Since its return to democracy in 1990, Chile has been an active participant in the regional and international arena.[1] Chile assumed a two-year non-permanent position on the UN Security Council in January 2003 and was re-elected to the council in October 2013.[2] It is also an active member of the UN family of agencies, serving as a member of the Commission on Human Rights and participating in UN peacekeeping activities. Chile hosted the second Summit of the Americas in 1998, was the chair of the Rio Group in 2001, hosted the Defense Ministerial of the Americas in 2002, and the APEC summit and related meetings in 2004. In 2005 it hosted the Community of Democracies ministerial conference. It is an associate member of Mercosur and a full member of APEC. The OECD agreed to invite Chile to be among four countries to open discussions in becoming an official member.[3]

Diplomatic relations

List of countries which Chile maintains diplomatic relations with:[4][5]

# Country Date
1  United States 6 July 1822
2  Colombia 28 August 1822
3  Peru 8 October 1822[6]
4  United Kingdom 14 September 1823[7]
5  Argentina 30 January 1827[8]
6  Mexico 7 March 1831[9]
7  Ecuador 26 April 1835[10]
8  Brazil 22 April 1836[11]
9  Guatemala 8 August 1840[12]
10  Paraguay 22 July 1843[13]
11  France 15 September 1846[14]
12  Venezuela 14 April 1853[15]
13  Italy 28 June 1856[16]
14  Nicaragua March 1857[17]
15  Costa Rica 1858[18]
16  Belgium 31 August 1858[19]
17  El Salvador 10 April 1860[20]
18  Germany 24 September 1863[21]
19  Honduras 29 March 1866[18]
20  Uruguay 9 July 1869[22]
21  Netherlands 9 January 1872[23]
22  Bolivia 20 April 1873[24]
 Holy See 15 December 1877[25]
23  Portugal 28 February 1879[26]
24  Spain 12 June 1883[27]
25  Sweden 14 June 1895[28]
58  Japan 25 September 1897
26   Switzerland 31 October 1897[29]
27  Denmark 4 February 1899[30]
28  Cuba 19 October 1903[31]
29  Iran 16 January 1908[32]
30  Panama 1 March 1908[33]
31  Norway 9 June 1919[34]
32  Poland 7 December 1920[35]
33  Czech Republic 19 July 1924[36]
34  Romania 5 February 1925[37]
35  Turkey 30 January 1926[38]
36  Egypt 5 July 1929[39]
37  Hungary 1930[40]
38  Finland 20 February 1931[41]
39  Bulgaria 1935[42]
40  Dominican Republic 1938[43]
41  Greece 1 July 1941[44]
42  Canada 28 August 1941
43  Haiti 7 June 1943[45]
44  Lebanon 28 June 1945[46]
45  Liberia 19 July 1945
46  Saudi Arabia 6 September 1945[46][47]
47  Ethiopia 16 October 1945
48  Syria 22 October 1945[48][49]
49  Australia 27 December 1945
50  Iraq 31 December 1945[48]
51  Austria 1947[50]
52  New Zealand 1948
53  South Africa May 1948[51]
54  Pakistan 5 February 1949[52]
55  India March 1949[53]
56  Israel 16 May 1950[54]
57  Serbia 2 November 1950[55]
59  Jordan 1954[56]
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta 1956[57]
60  Kuwait 13 September 1961[58]
61  Nigeria 5 October 1961
62  Ghana 6 October 1961
63  Morocco 6 October 1961[59]
64  Tunisia 6 October 1961[59]
65  South Korea 18 April 1962
66  Cyprus 26 June 1962[60]
67  Philippines 17 July 1962
68  Afghanistan 11 September 1962[61]
69  Thailand 9 October 1962
70  Sri Lanka 1962[62]
71    Nepal 1962[63]
72  Algeria 4 June 1963[64]
73  Senegal 4 June 1963[65]
74  Luxembourg 10 August 1963[66]
75  Guinea 26 August 1963
76  Mali 5 September 1963
77  Iceland 6 November 1963[67]
78  Jamaica 18 December 1963[68]
79  Trinidad and Tobago 3 February 1964[68]
80  Uganda 10 March 1964
81  Sudan 13 March 1964
82  Cameroon 11 August 1964
83  Zambia 29 July 1965
84  Indonesia 29 September 1965
85  Mauritania 10 December 1965
86  Barbados 3 October 1967[68]
87  China 15 December 1970
88  Vietnam 25 March 1971[69]
