Results of 2017 BBC World Service poll[1]
Views of Japan's influence by country
(sorted by pos − neg)
Country polled Positive Negative Neutral Pos − Neg
 China
22%
75%
3 -53
 Spain
39%
36%
25 3
 Turkey
50%
32%
18 18
 Pakistan
38%
20%
42 18
 India
45%
17%
38 28
 Russia
45%
16%
39 29
 Peru
56%
25%
19 31
 Nigeria
57%
24%
19 33
 United Kingdom
65%
30%
5 35
 Mexico
59%
23%
18 36
 Kenya
58%
22%
20 36
 Germany
50%
13%
37 37
 Indonesia
57%
17%
26 40
 United States
65%
23%
12 42
 France
74%
21%
5 53
 Brazil
70%
15%
15 55
 Australia
78%
17%
5 61
 Canada
77%
12%
11 65

The foreign relations of Japan (日本の国際関係, Nihon no kokusai kankei) are handled by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan.

Japan maintains diplomatic relations with every United Nations member state except for North Korea, in addition to UN observer states Holy See, as well as Kosovo, Cook Islands and Niue.

Japanese foreign relations had earliest beginnings in the 14th century and after their opening to the world in 1854 with the Convention of Kanagawa. Japan rapidly modernized and built a strong military. It was imperialistic seeking control of nearby areas—with major wars against China and Russia. It gained control of parts of China and Manchuria, as well as Korea and islands such as Taiwan and Okinawa. It lost in World War II and was stripped of all of its foreign conquests and possessions. See History of Japanese foreign relations. American general Douglas MacArthur, acting for the Allied powers, supervised occupied Japan 1945–51. Since occupation ended diplomatic policy has been based on close partnership with the United States and seeking trade agreements, In the Cold War, Japan was demilitarized but it allied with the U.S. in the confrontation with the Soviet Union. It played a major support role in the Korean War (1950–1953). In the rapid economic developments in the 1960s and 1970s, Japan was one of the major economic powers in the world.

By the 1990s Japan participated in the Peacekeeping operations by the UN, and sent troops to Cambodia, Mozambique, Golan Heights and the East Timor.[2] After the 9/11 terror attacks in 2001, Japanese naval vessels have been assigned to resupply duties in the Indian Ocean to the present date. The Ground Self-Defense Force also dispatched their troops to Southern Iraq for the restoration of basic infrastructures.

Foreign policy

Main article: Foreign policy of Japan

Beyond its immediate neighbors, Japan has pursued a more active foreign policy in recent years, recognizing the responsibility which accompanies its economic strength.[3] Japanese Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda stressed a changing direction in a policy speech to the National Diet: "Japan aspires to become a hub of human resource development as well as for research and intellectual contribution to further promote cooperation in the field of peace-building."[4] This follows the modest success of a Japanese-conceived peace plan which became the foundation for nationwide elections in Cambodia in 1998.[3]

History

Main article: History of Japanese foreign relations

Links

Diplomatic relations

List of countries which Japan maintains diplomatic relations with:

