Ford Duratorq engine
ManufacturerFord Motor Company
ConfigurationInline-4, Inline-5, V6, V8
Displacement1.4–4.4 L (1,399–4,367 cc)
Cylinder bore89.9 mm (3.54 in)
93 mm (3.66 in)
96 mm (3.78 in)
Piston stroke92 mm (3.62 in)
94.6 mm (3.72 in)
100.7 mm (3.96 in)
102 mm (4.02 in)
ValvetrainSOHC 2 valves x cyl.
DOHC 4 valves x cyl.
TurbochargerBorgWarner KP35 Twin-scroll, Twin-turbo, Variable-geometry with intercooler (on some versions)
Fuel systemCommon rail (Only TDCi) Direct injection
ManagementDelphi, Siemens, Bosch
Fuel typeDiesel
Cooling systemWater-cooled
Power output68–270 PS (50–199 kW; 67–266 hp)
Torque output160–640 N⋅m (118–472 lb⋅ft)
Emissions target standardEuro 5
SuccessorEcoBlue (progressively from 2016)

The Ford Duratorq engine, commonly referred to as Duratorq, is the marketing name of a range of Ford diesel engines first introduced in 2000 for the Ford Mondeo range of cars. The larger capacity 5-cylinder units use the Power Stroke branding when installed in North American-market vehicles.

The first design, codenamed "Puma" during its development, replaced the older Endura-D unit which had been around since 1984. Commercial versions of the Puma unit replaced Ford's older "2.5Di" type unit used in the Transit, and many other manufacturers' vehicles - most notably the London Taxi and in the Land Rover Defender.

Other unrelated units in this range have been developed by Ford and PSA.[1][2] The TDCi Duratorq engines are available in vehicles from Ford, Jaguar, Land Rover, Volvo and Mazda[citation needed].

A new EcoBlue diesel engine range, originally codenamed "Panther"[3] and planned to be available in 2.0- and 1.5-litre variants, will progressively replace the Duratorq engines from 2016.[4]

Engine reference

Name Parent Family Displacements Year Features Common Applications
HDi/TDCi DLD ("Tiger") 1.4 L (1,399 cc)
(1.6 L (1,560 cc)
2002–present I4 Twin-scroll turbo in 1,6, 110 PS (81 kW; 108 hp) Common Rail DI Ford Fiesta, Ford Fusion (Europe), Ford Focus, Ford C-Max, Ford Figo, Ford Bantam, Mazda3, Mini Cooper D, Citroën C2, Citroën C3, Citroën Xsara, Citroën Xsara Picasso, Citroën C4, Citroën C4 Picasso, Citroën C5, Peugeot 206, Peugeot 207, Peugeot 307, Peugeot 308, Peugeot 3008, Peugeot 407, Volvo C30, Volvo S40, Volvo V50, Volvo V40, Citroën Berlingo, Peugeot Partner, Mini Cooper
TDCi Endura-DI ("Lynx") 1.8 L (1,753 cc) 1998–present I4 turbo intercooled SOHC 8-valve Ford Focus, Ford Mondeo, Ford Galaxy, Ford S-Max, Ford Transit Connect
TDCi 16v ZSD ("Puma") 2.0 L (1,998 cc)
2.2 L (2,198 cc)
2.4 L (2,402 cc)
2.5 L
3.0 L
1999–present I4 turbo intercooled 16-valve DI Ford Mondeo, Ford Transit, Ford Ranger (T6), Ford Everest, Jaguar X-TYPE, Land Rover Defender, LDV, London Taxi TX1, TXII, Citroën Jumper, Peugeot Boxer, Fiat Ducato
HDi/TDCi PSA DW 2.0 L (1,997 cc) 2004–present I4 twin-scroll turbo intercooled DOHC 16-valve Mk IV Mondeo, Ford Focus, Ford C-Max, Ford S-Max, Ford Galaxy, Ford Kuga, Peugeot 307, Peugeot 308, Peugeot 3008, Peugeot 5008, Peugeot 407, Peugeot 607, Citroën C4, Citroën C4 Picasso, Citroën C5, Volvo C30, Volvo S40, Volvo V50, Volvo V70, Volvo S80
HDi/TDCi PSA DW 2.2 L (2,179 cc) 2005–present I4 twin-turbo intercooled DOHC 16-valve Mk IV Mondeo, Ford S-Max, Ford Galaxy, Peugeot 407, Peugeot 4007, Peugeot 607, Citroën C5, Citroën C6, Citroën C-Crosser, Land Rover Freelander, Mitsubishi Outlander, Range Rover Evoque
TDCi "Puma" 3.2 L (3,198 cc) 2006–present I5 turbo intercooled Ford Transit, Ford Ranger (T6), Ford Everest, Vivarail D-train, Troller T4.
DT17/DT20 AJ ("Lion") 2.7 L (2,720 cc)
3.0 L (2,993 cc)
2004–present V6 turbo intercooled DI Jaguar S-Type, Jaguar XF, Jaguar XJ, Land Rover Discovery, Peugeot/Citroën, Ford Territory, Ford Ranger
? AJ 3.6 L (3,630 cc)
4.4 L (4,367 cc)
2006–present V8 turbo intercooled DI Range Rover