89  Libya 20 May 1971
90  Tanzania 12 June 1971
91  Guyana 22 July 1971[68]
92  Albania 10 September 1971[70]
93  Equatorial Guinea 8 November 1971[70]
94  Madagascar 23 December 1971
95  Democratic Republic of the Congo 31 March 1972
96  Republic of the Congo 1 June 1972
97  Fiji 11 October 1972
98  Guinea-Bissau 23 August 1974[71]
99  Grenada 20 May 1975[72][73]
100  Kenya September 1975[71]
101  Oman 23 February 1976[74]
102  Cambodia 1 June 1976[75]
103  Papua New Guinea 19 August 1976
104  Suriname 7 May 1977[76]
105  United Arab Emirates 23 June 1978[77]
106  Samoa 24 August 1978
107  Eswatini 25 September 1978
108  Gabon 29 September 1978[78]
109  Malaysia 26 February 1979
110  Ivory Coast 8 March 1979
111  Singapore 26 July 1979
112  Tonga 1 October 1979
113  Tuvalu 30 July 1980
114  Kiribati 20 January 1981
115  Nauru 6 February 1981
116  Myanmar 22 April 1982[79]
117  Qatar 9 June 1982[80]
118  Brunei 1 January 1983[81]
119  Bahrain 6 February 1983[82]
120  Bangladesh June 1983[81]
121  Maldives 1 March 1987[83]
122  Mauritius 30 September 1988
123  São Tomé and Príncipe 5 May 1989
124  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 7 September 1989[84]
125  Malta 11 December 1989[85]
126  Saint Kitts and Nevis 1989[68]
127  Marshall Islands 25 January 1990
128  Federated States of Micronesia 31 March 1990
129  Belize 15 May 1990[84]
130  Mongolia 22 June 1990[84]
131  Mozambique 25 July 1990
132  Angola 8 August 1990
133  Antigua and Barbuda 10 August 1990[86]
134  Vanuatu 10 September 1990
135  Namibia 16 October 1990
136  Malawi 30 November 1990[87]
137  Bahamas 4 December 1990[88]
138  Saint Lucia 21 March 1991[89]
139  Rwanda 20 September 1991[90]
140  Latvia 26 September 1991[84]
141  Estonia 27 September 1991[84]
142  Dominica 4 October 1991[84]
143  Seychelles 30 October 1991[84]
144  Lithuania 5 December 1991[84]
145  Laos 6 December 1991[91]
146  Russia 26 December 1991
147  Belarus January 1992[92]
148  Ukraine 28 January 1992[84]
149  Slovenia 15 April 1992[93]
150  Croatia 15 April 1992[94]
151  Zimbabwe 26 May 1992[95]
152  Ireland 1 June 1992[96]
153  Georgia 8 June 1992[97]
154  North Korea 25 September 1992[84]
155  Burkina Faso 29 September 1992
156  Slovakia 1 January 1993[98]
157  Moldova 12 May 1993[99]
158  Kazakhstan 19 August 1993[100]
159  Armenia 15 December 1993[101]
160  Turkmenistan 27 July 1994[102]
161  Uzbekistan 15 September 1994[103]
162  Azerbaijan 3 November 1994[104]
163  Andorra 15 July 1996[84]
164  Bosnia and Herzegovina 31 October 1996[105]
165  Botswana 13 October 1997
166  Lesotho 25 August 1998
167  Kyrgyzstan 9 August 1999[84]
168  Cape Verde 20 October 1999
169  Palau 24 November 1999[106]
170  East Timor 16 September 2002[84]
171  Liechtenstein 16 April 2004[107]
172  Tajikistan 15 December 2004[108]
173  Montenegro 24 July 2006[109]
174  Monaco 23 January 2008[110]
175  North Macedonia 15 September 2008[111]
176  San Marino 11 July 2009[112]
177  Benin 25 August 2010[113]
178  Djibouti 22 January 2011[114]
 State of Palestine 25 February 2011[115]
179  Togo 30 September 2015[116]
180  Central African Republic 2 March 2016[117]
 Cook Islands 3 August 2016[118]
181  Chad 26 September 2018[119]
 Niue 6 July 2021[120]
182  Solomon Islands 19 September 2023[84]

Bilateral relations

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Kenya September 1975 See Chile–Kenya relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Nairobi.
  • Kenya is accredited to Chile from its embassy in Brasília, Brazil.
 Libya 20 May 1971 See Chile–Libya relations
  • Chile is accredited to Libya from its embassy in Cairo, Egypt.
  • Libya has an embassy in Santiago.