# Country Date[5]
1  Russia 7 February 1855[6]
2  Netherlands 30 January 1856[6]
3  United States 29 July 1858[6]
4  United Kingdom 26 August 1858[6]
5  France 9 October 1858[6]
6  Portugal 3 August 1860[6]
7  Germany 24 January 1861[6]
8   Switzerland 6 February 1864[6]
9  Belgium 1 August 1866[6]
10  Italy 25 August 1866[6]
11  Denmark 1 January 1867[6]
12  Sweden 11 January 1868[6]
13  Spain 12 November 1868[6]
14  Austria 18 October 1869[6]
15  Peru 21 August 1873[7]
16  Serbia 1882[8]
17  Thailand 26 September 1887[9]
18  Mexico 30 November 1888[10]
19  Brazil 5 November 1895[11]
56  Chile 25 September 1897
20  Argentina 3 February 1898[12]
21  Greece 1 June 1899[13]
22  Romania 18 June 1902[14]
23  Panama 7 January 1904[15]
24  Norway 7 November 1905[16]
25  Colombia 25 May 1908[17]
26  Bolivia 13 April 1914[18]
27  Ecuador August 1918
28  Poland 22 March 1919
29  Finland 24 May 1919[19]
30  Paraguay 17 November 1919[20]
31  Czech Republic 12 January 1920[21]
32  Uruguay 24 September 1921[22]
33  Egypt 1922[23]
34  Turkey March 1925
35  Luxembourg November 1927
36  Canada 31 January 1928[24]
37  Iran 4 August 1929[25]
38  Cuba 21 December 1929[26]
39  Ethiopia 18 November 1930[27]
40  Afghanistan 26 July 1931[28]
41  Dominican Republic November 1934[29]
42  El Salvador 15 February 1935[30]
43  Guatemala 20 February 1935[31]
44  Costa Rica February 1935
45  Honduras February 1935
46  Nicaragua February 1935
47  Venezuela 19 August 1938[32]
48  Iraq 10 March 1939[33]
49  Bulgaria 2 October 1939[34]
50  Australia 17 August 1940[35]
 Holy See March 1942[36]
51  India 28 April 1952
52  New Zealand 28 April 1952[37]
53  Pakistan 28 April 1952[38]
54  Sri Lanka April 1952
55  Israel 15 May 1952[39]
57  Syria December 1953[40]
58  Cambodia 4 May 1954[41]
59  Jordan 14 July 1954[42]
60  Lebanon November 1954
61  Myanmar 1 December 1954[43]
62  Laos 5 March 1955[44]
63  Saudi Arabia 7 June 1955[45]
64  Sudan 6 January 1956
65  Haiti April 1956
66  Morocco 19 June 1956[46]
67  Tunisia 26 June 1956[47]
68  Philippines 23 July 1956[48]
69    Nepal 1 September 1956[49]
70  Iceland 8 December 1956[50]
71  Ireland 5 March 1957[51]
72  Ghana 6 March 1957
73  Libya 2 June 1957[52]
74  Malaysia 31 August 1957[53]
75  Indonesia 20 January 1958[54]
76  Guinea 14 November 1958
77  Hungary 29 August 1959[55]
78  Cameroon 1 January 1960[56]
79  Democratic Republic of the Congo 30 June 1960
80  Madagascar 5 July 1960
81  Republic of the Congo 1 August 1960
82  Central African Republic 13 August 1960[56]
83  Gabon 17 August 1960
84  Nigeria 1 October 1960
85  Senegal 4 October 1960
86  Mauritania 29 November 1960[57]
87  Togo 4 April 1961[58]
88  Ivory Coast 15 April 1961[58]
89  Sierra Leone 27 April 1961
90  Benin April 1961[59]
91  Liberia September 1961
92  Chad 6 December 1961[58]
93  Somalia 6 December 1961[58]
94  Kuwait December 1961
95  Tanzania 1961
96  Mali 18 January 1962[60]
97  Niger 18 March 1962[61]
98  Burkina Faso 1 June 1962[62]
99  Cyprus June 1962
100  Burundi 1 July 1962
101  Rwanda 1 July 1962
102  Algeria 28 November 1962[63]
103  Jamaica 16 March 1964[64]
104  Uganda 1 April 1964[65]
105  Trinidad and Tobago 22 May 1964[66]
106  Kenya 1 June 1964[67]
107  Malawi July 1964
108  Zambia October 1964
109  Gambia 18 February 1965
110  Malta 15 July 1965[68]
111  South Korea 18 December 1965[69]
112  Singapore 26 April 1966[70]
113  Botswana September 1966
114  Barbados 29 August 1967[71]
115  Maldives 14 November 1967[72]
116  Equatorial Guinea 12 November 1968
117  Guyana 11 June 1969[73]
118  Mauritius 22 October 1969[74]
119  Tonga July 1970
120  Yemen 22 September 1970
121  Fiji 15 October 1970[75]
122  Eswatini 21 May 1971[76]
123  Lesotho 29 July 1971[77]
124  Mongolia 24 February 1972
125  Bangladesh February 1972
126  Bahrain 2 May 1972[78]
127  United Arab Emirates 4 May 1972[78]
128  Oman 8 May 1972[78]
129  Qatar 9 May 1972[78]
130  China 29 September 1972
131  Nauru December 1972[79]
132  Samoa 27 March 1973[80]
133  Vietnam 21 September 1973[81]
134  Guinea-Bissau 1 August 1974
135  Bahamas 11 March 1975[82]
136  Grenada April 1975
137  Cape Verde 11 July 1975
138  São Tomé and Príncipe 22 July 1975
139  Papua New Guinea 16 September 1975[83]
140  Seychelles 29 June 1976[84]
141  Angola September 1976
142  Suriname 2 November 1976[85]
143  Mozambique January 1977
144  Comoros 14 November 1977
145  Djibouti 24 August 1978[86]
146  Solomon Islands 1 September 1978[87]
147  Dominica 12 November 1978[88]
148  Tuvalu 30 April 1979[89]
149  Saint Lucia 11 January 1980[90]
150  Kiribati 21 March 1980[91]
151  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 15 April 1980[92]
152  Zimbabwe April 1980
153  Vanuatu 8 January 1981[93]
154  Albania March 1981
155  Antigua and Barbuda 4 October 1982[94]
156  Belize 3 November 1982[95]
157  Brunei 2 April 1984[96]
158  Saint Kitts and Nevis 14 January 1985[83]
159  Bhutan 28 March 1986
160  Federated States of Micronesia 5 August 1988[97]
161  Marshall Islands 9 December 1988[98]
162  Namibia 21 March 1990[99]
163  Estonia 10 October 1991
164  Latvia 10 October 1991
165  Lithuania 10 October 1991[100]
166  South Africa 13 January 1992[101]
167  Belarus 26 January 1992
168  Kazakhstan 26 January 1992
169  Kyrgyzstan 26 January 1992
170  Uzbekistan 26 January 1992
171  Ukraine 26 January 1992
172  Tajikistan 2 February 1992
173  Moldova 16 March 1992
174  Turkmenistan 22 April 1922[102]
175  Georgia 3 August 1992
176  Armenia 7 September 1992
177  Azerbaijan 7 September 1992
178  Slovenia 12 October 1992[103]
179  Slovakia 3 February 1993
180  Croatia 5 March 1993
181  Eritrea 31 August 1993[104]
182  North Macedonia 1 March 1994[105]
183  Palau 2 November 1994[106]
184  Andorra 20 October 1995[107]
185  Bosnia and Herzegovina 9 February 1996
186  San Marino 27 May 1996[108]
187  Liechtenstein June 1996[109]
188  East Timor 20 May 2002
189  Montenegro 16 June 2006
190  Monaco 14 December 2006[110]
 Kosovo 25 February 2009
 Cook Islands 16 June 2011[111]
191  South Sudan 9 July 2011[112]
 Niue 4 August 2015[113]

Bilateral relations

Africa

Japan is increasingly active in Africa. In May 2008, the first Hideyo Noguchi Africa Prize will be awarded at Fourth Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD IV),[114] which signals a changing emphasis in bilateral relations.

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Algeria 1962 See Algeria–Japan relations
 Angola September 1976 See Angola–Japan relations

Angola–Japan relations were established in September 1976, shortly after Angola received formal sovereignty. As of 2007, economic relations played "a fundamental role in the bilateral relations between the two governments".[115] News World Centers[116]

 Egypt 1922 See Egypt–Japan relations

Japan considers Egypt to be a key player in the Middle East and, as such, sees Egypt as a vital part of its diplomacy in the region.[117] The two heads of government have been known to support each other on issues pertaining to the peace process in the Middle East.[118]

Additionally, the two countries claim to share a common vision for world peace.[119] The two countries maintain a "Joint Committee" dedicated to exploring developments in areas of mutual interest to the two countries.[120]

 Kenya 1963 See Japan–Kenya relations
  • Japan has an embassy in Nairobi.
  • Kenya has an embassy in Tokyo.
 Libya 1957 See Japan–Libya relations
  • Japan has an embassy in Tripoli.
  • Libya has an embassy in Tokyo.
 Madagascar 5 July 1960 See Foreign relations of Madagascar
  • Japan has an embassy in Antananarivo.
  • Madagascar has an embassy in Tokyo.
 Nigeria 1 October 1960 See Japan-Nigeria relations

Japan and Nigeria engage in strong economic and political cooperation. Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 October 1960.[121]

 Somalia July 1960 See Japan–Somalia relations
 South Africa 1910 See Japan–South Africa relations
  • Japan has an embassy in Pretoria.
  • South Africa has an embassy in Tokyo.
 Tunisia June 1956 See Foreign relations of Tunisia

Japan and Tunisia have a mutual free visa agreement.