Main article: Ford DLD engine

The inline-four engines are sold under the Duratorq TDCi name by Ford, and as the HDi by Citroën and Peugeot. These are part of the DLD family. Mazda also uses the DLD engine in the Mazda2 and the Mazda3, calling it the MZ-CD or CiTD. The Ford/PSA joint-venture for the production of the DLD was announced in September, 1998.[citation needed]

Officially, there are two families of engines in the range:

Ford later added their unrelated 1.8 L DLD-418 engine to the DLD family, though it is properly part of the Ford Endura engine family.

1.4 "Tiger"

The Duratorq DLD-414 (or DV4) is a 1.4 L; 85.4 cu in (1,399 cc) inline-four Turbo–Diesel. Output is 50 kW (68 PS; 67 hp) at 4500 rpm and 160 N⋅m (118 lb⋅ft) at 2000 rpm. This engine was developed in Trémery by Peugeot, as described in the joint-venture agreement with Ford. This engine is built in France, UK and India.

The DV4 is available in two versions:


In 2012, Ford added the 1.5-litre, closely derived from the 1.6-litre engine.[5] Bore was reduced from 75 to 73.5 mm while the stroke remained unchanged 88.3 mm.

1.6 "Tiger"

The DLD-416 (or DV6) is a 1.6 L; 95.2 cu in (1,560 cc) 90 or 110 hp (67 or 82 kW; 91 or 112 PS) version also used by Ford, Mazda, Volvo, Mini, Peugeot and Citroën. This particular engine was designed by Peugeot[6] engineers on behalf of PSA and Ford.

1.8 "Lynx"

The Duratorq DLD-418 is a 1.8 L (1,753 cc) intercooled common rail diesel engine. It is completely unrelated to the 1.4/1.6 units, and is a development of Ford's 1.8 8v Endura-D engine that saw service through the 1980s and 1990s. However, Ford considers it part of the DLD family, as evidenced by the official "DLD" name.

The Endura-D was heavily revised and updated with a variable-vane turbocharger and a Delphi high-pressure common rail injection system and relaunched in 2001 as the 'DuraTorq TDCi', with the original engine being rebadged 'DuraTorq TDDi'.

This engine, possibly known within Ford as "Kent Diesel", is the last evolution of the 997 cc petrol engine introduced in the 105E Anglia in 1959.

ZSD ("Puma")