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina 30 January 1827 See Argentina–Chile relations

Chile and Argentina were close allies during the wars of independence against Spain. Argentine General José de San Martín crossed the Andes with Chilean independence hero Bernardo O'Higgins and together they defeated the Spaniards. However, after independence, relations soured. This was primarily due to a border dispute: both nations claimed the totality of the Patagonia region.[121]

Attempts to clear up the dispute were unsuccessful until 1881, when Chile was at war with both Bolivia and Peru. In order to avoid fighting Argentina as well, Chilean President Aníbal Pinto authorized his envoy, Diego Barros Arana to hand over as much territory as was needed to avoid Argentina siding with Bolivia and Peru. Barros succeeded in his mission: Argentina was granted east Patagonia and Chile the Strait of Magellan.[121]

However, border disputes continued. In 1902, war was again avoided when British King Edward VII agreed to mediate between the two nations. He established the current border in the Patagonia region.[121]

The Beagle conflict began to brew in the 1960s, when Argentina began to claim that the Picton, Lennox and Nueva islands in the Beagle Channel were rightfully hers. In 1971 Chile and Argentina signed an agreement formally submitting the Beagle Channel issue to binding Beagle Channel Arbitration. On May 2, 1977 the court ruled that the islands and all adjacent formations belonged to Chile. See the Report and decision of the Court of Arbitration.

On 25 January 1978, the Argentina military junta led by General Jorge Videla declared the award fundamentally null and intensified their claim over the islands. On 22. December 1978, Argentina started[122] the Operation Soberanía over the disputed islands, but the invasion was halted due to:[123]

The newspaper Clarín explained some years later that such caution was based, in part, on military concerns. In order to achieve a victory, certain objectives had to be reached before the seventh day after the attack. Some military leaders considered this not enough time due to the difficulty involved in transportation through the passes over the Andean Mountains.

and in cite 46:

According to Clarín, two consequences were feared. First, those who were dubious feared a possible regionalization of the conflict. Second, as a consequence, the conflict could acquire great power proportions. In the first case decisionmakers speculated that Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Brazil might intervene. Then the great powers could take sides. In this case, the resolution of the conflict would depend not on the combatants, but on the countries that supplied the weapons.

In December that year, moments before Videla signed a declaration of war against Chile, Pope John Paul II agreed to mediate between the two nations. The Pope's envoy, Antonio Samorè, successfully averted war and proposed a new definitive boundary in which the three disputed islands would remain Chilean. Chile immediately accepted this decision, but Argentina still disliked and avoided acceptance until after the lost Falklands War in 1982. Both agreed to Samoré's proposal and signed the Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1984 between Chile and Argentina, ending that dispute.[124]

In the 1990s, under presidents Frei and Menem both countries solved almost all of the remaining border disputes during bilateral talks. They also agreed to submit Laguna del Desierto to international arbitration in 1994. Almost the entire disputed area was awarded to Argentina.[125]

The last border dispute are 50 km (31 mi). in the Southern Patagonian Ice Field from Mount Fitz Roy to Mount Daudet that is still officially undefined.[126][127] In August 2006, however, a tourist map was published in Argentina placing the disputed region within the borders of that country. Chile filed an official complaint, sparking renewed efforts to settle the dispute which the Argentine government supports and urged Chile to finish quick as possible the demarcation of the international border.[128]

Since democratization in the 1980s, both countries began a close economic and political integration as Chile became an associated member of Mercosur. Also both countries practice defense cooperation and friendship policy.[citation needed]

  • Argentina has an embassy in Santiago and several consulates throughout the country.
  • Chile has an embassy in Buenos Aires and several consulates throughout the country.
 Barbados 3 October 1967

