marx-Stadt
FC Vorwärts Berlin°° 18 January 1966 ASK Vorwärts Berlin
1. FC Union Berlin 20 January 1966 TSC Berlin
FC Carl Zeiss Jena 20 January 1966 SC Motor Jena
1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig 20 January 1966 SC Leipzig
FC Rot-Weiß Erfurt 26 January 1966 SC Turbine Erfurt
Hallescher FC Chemie 26 January 1966 SC Chemie Halle

° SG Dynamo Dresden existed well before the founding of pure football clubs. While the club was a sports community (German: Sportgemeinschaft) (SG) by name, it had the same status as the football clubs from 1968.

°° The club was relocated to Frankfurt an der Oder in Bezirk Frankfurt on 31 July 1971 and continued as FC Vorwärts Frankfurt.

Focus clubs

The team of BFC Dynamo at the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark on 17 August 1978.
The team of BFC Dynamo at the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark on 17 August 1978.

A number of football clubs were designated as specially promoted focus clubs (German: Schwerpunktclubs) in the 1970 Football Resolution.[28][29][30][31][nb 5] The focus clubs would receive additional financial support from DTSB and other advantages.[30][31] Focus clubs were equipped with more staff as well as better material and technical conditions.[32] The focus clubs also had the privilege to accommodate twelve students in their affiliated Children and Youth Sports Schools (KJS) every year.[33][34] Non-focus football clubs only had the right to delegate six students.[34][nb 6] The focus clubs would also receive expanded catchment areas in the 1976 Football Resolution.[35]

The DTSB and the DFV attempted to delegate the best players to the focus clubs at the beginning of the 1970s.[36] The first focus clubs were FC Vorwärts Berlin, FC Carl Zeiss Jena, FC Karl-Marx-Staft and FC Hansa Rostock.[29] However, FC-Karl-Marx-Stadt quickly fell out from the group. SG Dynamo Dresden and 1. FC Magdeburg was added a short time later. F.C. Hansa Rostock was then replaced by 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig at the end of 1973.[29][nb 7] The group of focus clubs was again adjusted in 1975-76. The selection now included BFC Dynamo, SG Dynamo Dresden, FC Vorwärts Frankfurt, FC Carl Zeis Jena, 1. FC Magdeburg and 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig. This selection of focus clubs would remain until the end of East Germany.[29][14] These clubs would come to dominate East German football until 1989.[14]

The efforts of the DTSB and DFV to concentrate resources on a few clubs reached their peak in the mid-1970s.[26] F.C. Hansa Rostock, FC Rot-Weiß Erfurt and 1. FC Union Berlin were disadvantaged in some aspects compared to the focus clubs.[29] Football clubs were given performance assignments from the DTSB that had to be fulfilled. 1. FC Union Berlin was given the objective of producing a number players who could be delegated to the focus club BFC Dynamo during a period.[38][nb 8] However, the preference of focus clubs was gradually reduced by the DFV from 1983.[29][26]

Hierarchy

Football in East Germany was a contested sphere. Many political leaders took a keen interest in football and used their connections and resources to promote their favorite team and boost the prestige of their regional district or organization.[39] Teams were relocated and renamed, and players were delegated from one team to another, in accordance with political criteria or due to machinations of powerful political leaders or interest groups at regional distric or central level.[40] The German sports historian Hanns Leske has described an hierarchy among football clubs and sports communities in East German football.[37] Depending in their rank in the hierarchy, football clubs and sports communities had more or less access to young talents as well as political and economic resources.

The team of SG Dynamo Dresden on 8 October 1982.
The team of SG Dynamo Dresden on 8 October 1982.