Americas

Main article: Japan–Latin America relations

Japan has continued to extend significant support to development and technical assistance projects in Latin America.[124]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Argentina 3 February 1898 See Argentina–Japan relations

Argentina maintains an embassy in Tokyo and Japan maintains an embassy in Buenos Aires. Diplomatic relations were restored by the signing of the San Francisco Peace Treaty in 1952. Argentine president Arturo Frondizi visited Japan in 1960, and subsequently bilateral trade and Japanese investment into Argentina have increased in importance. Japanese imports were primarily foodstuffs and raw materials, while exports were mostly machinery and finished products.

Members of the Imperial Family of Japan have visited Argentina on a number of occasions, including Prince and Princess Takamado in 1991, Emperor and Empress Akihito in 1997 and Prince and Princess Akishino in 1998. Argentine President Raúl Alfonsín visit Japan in 1986, as did President Carlos Menem in 1990, 1993 and 1998.

 Barbados 29 August 1967[125] See Barbados–Japan relations

Japan was accredited to Barbados from its embassy in Port of Spain (Trinidad and Tobago) and an honorary consulate in Bridgetown. Since January 2016, Japan opened a new embassy directly in Bridgetown, Barbados. Barbados is represented towards Japan through a non-resident ambassador in Bridgetown.

 Bolivia 3 April 1914 See Bolivia–Japan relations
 Brazil 1895 See Brazil–Japan relations
 Canada 21 January 1928[125] See Canada–Japan relations

Diplomatic relations between both countries officially began in 1950 with the opening of the Japanese consulate in Ottawa. In 1929, Canada opened its Tokyo legation, the first in Asia;[130] and in that same year, Japan its Ottawa consulate to legation form.[131]

Some Canadian–Japanese contacts predate the mutual establishment of permanent legations. The first known Japanese immigrant to Canada, Manzo Nagano, landed in New Westminster, British Columbia in 1877.[132] Japan's consulate in Vancouver was established in 1889, 40 years before its embassy was opened in Ottawa in 1929.[133]

Canadians G. G. Cochran helped in founding Doshisha University in Kyoto, and Davidson McDonald helped in establishing Aoyama Gakuin University in Tokyo.[131]

In the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, a Canadian steamship, the RMS Empress of Australia and her captain, Samuel Robinson achieved international acclaim for stalwart rescue efforts during the immediate aftermath of that disaster.[134]

Canadian military attaché Herbert Cyril Thacker served in the field with Japanese forces in the Russo-Japanese War (1904–05), for which the Japanese government awarded him the Order of the Sacred Treasure, Third Class[135] and the Japanese War medal for service during that campaign.[136]

Canada and Japan have had diplomatic relations since 1928. Both countries are characterized by their active role in the Asia-Pacific community, as well as a relationship consisting of important economic, political, and socio-cultural ties. As major international donors, both Canada and Japan are strongly committed to promoting human rights, sustainable development and peace initiatives.

Canada–Japan relations are underpinned by their partnership in multilateral institutions: the G-7/8; the United Nations; the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the Quad (Canada, the European Union, Japan and the United States), and by their common interest in the Pacific community, including participation in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC) and the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF).

Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko visited Canada in 2009.[137]

 Chile 25 September 1897 See Chile–Japan relations
  • Chile and Japan established diplomatic relations on 25 September 1897. During World War II, relations between both countries were severed. Chilean President Juan Antonio Ríos suspended relations with Japan on 20 January 1943 and in February 1945, he declared a "state of belligerancy". Finally, on 12 April 1945, Chile declared war against Japan. Relations were re-established on 7 October 1952 after the signing of San Francisco Peace Treaty.
  • Japan has an embassy in Santiago de Chile
  • Chile has an embassy and a consulate-general in Tokyo and three honorary consulates in Osaka, Sapporo and Nagasaki.
 Colombia 25 May 1908 See Colombia–Japan relations

The relationship was officially established in 1908, only interrupted between 1942 and 1954 with the surge of World War II. Relations are mostly based on commercial trade that has favored Japan interests such as Colombian coffee (which Japan imports a lot), cultural exchanges and technological and philanthropic aid to Colombia.[138]

 Cuba 21 December 1929 See Cuba–Japan relations

Cuba and Japan established diplomatic relations on 21 December 1929.

 Ecuador 26 August 1918 See Ecuador–Japan relations
 Mexico 30 November 1888[125] See Japan–Mexico relations

The Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation concluded in 1888 between Japan and Mexico was the nation's first "equal" treaty with any country;[139] which overshadows Tokugawa Ieyasu's pre-Edo period initiatives which sought to establish official relations with the New Spain in Mexico.[140]

In 1897, the 35 members of the so-called Enomoto Colonization Party settle in the Mexican state of Chiapas. This was the first organized emigration from Japan to Latin America.[139]

President Álvaro Obregón was awarded Japan's Order of the Chrysanthemum at a special ceremony in Mexico City. On 27 November 1924, Baron Shigetsuma Furuya, Special Ambassador from Japan to Mexico, conferred the honor on Obregón. It was reported that this had been the first time that the Order had been conferred outside the Imperial family.[141]

In 1952, Mexico becomes the second country to ratify the San Francisco Peace Treaty, preceded only by the United Kingdom.[139]

Mexico and Japan on 17 September 2004, signed the "Agreement Between Japan and The United Mexican States for the Strengthening of The Economic Partnership." This was the among many historic steps led by Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi to strengthen global economic stability.