Barbados is accredited in Chile through its embassy in Caracas, (Venezuela). Chile is accredited to Barbados from its embassy in Port of Spain, (Trinidad and Tobago) and maintains an honorary consulate in Bridgetown. Barbados and Chile formally established diplomatic relations on 3 October 1967.[129] Chile was the first Latin American country with which Barbados formally established formal diplomatic relations.[130] Both countries raised the agenda of rekindling ties in 2005 as a precursor to the attempted Free Trade Area of the Americas trade bloc. At current both blocs have discussed the introduction of a free trade agreement[131][132] and more specifically Chile and CARICOM have specifically noted the possibility of establishing a free trade agreement.[133]

Chilean President Ricardo Lagos visited Barbados on February 20–21, 2005[134] The Barbados Prime Minister later reciprocated by official visit to Chile in November 2005. As part of their meeting the Government of Barbados pledged support to Chilean-diplomat José Miguel Insulza for the post of Secretary General to the Organization of American States (OAS). [citation needed] In May 2009, Prime Minister David Thompson outlined his plan to further Barbadian relations in the Americas. As part of his outline he named Chile as one of three countries which he desired his government would further enhance relations with in South America.[135] In August 2017 President Bachelet visited Barbados and met with her Barbadian counterpart to discuss mutual areas of cooperation.[136][137][138]

  • Barbados is accredited to Chile from its embassy in Brasília, Brazil.
  • Chile is accredited to Barbados from its embassy in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.
 Belize 15 May 1990
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on October 11, 1990.[139]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization of American States.
  • Belize has an honorary consulate in Santiago.
  • Chile is accredited to Belize from its embassy in San Salvador, El Salvador.
 Bolivia 20 April 1873 See Bolivia–Chile relations

Relations with Bolivia have been strained ever since the independence wars because of the Atacama border dispute (Bolivia claims a corridor to the Pacific Ocean). The Spaniards never bothered to definitively establish a border between Chile and Bolivia. Chile claimed its limit with Peru ran through the Loa River and that Bolivia was therefore landlocked, while Bolivia claimed it did have a coast and that the limit with Chile ran along the Salado River. The border remained vague throughout the 19th century. Finally, Bolivia and Chile agreed, in 1866, to allow Bolivia access to the Pacific and that the limit of the two countries would run along the 24th parallel. The area between the 25th and 23rd parallel would remain demilitarized and both nations would be allowed to mine there.[140] It was also agreed that taxes on the exportation of saltpeter would not increase.[citation needed]

However, in 1879, Bolivian dictator General Hilarión Daza increased the taxes on the exportation of saltpeter, violating the 1866 treaty. When Chilean-owned saltpeter companies protested, Daza expropriated their companies and sold them in a public auction. Daza then put an end to all commerce with Chile and exiled all Chilean residents in Bolivia (the Bolivian port of Antofagasta had more Chileans than Bolivians). In response, Chile declared war on Bolivia and occupied Bolivia's coast. Peru had, in 1873, signed a secret pact with Bolivia in which the two countries agreed to fight together against any nation that threatened either of them. When Peru refused to be neutral in the conflict between Chile and Bolivia, Chile declared war on Peru. Chile defeated both countries and annexed the coast claimed by Bolivia. This was ratified in a 1904 treaty.[141]

Diplomatic relations with Bolivia continued to be strained because of Bolivia's continuing aspiration to the sea. In 1964, Bolivian President Víctor Paz Estenssoro severed diplomatic relations with Chile. Generals Augusto Pinochet and Hugo Banzer resumed diplomatic relations and attempted to settle territorial disputes. The secret negotiations started in 1973 and in 1975 diplomatic relations between Chile and Bolivia were established. That year, both dictators met in the Bolivian border town of Charaña. Pinochet agreed to give Bolivia a small strip of land running between the Chilean city of Arica and the Peruvian border. However the Treaty of Lima between Peru and Chile specified that Chile must consult Peru before granting any land to a third party in the area of Tarapacá. Peruvian dictator General Francisco Morales Bermúdez did not agree with the Charaña proposal and instead drafted his own proposal, in which the three nations would share administration of the port of Arica and the sea immediately in front of it. Pinochet refused this agreement, and Banzer broke ties with Chile again in 1978. The failure of the Charaña accords was one of the reasons of Banzer's downfall that very year.[citation needed]

