Under the Basic Law, Macau's diplomatic relations and defence are the responsibility of the central government of China. Except diplomatic relations and defence, nonetheless, Macau has retained considerable autonomy in all aspects, including economic and commercial relations, customs control.

As a separate customs territory, Macau plays an active role in international organizations and conferences such as World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Asia/Pacific Group on Money Laundering (APG), etc in its own right under the name of Macau, China.

Office of the Commissioner of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the PRC in the Macao SAR
Office of the Commissioner of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the PRC in the Macao SAR

As of January 27, 2020, according to Directorate of Identification Services Official webpage, there are 144 countries or regions that implement visa-free policies for residents holding Macau passports.

Macau office

The Macau government has maintained Macau Economic and Trade Representative Offices in Portugal, Belgium and Switzerland etc.

Office certified by the local government.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  Countries hosting an office   European Union, members not hosting an individual office
Office certified by the local government
  Countries hosting an office
  European Union, members not hosting an individual office
Macau Office
Macau Office
Macao Economic and trade office in Belgium
Macao Economic and trade office in Belgium
Macao Economic and Commercial Office in Switzerland
Macao Economic and Commercial Office in Switzerland
Macao Economic and Commercial Office in Portugal
Macao Economic and Commercial Office in Portugal
country / region location Address/Official website link
 Mainland China Beijing [1]
 Australia Sydney [2]
 New Zealand Campbells Bay 7 Centennial Place, Campbells Bay, Auckland 0630, New Zealand
 Belgium European Union Brussels [3]
 United Kingdom London 25 North Row, London W1K 6DJ, United Kingdom
Oxford 1st Floor, Chester House, 21-27 George Street, Oxford OX1 2AU, United Kingdom
 Switzerland Genève [4]
 Japan Tokyo [5]
 South Korea Seoul [6]
 Thailand Bangkok [7]
 Malaysia Kuala Lumpur [8]
 India Mumbai 9th Floor, Tower A, Urmi Estate, 95, Ganpatrao Kadam Marg, Lower Parel (W), Mumbai 400013, India
New Delhi 707, 7th Floor, Prakash Deep Building, 7 Tolstoy Marg, Connaught Place, New Delhi, 110001, India
 Indonesia ASEAN Jakarta [9]
 Russia Moscow [10]
 Hong Kong Hong Kong Flat 3, 7/F, Charm Centre, No. 700 Castle Peak Road, Cheung Sha Wan, Kowloon, Hong


 Taiwan Taiwan [11]
 United States California [12]
New York [12]
 Portugal Lisbon [13]

The Macao Economic and Trade Representative Office is a government department of Macao. It is responsible for promoting the work of representing the interests of all parties in Macao. It is a representative department and enjoys administrative autonomy. The office is responsible for assisting the Chief Executive in the work of economic and trade relations and cooperation between Macao and local and related institutions:

In countries or territories where no MOETO is present, diplomatic missions of China have the duty to represent Macau's interests. Visa applications at these missions are, nevertheless, sent to and processed by the Immigration Department of Macau.

International agreements

According to the Basic Law, Macao may individually sign bilateral agreements with relevant countries and regions in appropriate fields such as economy, trade, finance, shipping, communications, tourism, culture, science and technology, and sports, in the name of "Macao, China".

By the end of 2018, Macau has negotiated civil aviation agreements with 46 countries and regions including the Czech Republic and the United Kingdom. Macau negotiates judicial assistance agreements with 11 countries and regions including Portugal and East Timor. Macau negotiates investment protection agreements with three countries and regions including Portugal and the Netherlands. Macau negotiates tax information exchange or double taxation agreements with 42 countries including the United Kingdom and Japan.

Bilateral Investment Treaty

Consumer Protection Agreement

Mutual Legal Assistance Agreement

Tax Information Exchange Agreement

Agreement on avoiding double taxation and preventing tax evasion

Civil Aviation Agreement

According to the Chief Executive’s policy address, in order to protect the interests of investors in Macau. In the future, the SAR government will actively strive to sign taxation agreements with countries along the One Belt One Road and Portuguese-speaking countries.