 Paraguay 17 November 1919 See Japan–Paraguay relations
 Peru 21 August 1873 See Japan–Peru relations
  • Japan has an embassy in Lima.[145]
  • Peru has an embassy in Tokyo and a consulate-general in Nagoya.[146]
 Trinidad and Tobago May 1964 See Japan–Trinidad and Tobago relations
 United States 29 July 1858[125] See Japan–United States relations
U.S. President Joe Biden and Japanese Prime Minister Fumio Kishida in 23 May 2022

The United States is Japan's closest ally, and Japan relies on the U.S. for its national security to a high degree. As two of the world's top three economic powers, both countries also rely on close economic ties for their wealth, despite ongoing and occasionally acrimonious trade frictions.[147][148]

After Japan's defeat in World War II, the Japanese-ruled Northern Mariana Islands came under control of the United States.[149][150]

Although its constitution and government policy preclude an offensive military role for Japan in international affairs, Japanese cooperation with the United States through the 1960 U.S.–Japan Security Treaty has been important to the peace and stability of East Asia.[3] Currently, there are domestic discussions about possible reinterpretation of Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution.[3] All postwar Japanese governments have relied on a close relationship with the United States as the foundation of their foreign policy and have depended on the mutual security treaty for strategic protection.[3]

The relationship probably hit a post-war nadir around the early 1990s, when Japan's "economic rise" was seen as a threat to American power. Japan was the primary financier of the Gulf War, yet received major criticism in some US circles for its refusal to commit actual military support. Following the collapse of the so-called Bubble economy and the 1990s boom in the US, the Japanese economy was perceived as less of a threat to US interests. Some observers still feel that Japan's willingness to deploy troops in support of current US operations in Iraq, as spearheaded by Koizumi and the conservative Liberal Democratic Party, reflects a vow not to be excluded from the group of countries the US considers friends. This decision may reflect a realpolitik understanding of the threat Japan faces from a rapidly modernizing China, which from its continued and indeed growing pattern of anti-Japanese demonstrations reveals the belief that old historical scores remain unsettled.

 Uruguay 24 September 1921 See Japan–Uruguay relations
 Venezuela 19 August 1938 See Japan–Venezuela relations

Formal diplomatic relations between the countries were established in August 1938.[152] Venezuela broke off diplomatic ties with Japan (and the other Axis Powers) in December 1941, shortly after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.[153]

In 1999, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez made a three-day trip to Japan. He made another two-day trip in 2009, during which he met Prime Minister Taro Aso.

In February 2019, Japan recognized Venezuelan opposition leader Juan Guaido as Venezuelan legitimate president.[154]

Asia

Results of 2013 Pew Research Center poll[155]
Asia/Pacific views of Japan by country
(sorted by fav − unfav)
Country polled Positive Negative Neutral Pos − Neg
 China
4%
90%
6 -86
 South Korea
22%
77%
1 -55
 Pakistan
51%
7%
42 44
 Philippines
78%
18%
4 60
 Australia
78%
16%
6 62
 Indonesia
79%
12%
9 67
 Malaysia
80%
6%
14 74

Southeast Asia

Embassy of Indonesia in Japan

By 1990 Japan's interaction with the vast majority of Asia-Pacific countries, especially its burgeoning economic exchanges, was multifaceted and increasingly important to the recipient countries.[156] The developing countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) regarded Japan as critical to their development. Japan's aid to the ASEAN countries totaled US$1.9 billion in Japanese fiscal year (FY) 1988 versus about US$333 million for the United States during U.S. FY 1988.[156] As of the late 1980s, Japan was the number one foreign investor in the ASEAN countries, with cumulative investment as of March 1989 of about US$14.5 billion, more than twice that of the United States.[156][needs update] Japan's share of total foreign investment in ASEAN countries in the same period ranged from 70 to 80 percent in Thailand to 20 percent in Indonesia.[156]

In the late 1980s, the Japanese government was making a concerted effort to enhance its diplomatic stature, especially in Asia.[156] Toshiki Kaifu's much publicized spring 1991 tour of five Southeast Asian nations—Malaysia, Brunei, Thailand, Singapore, and the Philippines—culminated in a 3 May major foreign policy address in Singapore, in which he called for a new partnership with the ASEAN and pledged that Japan would go beyond the purely economic sphere to seek an "appropriate role in the political sphere as a nation of peace."[156] As evidence of this new role, Japan took an active part in promoting negotiations to resolve the Cambodian conflict.[156]

In 1997, the ASEAN member nations and the People's Republic of China, South Korea and Japan agreed to hold yearly talks to further strengthen regional cooperation, the ASEAN Plus Three meetings. In 2005 the ASEAN plus Three countries together with India, Australia and New Zealand held the inaugural East Asia Summit (EAS).

South Asia

In South Asia, Japan's role is mainly that of an aid donor.[156] Japan's aid to seven South Asian countries totaled US$1.1 billion in 1988.[156][needs update] Except for Pakistan, which received heavy inputs of aid from the United States, all other South Asian countries received most of their aid from Japan as of the early 1990s.[156][needs update] Four South Asian nations—India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka—are in the top ten list of Tokyo's aid recipients worldwide as of the early 1990s.[156][needs update] A point to note is that Indian Government has received no aid since the 2004 Tsunami that struck India but Indian registered NGOs look to Japan for much investment in their projects.[157]

Prime Minister Toshiki Kaifu signaled a broadening of Japan's interest in South Asia with his swing through the region in April 1990.[156] In an address to the Indian parliament, Kaifu stressed the role of free markets and democracy in bringing about "a new international order," and he emphasized the need for a settlement of the Kashmir territorial dispute between India and Pakistan and for economic liberalization to attract foreign investment and promote dynamic growth.[156] To India, which was very short of hard currency, Kaifu pledged a new concessional loan of ¥100 billion (about US$650 million) for the coming year.[156]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Afghanistan 19 November 1930[125] See Afghanistan–Japan relations

Afghan–Japanese relations have existed as far back as World War II, and have been mainly positive. The Japanese government in 1974 started feasibility study under grant aid to develop and built television in Afghanistan.

 Azerbaijan 27 January 1992 See Azerbaijan–Japan relations
 Bahrain 15 May 1974 See Bahrain–Japan relations
 Bangladesh February 1972[125] See Bangladesh–Japan relations

Bangladeshi–Japanese relations were established in February 1972.[158] Japan is Bangladesh's 11th-largest export market; imports from Bangladesh make up 26% of all Japanese imports from the least developed countries, second only to those from Cambodia. Common imports from Bangladesh to Japan include leather goods, ready-made garments, and shrimp.[159] By 2004, Japan had become Bangladesh's fourth-largest source of foreign direct investment, behind the United States, United Kingdom, and Malaysia. Japan's political goals in its relationship with Bangladesh include gaining support for their bid to join the United Nations Security Council, and securing markets for their finished goods. Japan is a significant source of development aid to Bangladesh.[160]

 Bhutan 28 March 1986[125] See Bhutan–Japan relations
 Brunei 2 April 1984[125] See Brunei–Japan relations