Chile and Bolivia maintain consular relations, and appear to have become friendlier. Former Chilean President Ricardo Lagos attended the inauguration of current Bolivian President Evo Morales. Morales has repeatedly announced his intention to establish diplomatic relations with Chile once more, but has still not given up Bolivia's claim to the sea.[citation needed]

 Brazil 22 April 1836 See Brazil–Chile relations
Michelle Bachelet and Dilma Rousseff, 15 December 2011

Chile and Brazil have acted numerous times as mediators in international conflicts, such as in the 1914 diplomatic impasse between the United States and Mexico, avoiding a possible state of war between those two countries. More recently, since the 2004 Haitian coup d'état, Chile and Brazil have actively participated in the United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti, which is led by the Brazilian Army. They are also two of the three most important economies in South America along with Argentina.[citation needed]

 Canada 28 August 1941 See Canada–Chile relations

Since 1997 Canada and Chile's trade relations have been governed by the Canada-Chile Free Trade Agreement, Chile's first full free trade agreement and Canada's first with a Latin American nation.[142]

 Colombia 28 August 1822 See Chile-Colombia relations

Both nations are members of the Pacific Alliance.

  • Chile has an embassy in Bogotá.
  • Colombia has an embassy in Santiago.
 Cuba 19 October 1903 See Chile–Cuba relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Havana.
  • Cuba has an embassy in Santiago.
 Dominican Republic 1938 See Chile–Dominican Republic relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Santo Domingo.
  • Dominican Republic has an embassy in Santiago.
 Ecuador 1836 See Chile–Ecuador relations

After the War of the Pacific (1879–83) pursued a policy of promoting friendly relationships between countries with disputes with Chile's neighbors. In doing so Chile made attempts to establish friendly relationships between Ecuador and Colombia, both were countries that had serious territorial disputes with Peru in the Amazon. Military cooperation with Ecuador grew considerably after the War of the Pacific with Chile sending instructors to the military academy in Quito and selling superfluous arms and munitions to Ecuador.[143] Despite Chile's over-all good relations with Ecuador both countries had a minor diplomatic crisis resulting from the capture of the Peruvian torpedo boat Alay in Ecuadorian territorial waters during the war.[144]

Chile together with the other ABC Powers and the USA were among the guarantors of the Rio Protocol that followed the Ecuadorian–Peruvian War in 1942.[145]

  • Chile has an embassy in Quito and a consulate-general in Guayaquil.
  • Ecuador has an embassy in Santiago.
 Guyana 22 July 1971
 Haiti 7 June 1943 See Chile–Haiti relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Port-au-Prince.
  • Haiti has an embassy in Santiago.
 Mexico 7 March 1831 See Chile–Mexico relations

The two nations have maintained relations since 1831.[147]

On May 20, 1914, Chile and the other ABC Powers met in Niagara Falls, Canada, to mediate diplomatically to avoid a state of war between the United States and Mexico over the Veracruz Incident and the Tampico Affair. In 1974, Mexico severed diplomatic relations over the overthrow of President Salvador Allende. For the next fifteen years, Mexico would accept thousands of Chilean refugees who were escaping the government of General Augusto Pinochet. Diplomatic relations between the two nations were re-established in 1990. Currently both countries have signed a free trade agreement that went into effect in 1999.[148] Both nations are founding members of the Pacific Alliance and are the only two Latin-American nations to be members of the OECD.

 Paraguay 22 July 1843 See Chile–Paraguay relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Asunción.
  • Paraguay has an embassy in Santiago.
 Peru 8 August 1828 See Chile–Peru relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Lima and a consulate-general in Tacna.
  • Peru has an embassy in Santiago and consulates-general in Arica, Iquique and Valparaíso.
 Trinidad and Tobago 3 February 1964 See Chile–Trinidad and Tobago relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Port of Spain.
  • Trinidad and Tobago is accredited to Chile from its embassy in Brasília, Brazil.
 United States 6 July 1822 See Chile–United States relations
Bachelet with U.S. President Barack Obama, 30 June 2014

Chile-United States relations have been better in the period 1988 to the present than any other time in history. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, The United States government applauded the rebirth of democratic practices in Chile, despite having facilitated the 1973 Chilean coup d'état, the build-up to which included destabilizing the country's economy and politics.

