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Under the Basic Law, the Hong Kong is exclusively in charge of its internal affairs and external relations, whilst the PRC is responsible for its foreign affairs and defence.[1] As a separate customs territory, Hong Kong maintains and develops relations with foreign states and regions, and plays an active role in such international organisations as World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) in its own right under the name of Hong Kong, China.[2] Hong Kong participates in 16 projects of United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.[3]

Office of the Commissioner of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the PRC in the Hong kong SAR
Office of the Commissioner of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the PRC in the Hong kong SAR

Overview

Hong Kong makes strenuous law enforcement efforts, but faces serious challenges in controlling transit of heroin and methamphetamine to regional and world markets; modern banking systems that provide a conduit for money laundering; rising indigenous use of synthetic drugs, especially among young people.

Hong Kong has its own immigration policy and administration. Permanent residents of Hong Kong with PRC nationality hold a different type of passport, called the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Passport, which is different from that for PRC citizens in Mainland China.[4] Hong Kong permanent residents and mainland Chinese need a passport-like document (the "Home Return Permit" for Hong Kong permanent residents and the Two-way Permit for Mainland Chinese) to cross the Sino-Hong Kong border. Visitors from other countries and regions not participating in waiver programme are required to apply for visas directly to the Hong Kong Immigration Department.

According to the official data provided by the Hong Kong Immigration Department in January 2020, There are 168 countries and regions that implement visa-free policies for residents holding Hong Kong passports.

Hong Kong Office

Economic and Trade Office in London
Economic and Trade Office in London
Economic and Trade Office in San Francisco
Economic and Trade Office in San Francisco
Hong Kong Economic and Trade Office in the Dupont Circle neighbourhood of Washington, D.C.
Hong Kong Economic and Trade Office in the Dupont Circle neighbourhood of Washington, D.C.
HKETO in San Francisco, United States.
HKETO in San Francisco, United States.
HKETO in Toronto, Canada.
HKETO in Toronto, Canada.
HKETO in Singapore, on the 34th floor of the office building at Suntec City Tower 2.
HKETO in Singapore, on the 34th floor of the office building at Suntec City Tower 2.

Hong Kong was under British rule before 1 July 1997. Prior to the implementation of the Hong Kong Economic and Trade Office Act 1996 enacted by the British Parliament, Hong Kong represented its interests abroad through the Hong Kong Economic and Trade Offices (HKETOs) and via a special office in the British Embassies or High Commissions, but the latter ceased after the sovereignty of Hong Kong was transferred to the PRC and became a special administrative region (SAR) of the PRC in 1997.[5] At present, the Hong Kong Economic and Trade Offices under the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region in countries that are the major trading partners of Hong Kong, including Japan, Canada, Australia, Singapore, Indonesia, the United Kingdom, Germany, the United States, the European Union as well as an ETO in Geneva to represent HKSAR Government in the WTO. These offices serve as the official representative of the Government of the Hong Kong SAR in these countries and international organisations. Its major functions include facilitating trade negotiations and handling trade related matters, inter-government relations with foreign governments; the promoting of investment in Hong Kong; and liaising with the media and business community. The Hong Kong Government has also set up the Hong Kong Tourism Board with offices in other countries and regions to promote tourism.[6]

The Hong Kong SAR Government also has an office in Beijing, and three HKETOs at Guangzhou (Guangdong ETO), Shanghai and Chengdu. An HKETO will be set up at Wuhan in the future. The Central People's Government of the PRC also maintains a liaison office in Hong Kong. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs has a representative office in Hong Kong.

Office certified by the local government .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  Countries hosting one or more offices ██  Bangkok office and covered countries ██  Berlin office and covered countries ██  Brussels office and covered countries ██  Jakarta office and covered countries ██  London office and covered countries ██  Singapore office and covered countries ██  Sydney office and covered countries
Office certified by the local government
  Countries hosting one or more offices
Bangkok office and covered countries
Berlin office and covered countries
Brussels office and covered countries
Jakarta office and covered countries
London office and covered countries
Singapore office and covered countries
Sydney office and covered countries
country / region location/Official website Jurisdiction/address
 Australia Sydney  Australia New Zealand
 Belgium European Union Brussels  Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus France Greece Italy Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Portugal Romania
 United Kingdom London  Denmark Estonia Finland Latvia Lithuania Norway Russia Sweden United Kingdom
 Spain Barcelona [Carrer de Tuset, 5,6th Floor – 08006 Barcelona,Spain]
 Russia Moscow [Aviareps AG 7th Floor, Business Centre “Diamond Hall”14 Olympiysky prospect Moscow, 129090 Russia]
 France Paris [32 rue de Caumartin - 5eme etage 75009 Paris France]
 Czech Republic Praha [Na Kocínce 3160 00 Praha 6 Czech Republic]
 Italy Milan [Via Orefici, 2, 20123 Milan,Italy]
 Hungary Budapest
 Sweden Stockholm [Upplandsgatan 14,111 23 Stockholm Sweden]
 Poland Warsaw [Al. Solidarnosci 113 lok. 2800-140 Warsaw, Poland]
 Brazil Sao paulo [Rua Cel. Xavier de Toledo,316 - Cj 10A - lo.andarCEP 01048-000 Sao Paulo-SPBrazil]
 Chile Santiago [Fidel Oteiza 1916 Of 701Providencia, Santiago Chile]
 Germany Berlin  Germany Austria Czech Republic Hungary Poland Slovenia Slovakia  Switzerland
 Malaysia Kuala Lumpur [AVIAREPS Malaysia Suite 2701, Level 27 Wisma Chuang,34, Jalan Sultan Ismail, 50250,Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia]
 Japan Tokyo  Japan South Korea
 South Korea Seoul [Suite 1105, President Hotel 16 Eulchiro Jung-gu, Seoul South Korea]
 Philippines Makati [Supersonic Services Inc Ground Floor, Colonnade Residences Condominium 132 C. Palanca Jr St.Legaspi Village, Makati, 1220 Philippines]
 Singapore Singapore  Singapore Thailand Laos Cambodia Myanmar Vietnam
 Indonesia ASEAN