The first two categories in the hierarchy were clubs affiliated with the armed organs.[37] Most sports associations (German: Sportvereinigung) (SV) were dissolved at the founding of the DTSB in 1957. However, the sports associations ASV Vorwärts and SV Dynamo were allowed to continue to exist as district organizations within the DTSB and were allowed to retain their own statutes.[41][42]

The first category in the hierarchy contained FC Vorwärts Berlin and BFC Dynamo. FC Vorwärts Berlin was initially the most privileged club in East Germany. The club was able to draw on talents from all army sports communities (German: Armeesportgemeinschaft) (ASG) in East Germany.[37] FC Vorwärts Berlin was also able to recruit players that had been called up for military service with the National People's Army.[43][44] The position as the most privileged club was then taken over by BFC Dynamo in the mid-1970s.[37] BFC Dynamo was developed into a flagship team of SV Dynamo. BFC Dynamo would get access to a nationwide scouting network supported by numerous training centers (TZ) of SV Dynamo.[14][45][46] The club was able to recruit talents from the youth departments of all sports communities of SV Dynamo in East Germany, except those in Bezirk Dresden.[33][37] BFC Dynamo would also get access to the training centers (TZ) in East Berlin that had previously belonged to the catchment area of FC Vorwärts Berlin.[37] The second category contained SG Dynamo Dresden. SG Dynamo Dresden was the third most privileged football club or sports community in East German football.[37]

The third category in the hierarchy were designated football clubs with a financially strong sponsor or supported by a member of the Politburo of the Socialist Unity Party (SED). This category contained FC Carl Zeiss Jena, 1. FC Magdeburg, FC Hansa Rostock and Hallescher FC Chemie. These clubs were heavily protected by their sponsors and patrons. FC Carl Zeiss Jena was supported by VEB Carl Zeiss Jena.[37] SC Motor Jena had been the first club where players became de facto paid professionals.[26] The club managed to put together a strong team under coach Georg Buschner with the help of financial incentives.[37] VEB Carl Zeiss Jena assured extensive financial, material and social help to players. This made it possible for the club to keep its best players and also attract players from other teams in the DDR-Oberliga, such as Wolfgang Blochwitz and Eberhard Vogel.[26] The General Director of VEB Carl Zeiss Jena Wolfgang Biermann would later be dubbed the "Berlusconi of Jena".[47][14] 1. FC Magdeburg was sponsored by construction combine Schwermaschinenbau-Kombinat "Ernst Thälmann" (SKET) and supported by Politburo member Werner Eberlein.[37] F.C. Hansa Rostock was sponsored by maritime combine VEB Kombinat Seeverkehr und Hafenwirtschaft and supported by Politburo member Harry Tisch.[37][48] Hallescher FC Chemie was supported by Politburo member Werner Felfe.[37]

FC Carl Zeiss Jena celebrating the league title in the 1967-68 season on 25 May 1968.
FC Carl Zeiss Jena celebrating the league title in the 1967-68 season on 25 May 1968.

The fourth and fifth categories were designated football clubs without the support of any politburo member. The fourth category contained 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig, FC Karl-Marx-Stadt and FC Rot-Weiß Erfurt. However, 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig was a designated focus club and thus certainly had the best material conditions in the category.[37] The fifth category consisted of 1. FC Union Berlin.[37] 1. FC Union Berlin had initially been supported by Politburo member Herbert Warnke. Herbert Warnke was the powerful chairman of the national state trade union FDGB. However, the club no longer had any support at the top of the political hierarchy after Herbert Warnke had passed away in 1975. Tisch became the new chairman of the FDGB after Warnke. He chose to give the support of the FDGB to F.C. Hansa Rostock instead.[49] 1. FC Union Berlin would then be the least privileged among the designated football clubs. The club would have to rely on support of the regional district management of the SED in East Berlin and local state-owned enterprises, such as VEB Kabelwerk Oberspree (KWO) and VEB Transformatorenwerk Oberschöneweide (TRO).[50] However, 1. FC Union Berlin was still privileged compared to the numerous sports communities in East Germany. The club as a whole benefited from the East German sports system.[51]

The sixth category were enterprise sports communities (BSG) with financially strong sponsors. This category contained sports communities such as BSG Wismut Aue, BSG Chemie Leipzig, BSG Sachsengring Zwickau and BSG Energie Cottbus. The seventh category were other enterprise sports communities (BSG) between the DDR-Oberliga and the DDR-Liga. This category consisted of enterprise sports communitie (BSG) such as BSG Lokomotive Stendal and BSG Stahl Eisenhüttenstadt.[37]