 Uruguay 9 July 1869 See Chile–Uruguay relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Montevideo.
  • Uruguay has an embassy in Santiago.
 Venezuela 14 April 1853 See Chile–Venezuela relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Caracas and a consulate in Puerto Ordaz.
  • Venezuela has an embassy in Santiago.

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Armenia 15 December 1993 See Armenia–Chile relations
  • Armenia is accredited to Chile from its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina and maintains an honorary consulate in Santiago.
  • Chile is accredited to Armenia from its embassy in Moscow, Russia and maintains an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
  • Chile has recognized the Armenian genocide in 2007.
 China 15 December 1970 See Chile–China relations

Chile recognized the Republic of China until 1970, when diplomatic recognition was switched to the People's Republic of China under the left-leaning Allende. After the 1973 coup by the Pinochet-led junta, diplomatic relations were cut between Chile and all Communist nations, with the exception of China and Romania. The strongly anti-Communist military government in Chile maintained friendly ties with the Communist government in China for the remainder of the Cold War, with Pinochet crediting the Chinese for abiding by the principle of non-interference in other nations' internal affairs.[151] China and Chile exchanged military missions and the Soviet Chilean copper exports to China and Chinese loans The friendly relations were cemented by a share distaste for the Soviet Union, the Chinese diplomatic principle of non-interference in other nations' internal affairs, and a willingness to overlook ideological differences in the pursuit of economic ties.[152]

 India March 1949 See Chile-India relations

Chile was the first country in South America to sign a trade agreement with India, in 1956. An ongoing dialogue has nurtured bilateral political understanding. The mechanism of Foreign Office level consultations was initiated in Santiago in August 2000, and was followed up with a second meeting in New Delhi in April, 2003. However, high-level political exchanges have been few and far between. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi visited Chile in 1968, Transport and Communications Minister K.P. Unnikrishnan in 1990, and President Shankar Dayal Sharma in 1995. From the Chilean side, there has not been any HOS/HOG visit to India. As an indication of Chile's interest in an enhanced relationship, the Chilean Ministry of Agriculture visited India in December 2001.[citation needed]

  • Chile has an embassy in New Delhi and a consulate-general in Mumbai.
  • India has an embassy in Santiago.
 Indonesia 29 September 1965 See Chile-Indonesia relations

Bilateral relations between Chile and Indonesia were established in 1964. These relations were strengthened by the establishment of the Indonesian embassy in Santiago in March 1991.

  • Chile has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Santiago.
 Iran 16 January 1908

Iran severed its diplomatic ties with Chile on August 18, 1980, protesting Pinochet regime's repressive internal policies and giving the Chilean Chargé d'affaires in Tehran 15 days to close the embassy and leave the country.[153] Iran and Chile resumed relations on December 2, 1991 with Iran opening its embassy in Santiago, only to close it again in 1999 citing financial problems. The Iranian embassy in Santiago was finally reopened in 2007 at full ambassador level.[154]

  • Chile has an embassy in Tehran.
  • Iran has an embassy in Santiago.
 Israel 16 May 1950 See Chile–Israel relations

Chile recognized Israel's independence in February 1949.[155][156] Both countries established diplomatic relation on 16 May 1950, with Israel sending their first ambassador on that date and Chile sending their first ambassador on 16 June 1952.[155]

  • Chile has an embassy in Tel Aviv.
  • Israel has an embassy in Santiago.
 Japan 25 September 1897 See Chile–Japan relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Tokyo.[157]
  • Japan has an embassy in Santiago.[158]
  • Chile and Japan established diplomatic relations on 25 September 1897. Chile severed diplomatic relations with Japan on 20 January 1943 due to World War II. Chile and Japan re-established diplomatic relations on 7 October 1952.
 Lebanon 28 June 1945 See Chile–Lebanon relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Beirut.
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Santiago.
 Malaysia 26 February 1979 See Chile–Malaysia relations

The Chile–Malaysia relations is mainly based on trade. In 2009, the total trade between Chile and Malaysia is $336 million with the total Malaysian export to Chile were $16.8 million while the import with $148.7 million.[159]

  • Chile has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.
  • Malaysia has an embassy in Santiago.
 Pakistan March 1949 See Chile-Pakistan relations

Chile–Pakistan relations refers to the current and historical relationship between Chile and Pakistan. Formal diplomatic relations between the two states established in 2008.