Brunei has an embassy in Tokyo, and Japan has an embassy in Bandar Seri Begawan.[161] Relations has been established since 2 April 1984.[161]

 Cambodia 1953[125] See Cambodia–Japan relations

Japan has an embassy in Phnom Penh. Trade is sizable between the two countries:

  • Japan to Cambodia: 14.0 billion yen (2006)
  • Cambodia to Japan: 9.5 billion yen (2006)

Japanese investment in Cambodia includes Phnom Penh Commercial Bank, a joint venture of Hyundai Switzerland and Japanese SBI Group, opened in 2008. Japan remains Cambodia's top donor country providing some US$1.2 billion in total overseas development assistance (ODA) during the period since 1992.[162] In 2006, Japanese and Cambodian governments signed an agreement outlining a new Japanese aid program worth US$59 million.[163]

The Japanese Government has provided significant assistance for demining and education.[164][165]

 China 1972[125] See China–Japan relations
Embassy of Japan in Beijing

During the Meiji Era, China was one of the first countries to experience the effects of Japanese Imperialism. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, relations with Japan changed from hostility and an absence of contact to cordiality and extremely close cooperation in many fields. During the 1960s the two countries resumed trade for the first time since World War II under the Liao–Takasaki Agreement. On 29 September 1972, Japan and China signed a treaty establishing diplomatic relations between the states. The 1990s led to an enormous growth in China's economic welfare. Trade between Japan and China was one of the many reasons China was able to grow in the double-digit rates during the 1980s and 1990s. Japan was in the forefront among leading industrialized nations in restoring closer economic and political relations with China. China and Japan's bilateral relationship has often been referred to as "politically cold and economically warm". The two countries have been able to keep their political issues separate in hopes of being able to continue to benefit from each other's economic success and prosperity. Resumption of Japan's multibillion-dollar investments to China and increased visits to China by Japanese officials, culminating in the October 1992 visit of Emperor Akihito, gave a clear indication that Japan considered closer ties with China in its economic and strategic interest. Despite a 1995 apology regarding World War II by Japanese Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama, tensions still remain, mostly because many Chinese feel there is a lack of true remorse for wartime crimes committed by Imperial Japanese forces. This has been reinforced by numerous visits to the Yasukuni Shrine by Japanese Prime Ministers, attempts to revise textbooks by Japanese nationalists, the continued dispute over Japan's atrocities in the Nanking Massacre, and the resurgence of nationalism and militarism in Japan. The resurgence of Japan's nationalism has changed widespread feelings about China among citizens. During the post-war period, many Japanese people acknowledged and appreciated China's influence on their culture and the country's achievements. However, the approval rate of the country began to go down due to a lack of acknowledgement of Japan's past economic contribution to China's development as China grew to be one of the largest economies in east Asia, China's military and economic growth and what that would mean for the possibility of growth in Japan, and the 2004 anti-Japanese nationalism protests in China, Relations between China and Japan have also been strained due to territory politics such as fights over The Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands continue. Because the two are highly engaged economically, the countries try to keep their issues at bay but, as social disapproval increases and disagreements drawn out, it is possible the relationship between the two countries could shift.

 East Timor 20 May 2002[125] See East Timor–Japan relations
 India 28 April 1952[125] See India–Japan relations
Indian, Japanese and US naval warships take part in a military exercise near Bōsō Peninsula in 2007. India is one of the only three nations with whom Japan has a security pact, the other two being the United States and Australia.[166]

Throughout history, bilateral foreign relations between Japan and India have generally been friendly and strong. In December 2006, Prime Minister Singh's visit to Japan culminated in the signing of the "Joint Statement Towards Japan–India Strategic and Global Partnership".

According to Prime Minister Shinzō Abe's arc of freedom theory, it is in Japan's interests to develop closer ties with India, world's most populous democracy, while its relations with China remain chilly. To this end, Japan has funded many infrastructure projects in India, most notably in New Delhi's metro subway system and Maruti.India and Japan have signed a deal to build high speed trains in India[167]

Indian applicants have been welcomed in 2006–07 to the JET Programme, starting with just one slot available in 2006 and 41 in 2007.

India and Japan signed a security cooperation agreement in which both will hold military exercises, police the Indian Ocean and conduct military-to-military exchanges on fighting terrorism, making India one of only three countries, the others being the United States and Australia, with which Japan has such a security pact. Japan is aiding India in building the High Speed Railway by giving India money and there are plans to export Japan's Shinkansen to India. [166] There are 25,000 Indians in Japan as of 2008.

 Indonesia April 1958[125] See Indonesia–Japan relations
 Iran 1878 See Iran–Japan relations

Japan's foreign policy towards and investments in Iran have historically been dominated by the desire to secure reliable energy supplies; Iran is Japan's third-largest oil supplier after Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.[168] Iran and Japan signed a visa-free travel arrangement in 1974, but it was terminated in April 1992 due to large-scale illegal Iranian migration to Japan.[169] Iran and Japan also cooperate on regional foreign policy issues in the Middle East, such as the reconstruction of Afghanistan and the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.[170] Since 2004, Japan has been working on developing Iran's largest on-shore oil field, located at Azadegan.[171]

 Israel 15 May 1952 See Israel–Japan relations

The Japanese government refrained from appointing a Minister Plenipotentiary to Israel until 1955. Relations between the two states were distant at first, but after 1958, as demand no break occurred. This had been at the same time that OPEC had imposed an oil embargo against several countries, including Japan.

Recently ties between Israel and Japan have strengthened significantly, with many mutual investments between the two nations. Japanese prime minister Shinzo Abe visited Israel twice – once in 2015[172] and a second time in 2018.[173]

 Jordan 14 July 1954 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 July 1954.[174]

Japan is one of Jordan's biggest donors.[175]

 Laos 5 March 1955[125] See Japan-Laos relations
 Lebanon November 1954
 Malaysia 31 August 1957[125] See Japan–Malaysia relations

Japan has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, and consulates in George Town and Kota Kinabalu. Malaysia maintains an embassy in Tokyo. The Japanese and Malaysian governments had visited each other on multiple occasions. Notable visits include the King of Malaysia visiting Japan in 2005 while in 2006, the Emperor and Empress of Japan visited Malaysia.