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ The football departments of the other four sports clubs in the 1965-66 DDR-Liga (de) were also separated from their sports clubs. However, these football departments were mostly integrated into strong enterprise sports communities (German: Betriebssportgemeinschaft) (BSG) instead.[13] One example was the football department of SC Cottbus, which was joined with the new enterprise sports community BSG Energie Cottbus. The only exception was the football department of SC Einheint Dresden, which instead continued as sports community FSV Lokomotive Dresden under the new designation football game association (German: Fußballspielvereinigung) (FSV).
  2. ^ The sports clubs SC Rotation Leipzig and SC Lokomotive Leipzig were merged to form the new sports club SC Leipzig in 1963. The supposedly best-performing football players of the two sports clubs were concentrated in SC Leipzig. The rest were instead sent to join the re-established BSG Chemie Leipzig. The football department of SC Leipzig then became football club 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig.
  3. ^ The formal name of the Competitive Sports Resolution was "The Further development of Competitive sport up to the 1972 Olympic Games" (German: Die weitere Entwicklung des Leistungssports bis zu den Olympischen Spielen 1972).[19]
  4. ^ FC Energie Cottbus played in the Bundesliga between 1999 and 2003. However, the club was an enterprise sports community (BSG) during the East German era and not included in the upper tier of elite clubs.
  5. ^ The 1970 Football Resolution was approved in 1969 but came into effect in the summer of 1970. It is therefore sometimes also named the 1969 Football Resolution.[28][29]
  6. ^ However, the number of students delegated by non-focus clubs was in reality often higher than allowed by the guidelines.[34]
  7. ^ BFC Dynamo became a focus club. German historian Michael Kummer does not mention BFC Dynamo as one of the first focus clubs, but mentions BFC Dynamo as part of the selection of focus clubs that were decided in 1975-76. However, Hanns Leske writes that BFC Dynamo became a focus club after the 1970 Football Resolution.[33][37]
  8. ^ The football clubs had to report on the fulfillment in two-year analyzes. 1. FC Union Berlin had the objective in 1977-78 of producing four players who could be delegated to the focus club BFC Dynamo. 1. FC Union Berlin explained that its downward trend in the youth area was partially due to the fact that the club had to delegate its two best players to the focus club every year.[38]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Pleil, Ingolf (2013). Mielke, Macht und Meisterschaft: Dynamo Dresden im Visier der Stasi (in German) (2nd ed.). Berlin: Christopher Links Verlag GmbH. p. 16. ISBN 978-3-86153-756-4. Mit Beschluss des DTSB-Bezirksvorstandes vom 5. August 1968 wird Dynamo zum Fußball-Leistungszentrum im Berizk Dresden, das damit in der gesamten Region auf Spielersuche gehen kann.
  2. ^ Müller, Ronny (18 December 2015). "Club der Bessergestellten". Sportbuzzer (in German). Hannover: Sportbuzzer GmbH. Retrieved 19 December 2021.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "Jubiläumswelle im Osten: Beschluss der Sport-Führung war Auslöser". Frankfurter Rundschau (in German). Frankfurt am Main: Frankfurter Rundschau GmbH. 18 June 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  4. ^ a b c Teichler, Hans Joachim (4 May 2006). "Fußball in der DDR". bpb.de (in German). Bonn: Federal Agency for Civic Education. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