  • Chile is accredited to Pakistan from its embassy in Abu Dhabi, UAE.
  • Pakistan is accredited to Chile from its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
 Palestine See Chile–Palestine relations
  • Chile has a representative office in Ramallah.
  • Palestine has an embassy in Santiago.
 Philippines 17 July 1962 See Chile–Philippines relations

Chile and the Philippines were both former Spanish colonies. Diplomatic relations between Chile and the Philippines began way back in 1854 when Chile opened a consulate in Binondo, Manila. But the formal relations established on July 4, 1946, the day that the Philippines officially gained their official independence from the United States.During the authoritarian regime of Ferdinand Marcos in 1980, he invited Augusto Pinochet to visit the country, but later he refused Pinochet's plane to land in the country, this was because of a US program to isolate Pinochet's regime, in which the US pressured Marcos to cancel Pinochet's visit.Chilean-Philippines relations were strained until 1986, when Corazon Aquino later ousted Marcos in the People Power Revolution.

  • Chile has an embassy in Manila.
  • Philippines has an embassy in Santiago.
 South Korea 18 April 1962

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Korea and República de Chile began on 18 April 1962.[160]

 Taiwan See Chile–Taiwan relations
  • Chile has a Trade Office in Taipei.
  • Taiwan has a Trade Office in Santiago.
 Turkey 30 January 1926[164] See Chile–Turkey relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Santiago.
  • Both countries are members of OECD and WTO.
  • Chile-Turkey Free Trade Agreement was signed on July 14, 2009 and is in effect since March 1, 2011.[164]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 579 million USD in 2019 (Chilean exports/imports: 236/344 million USD.[164]
  • Chile was the first country in Latin America that recognized Turkey.
 Vietnam 25 March 1971 See Chile–Vietnam relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Santiago.

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Andorra 15 July 1996 See Andorra–Chile relations
  • Andorra does not have an accreditation to Chile.
  • Chile is accredited to Andorra from its embassy in Madrid, Spain and maintains an honorary consulate in Andorra la Vella.
 Austria 1947 See Austria–Chile relations

The first bilateral relations dates back from 1846.

  • Austria has an embassy in Santiago.
  • Chile has an embassy in Vienna.
 Croatia 15 April 1992 See Chile–Croatia relations

The Senate of Chile has awarded Croatian President Stjepan Mesić an order of merit, to honor the improvement of bilateral relations between Croatia and Chile. While representing Chile, senate vice president Baldo Prokurica stated that he found areas for stronger collaboration in future in oil and gas research and shipyards and he expressed an interest in Chilean students' having scholarships in Croatia.[165] There are between 380,000 and 500,000 people of Croatian descent living in Chile. Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Chile

  • Chile has an embassy in Zagreb.
  • Croatia has an embassy in Santiago.
 Denmark 4 February 1899 See Chile–Denmark relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Copenhagen.
  • Denmark has an embassy in Santiago.
 Estonia 27 September 1991 See Chile–Estonia relations
  • Chile re-recognized Estonia in 1991 and diplomatic relations between the two countries were established on September 27, 1991.
  • An agreement on visa-free travel between Estonia and Chile came to force on 2 December 2000.[166][167][168] The two countries also have in force a Memorandum on co-operation between the Ministries of Foreign Affairs.[166] Agreements on cultural, tourism, and IT cooperation are being readied.[166]
  • Chile is among Estonia's most important foreign trade partners in South America.[169]
  • In 2007, trade between Estonia and Chile was valued at 6.3 million EUR. Estonian exports included mainly machinery, mechanical equipment, and mineral fuels; Chile exports included mainly wine, fish, crustaceans and fruit. In 2004, 83% of Chile exports to Estonia, then totaling 2.4 million EUR, consisted of wine.[166] In 2008, Chilean wines held the highest share of Estonia's imported wine market, followed by Spanish wines.[170] Due to its climate being unsuitable for large-scale grape production, most wine sold in Estonia is imported.
  • In 2006, Estonia and Chile issued the joint Antarctic themed stamp series, designed by Ülle Marks and Jüri Kass, bearing images of the Emperor penguin and the minke whale.[171] The works of Chilean writers Isabel Allende, Pablo Neruda and José Donoso have been translated into Estonian.[166]
  • Chile is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Helsinki, Finland.
  • Estonia is accredited to Chile from its embassy in Brasília, Brazil.
 Finland 20 February 1931 See Chile–Finland relations