 Maldives 6 November 1967[125] See Japan–Maldives relations
 Mongolia 1972[125] See Mongolia–Japan relations
 Myanmar 1 December 1954[125] See Japan–Myanmar relations
   Nepal 28 July 1956[125] See Japan–Nepal relations
  • Japan has an embassy in Kathmandu.
  • Nepal has an embassy in Tokyo.
 North Korea [125] See Japan–North Korea relations

No formal relations have been established between Japan and North Korea, though Japanese politicians have occasionally visited North Korea. Relations between Japan and North Korea have been historical hostile with incidents of confrontation.[179] Japan strongly supports the U.S. in its efforts to encourage North Korea to abide by the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and its agreements with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).[3] Despite 31 August 1998 North Korean missile test which overflew the Home Islands, Japan has maintained its support for the Korean Energy Development Organization (KEDO) and the Agreed Framework, which seeks to freeze the North Korean nuclear program.[3] The U.S., Japan, and South Korea closely coordinate and consult trilaterally on policy toward North Korea, at least on a government level.[3] Japan has limited economic and commercial ties with North Korea. Japanese normalization talks halted when North Korea refused to discuss a number of issues with Japan.[3]

 Pakistan 28 April 1952[125] See Japan–Pakistan relations
  • There has been a regular exchange of high level visits between the two countries.
  • The 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations, jointly celebrated by the two countries in 2002, was a significant landmark in the history of this friendship.
  • There are at least 10,000 Pakistanis residing in Japan.
 Philippines July 1956[125] See Japan-Philippines relations

Relations between Japan and the Philippines were generally very strong since the end of World War II. It span a period from before the 16th century to the present. The Philippines gained independence from the United States in 1946. Diplomatic relations were re-established in 1956, when a war reparations agreement was concluded. By the end of the 1950s, Japanese companies and individual investors had begun to return to the Philippines and in 1975, Japan displaced the United States as the main source of investment in the Philippines.

 Qatar 1972 See Japan–Qatar relations
 Saudi Arabia June 1955 See Japan–Saudi Arabia relations

Saudi Arabian – Japan relations were established during the past half a century. Saudi–Japanese relations are based on mutual respect and common interests in all areas.

 Singapore 26 April 1966[125] See Japan–Singapore relations
 South Korea December 1965[125] See Japan–South Korea relations

Japan and South Korea have had many disputes. Former South Korean President Roh Moo-hyun rejected a conference with the Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi following his visits to the controversial Yasukuni Shrine. Many Koreans thought the presence of the Minister attending was a clear indication of the lack of respect and accountability Japan has done regarding the historical story of Japanese imperialism. Protests occurred in South Korea with citizens demanding the President to moblize and respond to the Japanese minister's offense and lack of remorse. Other long-running issues between the two countries include The Sea of Japan naming dispute, territorial disputes over the Liancourt Rocks theses disputes are long lasting effects of nationalistic feelings that overtime leaders have been able to use as part of political agenda. For Koreans, feelings of hope are also intermingled with deep rooted hostility towards the Japanese neighbors who once occupied their country and who still claim the islets as theirs. Takeshima is "indisputably an inherent part of the territory of Japan, in light of historical facts and based on international law", says the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs. It adds that the Republic of Korea has been occupying Takeshima with "no basis in international law," and that it will continue to seek the settlement "in a calm and peaceful manner". Additionally, disagreement about whether or not the matter of World War II-era forced prostitution has been resolved, so tensions between both countries have at times escalated situations surrounding elections and economic trade deals which have impacted both positive and negative interactions. While there has been compensation to the women and the families of the sex slave genuine polices to resolve the issue still arises during talks of cooperation especially since some are still living and the fact that many Japanese historical textbooks change the number of women or tend to ignore the very fact why the state is anti-military it was because of the abuses that occurred during the imperial times which makes cooperation between the two difficult. But with recent change in leadership and the objective to build up their trust we have seen talks of positive interactions moving forward.

 Sri Lanka 1952[125] See Japan–Sri Lanka relations
  • Japan has an embassy in Colombo.[180]
  • Sri Lanka has an embassy in Tokyo[181]
 Syria December 1953
 Taiwan 1952[125] See Japan–Taiwan relations

Taiwan was ceded to Japan in 1895 and was a major Japanese prefecture in World War II. Following the unconditional surrender of Japan to Allied Powers after World War II, Taiwan was relinquished by Japan as a stolen territory from China (like Manchukuo) by the San Francisco Peace Treaty in 1951. Current relations are guided by the 1972 Japan–PRC Joint Communique. Since the joint Communique, Japan has maintained non-governmental, working-level relations with Taiwan. Japan refers to the Republic of China on Taiwan with the neutral name "Taiwan."

 Thailand 26 September 1887[125] See Japan–Thailand relations

Japan–Thailand relations span a period from the 17th century to the present. Contacts had an early start with Japanese trade on Red seal ships and the installation of Japanese communities on Siamese soil, only to be broken off with Japan's period of seclusion. Contacts resumed in the 19th century and developed to the point where Japan is today one of Thailand's foremost economic partners. Thailand and Japan share the distinction of never having lost sovereignty during the Colonial period.

 Turkey 1890s See Japan–Turkey relations
 Vietnam 21 September 1973[125] See Japan–Vietnam relations

Vietnamese–Japanese relations stretch back to at least the 16th century, when the two countries engaged in friendly trade. Modern relations between the two countries are based on Vietnam's developing economy and Japan's role as an investor and foreign aid donor.

Europe

34th G8 summit (Tōyako Town, Hokkaidō)

See also: Japan–European Union relations

In what became known as the Tenshō embassy, the first ambassadors from Japan to European powers reached Lisbon, Portugal in August 1584. From Lisbon, the ambassadors left for the Vatican in Rome, which was the main goal of their journey. The embassy returned to Japan in 1590, after which time the four nobleman ambassadors were ordained by Alessandro Valignano as the first Japanese Jesuit fathers.

A second embassy, headed by Hasekura Tsunenaga and sponsored by Date Masamune, was also a diplomatic mission to the Vatican. The embassy left 28 October 1613 from Ishinomaki, Miyagi Prefecture, in the northern Tōhoku region of Japan, where Date was daimyō. It traveled to Europe by way of New Spain, arriving in Acapulco on 25 January 1614, Mexico City in March, Havana in July, and finally Seville on 23 October 1614. After a short stop-over in France, the embassy reached Rome in November 1615, where it was received by Pope Paul V. After return travel by way of New Spain and the Philippines, the embassy reached the harbor of Nagasaki in August 1620. While the embassy was gone, Japan had undergone significant change, starting with the 1614 Osaka Rebellion, leading to a 1616 decree from the Tokugawa shogunate that all interaction with non-Chinese foreigners was confined to Hirado and Nagasaki. In fact, the only western country that was allowed to trade with Japan was the Dutch Republic. This was the beginning of "sakoku", where Japan was essentially closed to the western world until 1854.