  5. ^ a b c d e Stier, Sebastian (18 January 2016). "1. FC Union, FC Vorwärts, BFC Dynamo: Als die DDR ihren Fußballbetrieb revolutionierte". Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Berlin: Verlag Der Tagesspiegel GmbH. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Fischer, Stephan (18 January 2014). "Fußball, »streng vertraulich«". Neues Deutschland (in German). Berlin: Neues Deutschland Druckerei und Verlag GmbH. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Mike, Dennis; Grix, Jonathan (2012). Sport under Communism – Behind the East German 'Miracle' (1st ed.). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan (Macmillan Publishers Limited). pp. 141–142. ISBN 978-0-230-22784-2.
  8. ^ a b c Hesse-Lichtenberger, Ulrich (2003). Tor!: The Story of German Football (3rd ed.). London: WSC Books Ltd. p. 227. ISBN 095401345X.
  9. ^ a b c d Dost, Robert (17 January 2011). Written at Berlin. Der zivile Club - Die gesellschaftliche Stellung des 1.FC Union Berlin und seiner Anhänger in der DDR (PDF) (BA) (in German). Mittweida: Hochschule Mittweida. p. 12. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  10. ^ a b Dennis, Mike; LaPorte, Norman (2011). State and Minorities in Communist East Germany (1st ed.). New York: Berghahn Books. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-85745-195-8.
  11. ^ Benedikter, Roland; Wojtaszyn, Dariusz (2020). Football Politics in Central Europe and Eastern Europe: A Study on the Geopolitical Area's Tribal, Imaginal, and Contextual Politics (1st ed.). Washington, D.C.: Lexington Books (The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc.). p. 126. ISBN 978-1793622471.
  12. ^ Koch, Matthuas (28 November 2019). "Vom Mauerblümchen zum Fußball-Leuchtturm". bpb.de (in German). Bonn: Federal Agency for Civic Education. Retrieved 5 April 2021.
  13. ^ Koch, Matthias (31 December 2005). "Eintritt in den VIP-Raum des Fußball-Ostens". Neues Deutschland (in German). Berlin: Neues Deutschland Druckerei und Verlag GmbH. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Dennis, Mike (2007). "Behind the Wall: East German football between state and society" (PDF). German as a Foreign Language (GFL). 2007 (2): 46–73. ISSN 1470-9570. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  15. ^ Luther, Jörn; Willmann, Frank (2000). Und niemals vergessen – Eisern Union! (1st ed.). Berlin: BasisDruck. pp. 64–65. ISBN 978-3-86163-106-4. Aber der Reihe nach: Die Fußballclubs hatten bei ihrer Gründung einen oder zwei Bezirke zugewiesen bekommen , aus deren Trainingszentren sie ihren Nachwuchs rekrutierten.
  16. ^ "In Berlin und Karl-Marx-Stadt werden zwei weitere Fußballclubs gegründet: BFC Dynamo" (PDF). Neue Fußballwoche (FuWo) (de) (in German). Vol. 1966, no. 3. Berlin: DFV der DDR. 18 January 1966. p. 5. ISSN 0323-8407. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  17. ^ Willmann, Frank (1999). "Fussball in der Zone". telegraph (de) (in German). Berlin: Prenzlberg Dokumentation e.V. 2010 (120/121). Retrieved 5 December 2020.
  18. ^ "DDR-Fußball: Aus der Chronik des Deutschen Fußballverbandes der DDR (DFV)". nofv-online.de (in German). Berlin: Nordostdeutscher Fußballverband e. V. 10 April 2001. Retrieved 5 December 2020.
  19. ^ a b Ritter, Andreas (January 2002). Written at Berlin. Wandlungen in der Steuerung des DDR-Hochleistungssports in der 1960 und 1970 Jahren (PDF) (PhD) (in German). Potsdam: University of Potsdam. p. 15. ISBN 3935024614. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  20. ^ Grißer, Anja (26 July 2002). Der Einfluss der DTSB-Leistungssportbeschluss von 1969 auf das Sportartenspektrum im DDR-Fernsehen (PDF) (MA) (in German). Leipzig: University of Leipzig. pp. 15–16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 September 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  21. ^ Ritter, Andreas (January 2002). Written at Berlin. Wandlungen in der Steuerung des DDR-Hochleistungssports in der 1960 und 1970 Jahren (PDF) (PhD) (in German). Potsdam: University of Potsdam. p. 26. ISBN 3935024614. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  22. ^ a b Mike, Dennis; Grix, Jonathan (2012). Sport under Communism – Behind the East German 'Miracle' (1st ed.). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan (Macmillan Publishers Limited). p. 64. ISBN 978-0-230-22784-2.