Jakarta  Philippines Indonesia Malaysia Brunei
 Thailand Bangkok(Webpage building)  Bangladesh,  Cambodia,  Myanmar,  Thailand.
  Switzerland Geneva Archived 25 October 2019 at the Wayback Machine World Trade Organization
 United States New York  Alabama Mississippi Arkansas Missouri Connecticut New Hampshire Delaware New Jersey Florida New York Georgia (U.S. state) North Carolina Illinois Ohio Indiana Pennsylvania Iowa Rhode Island Kentucky South Carolina Louisiana Tennessee Maine Vermont Maryland Virginia Massachusetts West Virginia Michigan Wisconsin Minnesota
San Francisco  Alaska New Mexico Arizona North Dakota California Oklahoma Colorado Oregon Hawaii South Dakota Idaho Texas Kansas Utah Montana Washington Nebraska Wyoming Nevada
United States

Washington

 United States
 Canada Toronto  Canada
Vancouver  Canada
 India New Delhi [Mileage Communications (India) Pvt. Ltd. 261 (First Floor) Lane 5 Westend Marg, Said-Ul-Ajaib New Delhi 110030 INDIA]
 United Arab Emirates Dubai [Gulf Reps Ltd PO Box 75142 Mezzanine Floor,The Travel Center,Shk. Zayed Road, Dubai UAE]
 Vietnam Ho Chi Minh [Suite 701-702, Saigon Tower Office Building29 Le Duan Street, Dist. 1Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam]
 Mainland China Beijing[2] 北京市天津市河北省遼寧省吉林省黑龍江省內蒙古自治區新疆維吾爾自治區甘肅省寧夏回族自治區
Shenyang[3]
Guangzhou 福建省廣東省廣西壯族自治區海南省雲南省
Fuzhou[4]
Shenzhen[5]
Shanghai 上海市江蘇省浙江省安徽省山東省
Jinan[6]
Chengdu 四川省重慶市貴州省陝西省青海省西藏自治區
Chongqing[7]
Wuhan 湖北省湖南省山西省江西省河南省
Changsha[8]
Zhengzhou[9]
 Taiwan Taipei[10]  Taiwan
 Kenya Nairobi 3rd Floor, Sanlam House,Kenyatta Avenue,Nairobi,Kenya
 South Africa Johannesburg Wanderers Office Park,52 Corlett Drive Illovo 2196 Johannesburg South Africa

Hong Kong has full autonomy in the conduct of its external commercial relations.The HKETOs concentrate most of their work on promoting Hong Kong's economic and trade interests. The major function of HKETOs include:

In countries or territories where no HKETO is present, diplomatic missions of China have the duty to represent Hong Kong's interests. Visa applications at these missions are, nevertheless, sent to and processed by the Immigration Department of Hong Kong.

At present, the Hong Kong Economic and Trade Offices overseas have been granted certain privileges and immunities by the relevant local governments to facilitate the performance of their duties without interference. In a nutshell, the privileges and immunities that an office can enjoy mainly include the inviolability of premises, official documents, official archives and documents, and tax exemption for premises and representatives.

International agreements

In accordance with Article 151 of the Basic Law, Hong Kong concluded over 20 agreements with foreign states in 2010 on matters such as economic and financial co-operation, maritime technical co-operation, postal co-operation and co-operation on wine-related businesses. Under the Basic Law, the Hong Kong also concluded 12 bilateral agreements with foreign states on air services, investment promotion and protection, mutual legal assistance and visa abolition during the year.

Free trade agreement

Officially signed

Negotiating

From the Chief Executive's Policy Address in October 2018.