Modern era

Embassy of Japan in Bratislava, Slovakia

The cultural and non-economic ties with Western Europe grew significantly during the 1980s, although the economic nexus remained by far the most important element of Japanese – West European relations throughout the decade.[156] Events in West European relations, as well as political, economic, or even military matters, were topics of concern to most Japanese commentators because of the immediate implications for Japan.[156] The major issues centered on the effect of the coming West European economic unification on Japan's trade, investment, and other opportunities in Western Europe.[156] Some West European leaders were anxious to restrict Japanese access to the newly integrated European Union, but others appeared open to Japanese trade and investment.[156] In partial response to the strengthening economic ties among nations in Western Europe and to the United States–Canada–Mexico North American Free Trade Agreement, Japan and other countries along the Asia-Pacific rim began moving in the late 1980s toward greater economic cooperation.[156]

On 18 July 1991, after several months of difficult negotiations, Prime Minister Toshiki Kaifu signed a joint statement with the Dutch prime minister and head of the European Community Council, Ruud Lubbers, and with the European Commission president, Jacques Delors, pledging closer Japanese – European Community consultations on foreign relations, scientific and technological cooperation, assistance to developing countries, and efforts to reduce trade conflicts.[156] Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs officials hoped that this agreement would help to broaden Japanese – European Community political links and raise them above the narrow confines of trade disputes.[156]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Albania April 1922; re-established in 1981 See Albania–Japan relations

Albania and Japan resumed established diplomatic relations in March 1981.[184]

  • Albania has an embassy in Tokyo.
 Armenia 7 September 1992 See Armenia–Japan relations
 Austria 18 October 1869 See Austria–Japan relations
 Belgium 1 August 1866 See Belgium–Japan relations
 Bulgaria 1890s See Bulgaria–Japan relations
 Croatia 5 March 1992 See Croatia–Japan relations
 Czech Republic 12 January 1920 See Czech Republic–Japan relations[187]
 Denmark 1867 See Denmark–Japan relations
 European Union 1959 See Japan–European Union relations
 Finland 6 September 1919 See Finland–Japan relations
  • Finland has an embassy in Tokyo.
  • Japan has an embassy in Helsinki.
 France 9 October 1858 See France–Japan relations

The history of Franco–Japanese relations (日仏関係, Nichi-Futsu kankei) goes back to the early 17th century, when a Japanese samurai and ambassador on his way to Rome landed for a few days in Southern France, creating a sensation. France and Japan have enjoyed a very robust and progressive relationship spanning centuries through various contacts in each other's countries by senior representatives, strategic efforts, and cultural exchanges.

  • France has an embassy in Tokyo.
  • Japan has an embassy in Paris.
 Georgia 3 August 1992 See Georgia–Japan relations
 Germany 24 January 1861 See Germany–Japan relations

Regular meetings between the two countries have led to several cooperations. In 2004 German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder and Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi agreed upon cooperations in the assistance for reconstruction of Iraq and Afghanistan,[188][189] the promotion of economic exchange activities,[190] youth and sports exchanges[191] as well as exchanges and cooperation in science, technology and academic fields.[192]

 Greece June 1899 See Greece–Japan relations

There has been a Greek embassy in Tokyo since 1960, and a Japanese embassy in Athens since the same year, when it was decided to upgrade the Japanese Consulate which had opened in 1956. Since then the two countries have enjoyed excellent relations in all fields, and cooperate closely.[193]

 Holy See March 1942 See Holy See–Japan relations

The first Papal visit to Japan took place in 1981. the present Apostolic Nuncio to Japan is Joseph Chennoth (since 2011) Japan first sent an ambassador, Ken Harada, to the Vatican during World War II.

 Hungary 1921 See Hungary–Japan relations
 Iceland 8 December 1956 See Iceland–Japan relations
  • Iceland has an embassy in Tokyo.
  • Japan has an embassy in Reykjavík.
 Ireland March 1957 See Ireland–Japan relations
  • Ireland has an embassy in Tokyo.
  • Japan has an embassy in Dublin.
 Italy 25 August 1866[196] See Italy–Japan relations
  • Italy has an embassy in Tokyo.
  • Japan has an embassy in Rome.
  • Foreign Affairs Ministers of both nation held informal talks on the margins of the G7 Foreign Ministers’ meeting in Tokyo in early November 2023.
 Kosovo 25 February 2009 See Japan–Kosovo relations

Japan recognised it on 18 March 2008.[197] The first Ambassador of Japan to the Republic of Kosovo is Akio Tanaka. He is subordinate to the Japanese Embassy in Vienna, Austria.[198]

 Liechtenstein June 1996[109] See Japan–Liechtenstein relations
  • Japan has an honorary consulate in Schaan.
  • The two countries signed a tax treaty in 2012.[199]
 Lithuania 1919;10 October 1991 See Japan–Lithuania relations
  • Japan has an embassy in Vilnius, established in 1997.[200]
  • In 1998, Lithuania has an embassy in Tokyo.[201]
  • Ambassador to Lithuania is Miyoko Akashi, ambassador to Japan is Dainius Kamaitis.
  • In 2007 the Emperor and Empress of Japan Akihito and Michiko paid an official visit in Lithuania.
 Malta See Japan–Malta relations
  • Malta has a consulate in Tokyo.
  • Japan has a consulate in Valletta.
 Moldova 16 March 1992
 Montenegro 24 July 2006 See Japan–Montenegro relations

Japan recognised Montenegro on 16 June 2006 and established diplomatic relations on 24 July 2006. Montenegro had declared war on Japan in 1905 during the Russo-Japanese War and never signed a peace treaty until 2006, shortly before the opening of diplomatic relations. The war lasted for 101 years. Trade, mostly related to electronics, exports from Japan to Montenegro (163 million yen per annum) outweigh Japan's imports (2 million yen per annum).