  23. ^ Dennis, Mike; LaPorte, Norman (2011). State and Minorities in Communist East Germany (1st ed.). New York: Berghahn Books. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-85745-195-8.
  24. ^ a b Leske, Hanns (2021). Enzyklopädie des DDR-Fußballs (PDF) (2nd ed.). Bielefeld: Verlag Die Werkstatt GmbH. p. 23. ISBN 978-3-89533-556-3.
  25. ^ Kummer, Micharl (2010). Die Fußballclubs Rot-Weiß Erfurt und Carl Zeiss Jena und ihre Vorgänger inder DDR: Ein Vergleich ihrer Bedingungen (PDF) (PhD) (in German). Potsdam: University of Potsdam. pp. 223–224. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  26. ^ a b c d e f Kummer, Michael (2 October 2015). ""Wir hießen eben Amateure"". Neues Deutschland (in German). Berlin: Neues Deutschland Druckerei und Verlag GmbH. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  27. ^ Mike, Dennis; Grix, Jonathan (2012). Sport under Communism – Behind the East German 'Miracle' (1st ed.). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan (Macmillan Publishers Limited). p. 143. ISBN 978-0-230-22784-2.
  28. ^ a b Leske, Hanns (2012). "„Erster Fußballbeschluss" 1970: Nachteile für die Betriebssportgemeinschaften". Fußball in der DDR: Kicken im Auftrag der SED (in German) (2nd ed.). Erfurt: Landeszentrale für politische Bildung Thüringen. ISBN 978-3-937967-91-2.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g Kummer, Michael (2010). "Die Fußballclubs Rot-Weiß Erfurt und Carl Zeiss Jena und ihre Vorgänger inder DDR: Ein Vergleich ihrer Bedingungen" (PDF) (in German). Potsdam: University of Potsdam: 223–226. Retrieved 5 April 2021. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  30. ^ a b Japke, Josephine (21 June 2018). Written at Königs Wusterhausen. "Die gesellschaftspolitische Stellung des 1. FC Union Berlin zu Zeiten der DDR" (PDF) (in German). Mittweida: Hochschule Mittweida: 13–15. Retrieved 5 April 2021. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  31. ^ a b Farshi, Sabbagh; Hadi, Mohammad (20 May 2011). Written at Hamburg. "Deutsch-Deutsche Transfers: Der Wechsel von Thomas Doll vom BFC Dynamo zum HSV 1990" (PDF) (in German). Mittweida: Hochschule Mittweida: 21–22. Retrieved 4 April 2021. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  32. ^ Kummer, Michael (2010). "Die Fußballclubs Rot-Weiß Erfurt und Carl Zeiss Jena und ihre Vorgänger inder DDR: Ein Vergleich ihrer Bedingungen" (PDF) (in German). Potsdam: University of Potsdam: 215. Retrieved 5 April 2021. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  33. ^ a b c Leske, Hanns (2012). "Hierarchie des DDR-Fußballs: Privilegierung der Schwerpunktclubs". Fußball in der DDR: Kicken im Auftrag der SED (in German) (2nd ed.). Erfurt: Landeszentrale für politische Bildung Thüringen. ISBN 978-3-937967-91-2.
  34. ^ a b c Kummer, Michael (10 March 2011). "Die Fußballclubs Rot-Weiß Erfurt und Carl Zeiss Jena und ihre Vorgänger in der DDR: ein Vergleich ihrer Bedingungen" (PDF) (in German). Potsdam: University of Potsdam: 318. Retrieved 1 March 2021. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  35. ^ MacDougall, Alan (2014). The People's Game: Football, State and Society in East Germany (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-1-107-05203-1.