Trade Agreement

International organizations

Flag of Macao, China in the Olympic Asian Games
Flag of Macao, China in the Olympic Asian Games


Chief Executive of Macau Fernando Chui participated in Boao Forum for Asia
Chief Executive of Macau participated Belt and Road Forum

Macao participates in the online meeting of the United Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs in 2021[15]

Overseas visits made by senior officials

Air Macau's Airbus A320-200 passenger plane taxiing at Macau International Airport
Air Macau's Airbus A320-200 passenger plane taxiing at Macau International Airport

The Chief Executive of Macao & other senior officials often make a duty visit to foreign countries. These visits usually aim to advance Macao's economic and trade relations with the foreign countries. During these visits, the Chief Executive will meet with political and business leaders. Usually, the head of state or head of government of the foreign countries will receive the Chief Executive. For example, during his tenure former Chief Executive Edmund Ho met with Prime Minister of Portugal Socrates, President of France Chirac, German Chancellor Schroeder, Prince Philip, President of the European Commission Barroso, President of Brazil Lula, Prime Minister of Singapore Lee Hsien Loong, Prime Minister of Thailand Surayud Chulanon, Prime Minister of Malaysia Abdullah Ahmed Badawi, Vice President of Myanmar Myint Swe, etc.

Foreign officials visit Macau

Protocol Division Government Secretariat

Foreign officials

The heads of state and government of the Czech Republic, Mongolia, Estonia, Vietnam, Cambodia and dozens of ministers from more than a dozen countries, such as the Russian Minister of Education, respectively visited Macau. According to statistics, in 2011, the Macau government received a total of 40 times delegations from Mainland China, more than 100 times consular and consular delegations, and 63 times foreign government delegations.

Abroad representation in Macau

See also: Consular missions in Macau

Consulate General in Macau
Consulate General in Macau
Portuguese Consulate General in Macau.
Portuguese Consulate General in Macau.
Liaison Office of the Central People's Government in the Macao.
Liaison Office of the Central People's Government in the Macao.


From 1557 to 1999, the  United States,  Brazil and other countries opened consulates in Macau, which were later closed.  South Korea had a consulate general in Macau from July 28, 1984 to July 1, 2001, which was later closed and the South Korean consulate in Hong Kong was also responsible for Macao-related affairs.

The following countries and region’s Consulates and Representative Office in Macau





Multilateral organisations in Macau

Chamber of Commerce

Bilateral relations

Macau relations with Lusophone countries

Map of the portuguese language in the world.svg

Given the language, culture and intimate relationships, Macau has been communicating with the Portuguese-speaking countries through various channels for a long time. This can be reflected in the International Commercial Conference for Portuguese-speaking countries,[34] which is held in Macau annually. Macau Trade and Investment Promotion Institute (IPIM) has a lot of co-operation protocols with the relevant organizations and commercial associations in Brazil and Mozambique. The organizations include the Portuguese Commercial Association in Macau, Portuguese Business Centre in Asia, Forum dos Empresarios de Lingua Portuguesa, Câmara de Comércio e Industria Luso-Chinesa, Portuguese Business Association and Portuguese Trade Commission.

In order to strengthen the economic co-operation and development between Chinese- and Portuguese-speaking countries and improve the international status of Macau SAR, the first "Economic Co-operation Forum between China and Portuguese-speaking Countries" was held by the Central Government of the People's Republic of China with the Macau SAR Government being the event coordinator. It is mainly for the economic co-operation and development of both sides and is non-political. The "Economic Co-operation Forum between Chinese and Portuguese-speaking Countries" will be held every three years and the first was in Macau in October 2003.

Founded in 1999, the Macau SAR government was determined, with the great supports from the Central Government, to host the "Forum for Economic and Trade Cooperation between China and Portuguese-speaking Countries" in October 2003. Serving as a platform between China and Portuguese-speaking countries, Macau takes it as an important mission to enhance the friendship and cooperation between the two parties.

The Association of the Portuguese Speaking Olympic Committees (ACOLOP) was established on 8 June 2004 in Lisbon with the aim to reinforce unity and cooperation of its members, which was already approved by the National Olympic Committees (NOCs).