  • Japan is accredited to Montenegro from its embassy in Belgrade, Serbia.
  • Montenegro is accredited to Japan from its embassy in Beijing, China.
 Netherlands 1609 See Japan–Netherlands relations

The relations between Japan and the Netherlands after 1945 have been a triangular relationship. The invasion and Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies during World War II brought about the destruction of the colonial state in Indonesia, as the Japanese removed as much of the Dutch government as they could, weakening the post-war grip the Netherlands had over the territory. Under pressure from the United States, the Netherlands recognised Indonesian sovereignty in 1949 (see United States of Indonesia).

  • Japan has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Tokyo.
 Norway 1905–11 See Foreign relations of Norway
  • Japan has an embassy in Oslo.
  • Norway has an embassy in Tokyo.
 Poland March 1919 See Japan–Poland relations
  • Japan has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Tokyo
 Portugal 3 August 1860 See Japan–Portugal relations
 Romania 18 June 1902 See Foreign relations of Romania#Asia: East Asia
 Russia 7 February 1855 See Japan–Russia relations

Japan's relations with Russia are hampered by the two sides' inability to resolve their territorial dispute over the four islands that make up the Northern Territories (Kuriles), which the Soviet Union seized towards the end of World War II.[3] The stalemate has prevented conclusion of a peace treaty formally ending the war.[3] The dispute over the Kuril Islands exacerbated the Japan–Russo relations when the Japanese government published a new guideline for school textbooks on 16 July 2008 to teach Japanese children that their country has sovereignty over the Kuril Islands. The Russian public was outraged by the action the Foreign Minister of Russia criticized the action while reaffirming its sovereignty over the islands.[205]

 Serbia reestablished in 1952 See Japan–Serbia relations
  • Japan has an embassy in Belgrade.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Tokyo and an honorary consulate in Osaka.
 Slovenia 12 October 1992
 Spain First contact in 1584, officialized in 1868. Relations were broken on 11 April 1945 and reestablished in 1952 See Japan–Spain relations
 Sweden 1868[125] See Japan–Sweden relations
  • Japan has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Tokyo.
  Switzerland 6 February 1864
 Ukraine 26 January 1992 See Japan–Ukraine relations
  • Japan extended diplomatic recognition to the Ukrainian state on 28 December 1991, immediately after the breakup of the Soviet Union
  • Ukraine maintains an embassy in Tokyo.[210]
  • Japan maintains an embassy in Kyiv.[211]
 United Kingdom 14 October 1854 See Japan–United Kingdom relations

The relationship between the United Kingdom and Japan began in 1600 with the arrival of William Adams (Adams the Pilot, Miura Anjin) on the shores of Kyūshū at Usuki in Ōita Prefecture. During the Sakoku period (1641–1853) there were no relations, but the treaty of 1854 saw the resumption of ties which, despite the hiatus of the Second World War, remain very strong in the present day. Today, the United Kingdom views Japan as its closest ally in the Asia Pacific region, while Japan views the UK as its closest ally in Europe.

Oceania

See also: Japan–Oceania relations

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Australia 1947[125] See Australia–Japan relations
Japanese Foreign Minister Katsuya Okada (left), U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton (center) and Australian Foreign Minister Stephen Smith (right), in 2009

Australia–Japan relations have generally warm as well as acknowledged mutuality of strong interests, beliefs and friendship, and has since continued to grow strongly over the years.[citation needed] However, memories of World War II linger[156] among the older members of the Australian public,[citation needed] as does a contemporary fear of Japanese economic domination over countries, particularly Australia,[156] although such fears have fallen off in response to Japan's economic stagnation in the 1990s.[citation needed] At the same time, government and business leaders see Japan as a vital export market and an essential element in Australia's strong future growth and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region.[156]

Australia is also a major source of food and raw materials for Japan.[156] In 1988 Australia accounted for 5.5 percent of total Japanese imports, a share that held relatively steady in the late 1980s.[156] Due to its ability to export raw materials, Australia had a trade surplus with Japan.[citation needed] Australia was the largest single supplier of coal, iron ore, wool, and sugar to Japan in 1988.[156] Australia is also a supplier of uranium.[citation needed] Japanese investment by 1988 made Australia the single largest source of Japanese regional imports.[156] Resource development projects in Australia attracted Japanese capital, as did trade protectionism by necessitating local production for the Australian market.[156] Investments in Australia totaled US$8.1 billion in 1988, accounting for 4.4 percent of Japanese direct investment abroad.[156] There is some tension regarding the issue of whaling.[citation needed]

 Fiji 1 October 1970[125] See Fiji-Japan relations
  • Japan has an embassy in Suva and Fiji has an embassy in Tokyo.
 New Zealand 1952[125] See Japan–New Zealand relations
New Zealand Prime Minister Keith Holyoake (left) met with Japanese Foreign Minister Masayoshi Ohira (right), in October 1972.

Japan–New Zealand relations have had generally cordial relations since the post-World War II period, with Japan being a major trading partner with New Zealand. These relations have held together despite policy disputes over whaling and the International Whaling Commission.

In March 2011, New Zealand sent an urban search and rescue team, which had spent time the previous three weeks searching buildings after the last month's devastating earthquake in Christchurch, and 15 tonnes of rescue equipment to assist Japan following the Tōhoku earthquake and the subsequent of tsunami and Fukushima nuclear disaster.[212] New Zealand Parliament sends condolences to the people of Japan, and the government donated $2 million to the Japanese Red Cross Society to support relief efforts.[213][214]

 Palau 2 November 1994[125] See Japan–Palau relations
 Tonga 1970[125] See Japan–Tonga relations

Japan and the Kingdom of Tonga have maintained official diplomatic relations since July 1970.[215] Japan is Tonga's leading donor in the field of technical aid.[215] The Japanese government describes its relations with Tonga as "excellent", and states that "the Imperial family of Japan and the Royal family of Tonga have developed a cordial and personal relationship over the years".[215]

Disputed territories

Main article: Territorial disputes of Japan

Japan has several territorial disputes with its neighbors concerning the control of certain outlying islands.

Japan contests Russia's control of the Southern Kuril Islands (including Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group) which were occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945.[216] South Korea's assertions concerning Liancourt Rocks (Japanese: "Takeshima", Korean: "Dokdo") are acknowledged, but not accepted by Japan.[217] Japan has strained relations with the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (Taiwan) over the Senkaku Islands;[218] and with the People's Republic of China over the status of Okinotorishima.

See also

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Further reading