Name Year Displacement Maximum power Maximum torque
ZSD-420 2000–2001 2.0 L; 121.9 cu in (1,998 cc) (?x?) I4 115 PS (85 kW; 113 hp) 280 N⋅m (207 lb⋅ft)
ZSD-420 (Duratorq TDCi) 2001–2002 2.0 L; 121.9 cu in (1,998 cc) (?x?) I4 130 PS (96 kW; 128 hp) 330 N⋅m (243 lb⋅ft)
ZSD-420 (Duratorq TDDi) 2002- 2.0 L; 121.9 cu in (1,998 cc) (?x?) I4 115 PS (85 kW; 113 hp) 280 N⋅m (207 lb⋅ft)
ZSD-422 (Duratorq TDCi) 2.2 L; 134.1 cu in (2,198 cc) (86 mm × 94.6 mm (3.39 in × 3.72 in)) 155 PS (114 kW; 153 hp) I4 360 N⋅m (266 lb⋅ft)
ZSD-422 (Duratorq TDCi) ? 2.2 L; 134.1 cu in (2,198 cc) (86 mm × 94.6 mm (3.39 in × 3.72 in)) I4 85 PS (63 kW; 84 hp) 250 N⋅m (184 lb⋅ft)
ZSD-422 (Duratorq TDCi) ? 2.2 L; 134.1 cu in (2,198 cc) (86 mm × 94.6 mm (3.39 in × 3.72 in)) I4 115 PS (85 kW; 113 hp) 300 N⋅m (221 lb⋅ft)
ZSD-422 (Duratorq TDCi) ? 2.2 L; 134.1 cu in (2,198 cc) (86 mm × 94.6 mm (3.39 in × 3.72 in)) I4 140 PS (103 kW; 138 hp) 350 N⋅m (258 lb⋅ft)
ZSD-424 (Duratorq TDCi) ? 2.4 L; 146.6 cu in (2,402 cc) (89.9 mm × 94.6 mm (3.54 in × 3.72 in)) I4 100 PS (74 kW; 99 hp) 285 N⋅m (210 lb⋅ft)
ZSD-424 (Duratorq TDCi) ? 2.4 L; 146.6 cu in (2,402 cc) (89.9 mm × 94.6 mm (3.54 in × 3.72 in)) I4 115 PS (85 kW; 113 hp) 310 N⋅m (229 lb⋅ft)
ZSD-424 (Duratorq TDCi) ? 2.4 L; 146.6 cu in (2,402 cc) (89.9 mm × 94.6 mm (3.54 in × 3.72 in)) I4 140 PS (103 kW; 138 hp) 375 N⋅m (277 lb⋅ft)
2.5 (WLC) (Duratorq TDCi) 2006- 2.5 L; 152.5 cu in (2,499 cc) (93 mm × 92 mm (3.66 in × 3.62 in)) I4 143 PS (105 kW; 141 hp)@3500 330 N⋅m (243 lb⋅ft)@1800
3.0 (WEC) (Duratorq TDCi) 2006- 3.0 L; 180.2 cu in (2,953 cc) (96 mm × 102 mm (3.78 in × 4.02 in)) I4 156 PS (115 kW; 154 hp)@3200 380 N⋅m (280 lb⋅ft)@1800
3.2 (Duratorq TDCi) 2006– 3.2 L; 195.2 cu in (3,198 cc) (89.9 mm × 100.7 mm (3.54 in × 3.96 in)) I5 200 PS (147 kW; 197 hp) 470 N⋅m (347 lb⋅ft)
3.2 (Power Stroke) 2014–2019 3.2 L; 195.2 cu in (3,198 cc) (89.9 mm × 100.7 mm (3.54 in × 3.96 in)) I5 188 PS (138 kW; 185 hp) 470 N⋅m (347 lb⋅ft)

Codenamed Puma during development, these Ford 2.0 L, 2.2 L, and 2.4 L engines are called ZSD. They are produced at the company's Dagenham plant in east London.

Note: the 2.5 and 3.0L "W" engines in above table are NOT Puma engines. They are Mazda designed commercial Diesel engines with no commonality to Puma. The "W" engine family is used in the Asia Pacific Ranger and Everest models currently running out.


Ford Mondeo Mk3 2.0 TDCi 130, Ford Duratorq 2.0 L (1,998 cc) engine.

Released in 2000, to coincide with the launch of the Mk3 Ford Mondeo, the Duratorq ZSD-420 was initially available as a 2.0 L (1,998 cc) direct injection turbodiesel. Producing 115 PS (85 kW; 113 hp) and 280 N⋅m (207 lb⋅ft) it was a vast improvement over the 1.8 Endura-D powering the Mk2 Mondeo. It featured a 16-valve cylinder head with twin chain driven camshafts and utilised a variable-geometry turbocharger with overboost function.

In late 2001 the engine was fitted with Delphi common rail fuel injection and called the Duratorq TDCi (Turbo Diesel Commonrail injection), with the original unit being renamed the Duratorq TDDi (Turbo Diesel Direct injection). Although generally identical to the original engine, the addition of the common rail system meant power was increased to 130 PS (96 kW; 128 hp), with torque rising to 330 N⋅m (243 lb⋅ft). In 2002 the Duratorq TDDi was replaced by a detuned version of the Duratorq TDCi. Producing 115 PS (85 kW; 113 hp) and 285 N⋅m (210 lb⋅ft), this unit used a fixed geometry turbocharger in place of the variable geometry unit used in the TDDi and 130 PS (96 kW; 128 hp) TDCi.