  36. ^ Kummer, Micharl (2010). Die Fußballclubs Rot-Weiß Erfurt und Carl Zeiss Jena und ihre Vorgänger inder DDR: Ein Vergleich ihrer Bedingungen (PDF) (PhD) (in German). Potsdam: University of Potsdam. p. 228. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Leske, Hanns (2021). Enzyklopädie des DDR-Fußballs (PDF) (2nd ed.). Bielefeld: Verlag Die Werkstatt GmbH. pp. 18–21. ISBN 978-3-89533-556-3.
  38. ^ a b Dost, Robert (17 January 2011). Written at Berlin. "Der zivile Club - Die gesellschaftliche Stellung des 1.FC Union Berlin und seiner Anhänger in der DDR" (PDF) (in German). Mittweida: Hochschule Mittweida: 45. Retrieved 15 February 2022. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  39. ^ Tomilson, Alan; Young, Christopher (2006). German Football: History, Culture, Society (1st ed.). Abingdon-on-Thames: Routlede, Taylor & Francis Group. p. 55. ISBN 0-415-35195-2.
  40. ^ Tomilson, Alan; Young, Christopher (2006). German Football: History, Culture, Society (1st ed.). Abingdon-on-Thames: Routlede, Taylor & Francis Group. pp. 53–54. ISBN 0-415-35195-2.
  41. ^ Braun, Jutta (13 January 2013). "Gutachten zum Themenfeld "Sport" für die Enquete-Kommission 5/1 "Aufarbeitung der Geschichte und Bewältigung von Folgen der SED-Diktatur und des Übergangs in einen demokratischen Rechtsstaat im Land Brandenburg"" (PDF) (in German). Potsdam: Zentrum deutsche Sportgeschichte Berlin-Brandenburg (ZdS): 9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 December 2021. Retrieved 6 December 2021. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  42. ^ Zink, Falko (December 2009). Written at Kaiserslautern. "Der Sport und seine Institutionen im Spannungsfeld von Staat und Politik: Eine zeitgeschichtliche Untersuchung zur Anpassungsfähigkeit der Institutionen des Sports" (in German). Saarbrucken: Saarland University: 126–127. Retrieved 6 December 2021. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  43. ^ McCracken, Craig (15 April 2015). "Forward With Vorwärts Berlin, East Germany's Team Of The 60s – Part One". Beyond The Last Man (beyondthelastman.com). Craig McCracken. Retrieved 1 December 2020.
  44. ^ Benedikter, Roland; Wojtaszyn, Dariusz (2020). Football Politics in Central Europe and Eastern Europe: A Study on the Geopolitical Area's Tribal, Imaginal, and Contextual Politics (1st ed.). Washington, D.C.: Lexington Books (The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc.). p. 124. ISBN 978-1793622471.
  45. ^ Luther, Jörn; Willmann, Frank (2003). BFC Dynamo – Der Meisterclub (in German) (1st ed.). Berlin: Das Neue Berlin. p. 203. ISBN 3-360-01227-5. Das DDR - weite Sichtungssystem mit 33 Trainingszentren der SV Dynamo sowie der Partnerbezirk Cottbus hatte den Talentstrom nie abreißen lassen.
  46. ^ Stolz, Sascha (7 August 2006). "Interview mit Jürgen Bogs". Fußball-Woche (de) (in German). Berlin: Fußball-Woche Verlags GmbH. Retrieved 14 February 2022.
  47. ^ Mike, Dennis; Grix, Jonathan (2012). Sport under Communism – Behind the East German 'Miracle' (1st ed.). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan (Macmillan Publishers Limited). p. 144. ISBN 978-0-230-22784-2.
  48. ^ Oelmaier, Tobias (28 December 2015). "Jubiläum - Hansa Rostock wird 50". deutschlandfunkkultur.de (in German). Cologne: Deutschlandradio. Retrieved 13 February 2022.
  49. ^ Kannowski, Stephan (1999). Der Einfluss der SED auf den Sport der DDR am Beispiel des Fußballvereins 1. FC Union Berlin (October 1999 ed.). Hamburg: Diplomarbeiten Agentur diplom.de (Bedey Media GmbH). pp. 44–45. ISBN 978-3832419226.
  50. ^ Willmann, Frank (18 August 2005). "Aus den Unterklassen: Ostberlin im Derbyfieber". Junge Welt (in German). Berlin: Verlag 8. Mai GmbH. Retrieved 30 October 2021.
  51. ^ Koch, Matthias (28 November 2019). "Vom Mauerblümchen zum Fußball-Leuchtturm". bpb.de (in German). Bonn: Federal Agency for Civic Education. Retrieved 5 April 2021.