International organisations

Flag of Hong Kong, China in the Olympic Games
Flag of Hong Kong, China in the Olympic Games

Note

Chief Executive of Hong Kong Donald Tsang in the APEC

Overseas visits made by senior officials

Tung Chee Hwa shaking hands with Paul Martin, the Prime Minister of Canada at the Government House
Tung Chee Hwa shaking hands with Paul Martin, the Prime Minister of Canada at the Government House

The Chief Executive of Hong Kong & other senior officials often make a duty visit to foreign countries. These visits usually aim to advance Hong Kong's economic and trade relations with the foreign countries. During these visits, the Chief Executive will meet with political and business leaders. Usually, the head of state or head of government of the foreign countries will receive the Chief Executive. For example, former Chief Executive Tung Chee-hwa made three visits to the United States during his term. In these three visits, Tung Chee-hwa met with the U.S. President in the Oval Office at the White House. Chief Executive Donald Tsang had visited Japan, South Korea, Russia, United Kingdom, United States, Australia, New Zealand, Chile, Brazil, India, France and other countries during his term of government.

Hong Kong Airlines A350-900

For example, the then Chief Executive Donald Tsang visited London and Edinburgh in 2011 as part of his European tour to renew ties with the UK and promote Hong Kong as a gateway to Asia. He met Prime Minister David Cameron and Foreign Secretary William Hague, and the Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne.[8] In mid-2011, Donald Tsang visited Australia in June to strengthen ties between Hong Kong and Australia, promote trade opportunities, and encourage more Australian companies, particularly resources companies, to list in Hong Kong. During his visit, Mr Tsang held meetings with the Prime Minister, Julia Gillard, and the Minister for Foreign Affairs, Kevin Rudd, as well as the leader of the Opposition, Tony Abbott, and the Shadow Minister for Foreign Affairs, Julie Bishop.

Many foreign dignitaries visit Hong Kong each year.[9] The number of such visits has grown since 1997 as many of them have included Hong Kong as a destination on their trips to China, while others have visited Hong Kong specifically to see "one country, two systems" in operation. The level of VIP visits is also boosted by major international conferences held in Hong Kong in recent years. In 2009–2012, there were 11 official visits to Hong Kong, including the visits of the Prime Minister of Canada, Secretary of State of the United States of America, President of the Russian Federation, President of the Republic of Indonesia, President of the Republic of Korea and other foreign dignitaries.

Foreign officials visit Hong Kong

Protocol Division Government Secretariat

The Protocol Division Government Secretariat is responsible for liaising with the large consulate groups of various countries stationed in the Hong Kong and providing host government services to these consular groups.The Protocol Division Government Secretariat also represents Hong Kong government to receive national leaders and international organizations visiting Hong Kong, and plan and coordinate official visits to Hong Kong by members of the foreign royal family and senior government leaders.

Foreign officials

As of November 2005, the Hong Kong Government has received more than 60 foreign heads of state, government and senior ministers for official visits to Hong Kong. Leaders who have visited Hong Kong include Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, Russian President, President of Panama, Prime Minister of New Zealand, Prime Minister of Pakistan, Prime Minister of the Netherlands Dmitry Medvedev, and British Prime Minister Tony Blair,etc

Pictures of foreign officials visiting Hong Kong: https://www.protocol.gov.hk/sc/vip_ovp.html

Overseas representation in Hong Kong

See also: Consular missions in Hong Kong

The British Consulate General in Hong Kong
The British Consulate General in Hong Kong
U.S. Consulate General in Hong Kong
U.S. Consulate General in Hong Kong

When Hong Kong was under British rule, most Commonwealth member states, unlike other countries, were represented in Hong Kong by Commissions. However, following the 1997 handover, they were all renamed Consulates-General. Owing to Hong Kong's economic importance, and the large number of British passport holders, the British Consulate-General is the largest of its kind in the world and bigger than many British Embassies and High Commissions abroad.[10]

Most countries maintain Consulates-General or Consulates in Hong Kong. However, despite their name, many Consulates-General are not subordinate to their country's embassy to the PRC in Beijing. For example, the British Consulate-General is directly subordinate to the Foreign and Commonwealth Office of the UK rather than the British embassy in the Chinese capital.[11] The Consul-General of the United States, likewise, holds ambassadorial rank, and reports to the Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian Affairs in the US Department of State.[12] By contrast, the US Consuls-General posted to Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, and Shenyang report to the Deputy Chief of Mission of the US Embassy in Beijing who is directly subordinate to the US ambassador.

Bhutan has not established diplomatic relations with China.

Consulate General

Honorary Consulate

Multilateral organisations in Hong Kong

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Article 151, Hong Kong Basic Law
  2. ^ Article 152, Hong Kong Basic Law
  3. ^ "Search - United Nations Partnerships for SDGs platform". sustainabledevelopment.un.org.
  4. ^ Article 154, Hong Kong Basic Law
  5. ^ Hong Kong Economic and Trade Office Act 1996
  6. ^ Article 156, Hong Kong Basic Law
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ "news.gov.hk - Photo Gallery - People". www.news.gov.hk.
  9. ^ "Protocol Division Government Secretariat - VIP Visits". www.protocol.gov.hk. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
  10. ^ "British Consulate General Hong Kong - GOV.UK". www.gov.uk.
  11. ^ Commons, The Committee Office, House of. "House of Commons - The UK's relations with Hong Kong: 30 years after the Joint Declaration - Foreign Affairs". publications.parliament.uk.
  12. ^ Christopher J. Marut Appointed as Director of the Taipei Office of the American Institute in Taiwan[permanent dead link], American Institute in Taiwan, May 8, 2012

Sources