With 2005 came another detuned version of the TDCi for the Mondeo. Producing 90 PS (66 kW; 89 hp) and 280 N⋅m (207 lb⋅ft), this engine was substantially cheaper than other versions and was mainly targeted at fleet buyers.



Engine of 2017 Ford Ranger

In 2004, Ford introduced the Duratorq ZSD-422, a 2.2 L (2,198 cc) turbodiesel for top-of-the-range versions of the Mondeo and Jaguar X-Type which produced 155 PS (114 kW; 153 hp). This is unrelated to the PSA DW12 2.2 unit used in Peugeot and Citroën applications.



The 2.4 L; 146.6 cu in (2,402 cc) Duratorq ZSD-424 is a turbocharged and intercooled Diesel. Output is 75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp) to 137 PS (101 kW; 135 hp) and 185 N⋅m (136 lb⋅ft) to 375 N⋅m (277 lb⋅ft).


2.5 (Mazda WLC)

Introduced for the Thailand-built 2007 Ford Ranger (J97U) is a 2.5 L diesel engine. This truck is a clone of the Mazda B-Series and thus the engine is a Mazda engine. It has a bore and a stroke of 93 mm × 92 mm (3.66 in × 3.62 in). The engine has no commonality to Ford's "Puma" engine or VM Motori. It is a development of the IDI Mazda 2.2L normally aspirated, later 2.5L NA and Turbo and later 2.9L NA, with Bosch common-rail direct injection and a variable geometry turbocharger. The WLC engine code is a Mazda engine code, not being changed for use in the Mazda B-Series clone Ford Ranger. It produces 143 PS (105 kW; 141 hp) @ 3500 rpm and 330 N⋅m (243 lb⋅ft) @ 1800 rpm.[7]

3.0 (Mazda WEC)

A 3.0L Mazda W-engine similar to the 2.5 is also used in the 2007 Ranger as the top of the range. Displacement is increased with a wider bore of 96 mm (3.78 in) and longer stroke of 102 mm (4.02 in). It produces 156 PS (115 kW; 154 hp) @ 3200 rpm and 380 N⋅m (280 lb⋅ft) @ 1800 rpm.

The W-engine family remains a Mazda engine and has no commonality to "Puma"


The 3.2 is an inline, 5-cylinder engine used in the Ford Transit, the Ford Ranger (2012–2022), Ford Everest (2015–2022), Mazda BT-50, Troller T4 and the Vivarail D-Train. For the North American-spec Transit, the 3.2L Duratorq is modified to meet American and Canadian emissions standards and is branded as a Power Stroke engine. The 3.2 Power Stroke is rated at 187 PS (138 kW; 184 hp) and 470 N⋅m (347 lb⋅ft), and the DuratorqTDCi, available in Asia and Europe, has a power rating of 200 PS (147 kW; 197 hp) at 3,000 rpm and a torque rating at 470 N⋅m (347 lb⋅ft) between 1,750 and 2,500 rpm.[8]

2005 TDCi (PSA DW Based)

Main article: PSA EW/DW engine

Continuing the Ford/PSA diesel engine joint-venture[citation needed], these straight-four engines are sold under the Duratorq TDCi name by Ford, and as the HDi by Citroën and Peugeot. A development of the existing DW10/DW12 engine[citation needed], the new engines have a traditional belt-driven system, moving away from the chain-driven camshafts of the previous generation (Puma) TDCi engines. Both engines utilise common rail diesel technology and are the result of the fourth phase of the cooperation between PSA and Ford (initiated in 1998)[citation needed].

Both engines utilise all-new, third-generation common rail injection systems. The 2.0 engines utilising a system from Siemens and the 2.2 a system from Bosch. In both systems the injection pressure has been increased to 1,800 bar (26,000 psi). This higher injection pressure, associated with new piezo-electric injectors in which each nozzle is equipped with seven apertures (instead of five previously), allows the number of injections to be multiplied (potentially up to six per cycle) and ensures meticulous uniformity of the diesel injection spray pattern. As a result of this optimised air/diesel mix, combustion is more complete and more uniform, and therefore reduces emissions at source.