Chile recognised Finland's independence on June 17, 1919. Diplomatic relations between them were established in 1931 and have been continuously maintained, despite pressures at times to discontinue them.[172] The two countries maintain resident ambassadors in both capitals.[172]

  • Chile has an embassy in Helsinki.
  • Finland has an embassy in Santiago.
 France 15 September 1846 See Chile–France relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Paris.
  • France has an embassy in Santiago.
 Germany 24 September 1863 See Chile–Germany relations
 Greece 1 July 1941 See Chile–Greece relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Athens.
  • Greece has an embassy in Santiago.
 Ireland 1 June 1992 See Chile–Ireland relations
 Italy 28 June 1856

See Chile–Italy relations

  • Chile has an embassy in Rome and a consulate-general in Milan.
  • Italy has an embassy in Santiago.
 Netherlands
  • Chile has an embassy in The Hague and a consulate-general in Amsterdam.
  • the Netherlands has an embassy in Santiago.
 Norway 9 June 1919 See Chile–Norway relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Oslo.
  • Norway has an embassy in Santiago.
 Poland 7 December 1920 See Chile–Poland relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Santiago.
 Portugal 28 February 1879 See Chile–Portugal relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Santiago.
 Romania 5 February 1925 See Chile–Romania relations
  • In 1965 diplomatic relations were renewed. Even though most of the Eastern European countries broke their relations with Chile after 1973. Romania retained diplomatic relations with Chile.
  • Approximately 3,000 Chileans looked for asylum in Romania during Augusto Pinochet's dictatorship.
  • Chile has an embassy in Bucharest.
  • Romania has an embassy in Santiago.
 Russia 26 December 1991 See Chile–Russia relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Moscow.
  • Russia has an embassy in Santiago.
 Serbia 1935
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations 1935. They were renewed in 1946. Diplomatic relations were broken off on two occasions, in 1947 and 1973, and the last renewal was in March 1990.[175]
  • A number of bilateral agreements in various fields have been concluded and are in force between both countries.[176]
  • Chile is accredited to Serbia from its embassy in Athens, Greece.
  • Serbia is accredited to Chile from its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
 Spain 12 June 1883 See Chile–Spain relations
 Sweden 14 June 1895 See Chile–Sweden relations
 United Kingdom 14 September 1823 See Chile–United Kingdom relations

Chile established diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom on 14 September 1823.[7]

  • Chile supported Britain politically, to a degree during the Falklands War. Britain supported the dictator Pinochet, granting him asylum, and even returning him back to Chile after numerous requests for criminal extradition by Spain, Argentina, Peru, and many other countries.
  • Chile has typically been Britain's strongest partner in South America. Britain has played an important role in shaping Chile's politics and government, throughout the ages (especially in its fight for independence)
  • Chile has an embassy in London.
  • United Kingdom has an embassy in Santiago.

Oceania

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 27 December 1945 See Australia–Chile relations

Diplomatic relations date back from the time when Australia was a British colony. During the Australian gold rush, the population grew fast and Chile became one of Australia's major wheat suppliers, with a regular traffic of ships between Sydney and Valparaíso. Australia and Chile signed the Australia-Chile Free Trade Agreement on July 30, 2008. The agreement came into effect in the first quarter of 2009. Australia was one of several international partners with Chile in the Gemini Observatory, with one of the two 8 m telescopes of the observatory located at the summit of Cerro Pachón in Chile. Both countries are members of APEC, OECD and the Cairns Group.

  • Australia has an embassy in Santiago.
  • Chile has an embassy in Canberra and consulates-general in Melbourne and Sydney.
 New Zealand 1948 See Chile–New Zealand relations

See also

References

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Further reading