2.0 (PSA DW10 Based)

Based on the PSA DW10 engine[citation needed] and with a capacity of 2.0 L (1,997 cc), this engine was developed by Peugeot engineers in France on behalf of both PSA and Ford Motor Company.[citation needed] Production is currently taking place in France and Skövde in Sweden[citation needed]. The engine was released to Ford models in 2005 Ford Focus, and followed in the 2007 Mk IV Mondeo. It features a 16-valve cylinder head with twin belt driven camshafts (exhaust camshaft connected to cambelt with inlet camshaft indirectly linked via a timing chain) and utilises a variable geometry turbocharger with overboost function. An intercooler is always present, as opposed to some applications of its predecessor.

In the 2005 Focus, engine power output is 136 PS (100 kW; 134 hp); and in the 2007 Mondeo it is offered with 130 PS (96 kW; 128 hp) or 140 PS (103 kW; 138 hp), mated to a manual or 6-speed Aisin TF81 automatic gearbox. In early 2010 this 2.0 unit was updated, as well as the existing 138 bhp (103 kW; 140 PS) version, a new 163 PS (120 kW; 161 bhp) with 340 N⋅m (251 lb⋅ft) of torque was added to the range.


Other Applications:

2.2 (PSA DW12 Based)

Based on the PSA DW12 engine[citation needed] and with a capacity of 2.2 L (2,179 cc), this engine was released in April 2008 by Ford in the Mk IV Mondeo, soon following in the Ford S-Max and Ford Galaxy. It has been engineered by Ford in England, as described in the fourth phase of the joint-venture agreement with PSA. Production takes place in PSA's Tremery plant. It features a 16-valve cylinder head with twin belt driven camshafts and utilises a variable geometry turbocharger with overboost function, rather than the twin turbo approach of Peugeot and Citroën. The result is 175 PS (129 kW; 173 hp) with 400 N⋅m (295 lb⋅ft) of torque, although 420 N⋅m (310 lb⋅ft) is temporarily available thanks to the transient overboost function. Land Rover used this engine in the Freelander 2 and Range Rover Evoque.

In 2010 Ford and PSA revised the engine with a new turbocharger and a new power output of 200 PS (147 kW; 197 hp) with a torque of 420 N⋅m (310 lb⋅ft) and 450 N⋅m (332 lb⋅ft) at overboost conditions while the emissions are at Euro 5 level.


Other applications:



Main article: Ford AJD-V6/PSA DT17

The 2.7 L (2,720 cc) V6 is built by Ford and Jaguar Cars at their Dagenham facility, and was designed by Ford engineers at their Dunton and Whitley product development centres. It is called AJD-V6 by Jaguar and DT17 by PSA Peugeot Citroën.

Ford and PSA extended their Diesel engine joint-venture in October, 1999, to include this V6 engine.




Main articles: Ford AJD-V6/PSA DT17 § Lion V8, and Ford 4.4 Turbo Diesel

The 3.6 L V8 is built at Ford's engine plant in Dagenham, Essex. It is a twin-turbocharged Diesel V8 producing 270 PS (199 kW; 266 hp) and 640 N⋅m (472 lb⋅ft). Production began in April 2006. It is closely related to the 2.7L V6 version (same bore & stroke) and was designed at Ford Otosan's R&D Center in Gebze, Turkey and Ford's Dagenham Diesel Centre product development site, with input from Land Rover powertrain team. A 4.4 litre variant that produces 250 kW (340 PS; 335 hp) and 700 N⋅m (516 lb⋅ft) is built at Ford's Chihuahua Engine plant in Mexico.

Applications (4.4 L variant):

See also


  1. ^[permanent dead link]
  2. ^ "news: PSA Peugeot Citroën and Ford unveil new diesel engines". 2003-02-20. Retrieved 2011-11-05.
  3. ^ "news: THE PANTHER PROGRAM". 2015-03-04. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2015-03-04.
  4. ^ "All-New Ford EcoBlue Engine is Diesel Game Changer – Cleaner, More Fuel Efficient, More Power, More Torque | Ford of Europe | Ford Media Center". Retrieved 2017-02-02.
  5. ^ The new Ford B-MAX Archived 2012-03-08 at the Wayback Machine at
  6. ^ "Cooperating on diesel engines since 1998". 2010-08-04. Archived from the original on 2012-02-20. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
  7. ^ ALL NEW FORD RANGER MAKES WORLD DEBUT IN THAILAND Archived 2011-07-09 at the Wayback Machine Ford press release, March 7, 2006
  8. ^ "2015 Ford Transit-Features". Ford Motor Company. Archived from the original on 18 June 2015. Retrieved 18 June 2015.