Macau was honored and proud to host the 1st Lusofonia Games (7–15 October 2006) in the capacity as a founding member. The Lusofonia Games are a good opportunity to show the historical relations between Macau and Lusophone countries. They not only reinforce friendship between the other member countries, but strengthen Macau's developing sport tourism industry.

National Olympic Committee's (NOC's) Participants:



Cape Verde


India (Associate member)




East Timor

Sri Lanka (Associate member)

São Tomé and Príncipe

Equatorial Guinea (Associate member)

Macao ASEAN International Chamber of Commerce

The purpose of the Macau ASEAN International Chamber of Commerce is to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of members in accordance with the laws, regulations and policies of Macau and with reference to international practices;Give full play to the role of Macau as an international platform, unite entrepreneurs from  ASEAN,  China,  Hong Kong, and  Macau, and promote extensive cooperation and exchanges between the two sides of the Taiwan Strait, Hong Kong, Macau and ASEAN countries in the fields of economy, culture, sports, education, economy, trade, science and technology。The Chamber of Commerce also cooperated with ten ASEAN countries, including  Brunei,  Cambodia,  Indonesia,  Laos,  Malaysia,  Myanmar,  Philippines,  Singapore,  Thailand and  Vietnam 's consulates in Hong Kong and Macau to set up  ASEANexhibition areas with different themes.

Macau relations with EU

Macau-EU relations are based on a Trade and Co-operation Agreement concluded on 14 December 1992, which came into effect on 1 January 1993. This agreement covers trade and industrial, scientific and technical co-operation. A Joint Committee meets annually to oversee the operation of the Agreement and devises ways of developing trade and co-operation. The agreement remained in force as usual after 20 December 1999.

The Commission's 1998 Communication "Building a Comprehensive Partnership with China" stated that EU policy was to support Macau's high degree of autonomy. This policy stems naturally from the EU's strong economic links and historical ties with Macau.

On 12 November 1999 the Commission adopted a Communication to the Council and the European Parliament, entitled "The EU and Macau: Beyond 2000". In this communication the EU considers that the respect for the principles set out in the basic law of Macau and the full implementation of the concept "one country, two systems" guarantee the specific social, economic and cultural identity of Macau. The Commission committed itself to monitor the situation in the territory by issuing annual reports.

The Macau SAR has an Economic and Trade Office (METO) accredited to the European Union, which ensures a regular dialogue between the EU and Macau on areas under the new SAR's responsibility, such as trade, economic relations and co-operation.

On 15 March 2001 the Council of the European Union adopted a new visa regulation and the EU granted visa-free access to Macau SAR passport-holders as from 10 April 2001.

An EC-Macau re-admission agreement was finalized and initialled on the occasion of the 9th EC-Macau Joint Committee in Brussels, Belgium on 18 October 2002. It was signed on 13 October 2003 in Luxembourg by Commissioner Chris Patten and the Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs Franco Frattini on behalf of the EC, and by Florinda Chan, Secretary for Administration and Justice, on behalf of Macau. The EU-Macau Cooperation in the Legal Field Project was inaugurated on 3 December 2002, featuring a series of seminars and training programmes to be executed for a period of 48 months for judges, procurators, government lawyers and other legal practitioners of the Macau SAR.

Given its status as a separate customs territory as stated in the basic law, Macau continues to be treated by the EU as a separate entity for trade policy purposes. The EU was Macau's third largest trading partner and absorbed about 23% of its total exports, while 12% of Macau's imports came from the EU in 2003 (Macau trade statistics). Total bilateral trade between the EU and Macau reached €1 billion in 2002. Macau's trade surplus with the EU was €382 million (Eurostat). The EU was the third biggest investor in Macau after Hong Kong and the People's Republic of China with 25 firms investing in the SAR in 2001. Total investment stock amounted to over €400 million. Macau's membership in the World Trade Organization and liberal economic system offer favourable conditions for EU investments.

Macau relations with US

Main article: Macau–United States relations

In recognition of Macau's high degree of autonomy, the United States continues to treat Macau as a special area distinct from the People's Republic of China.

The U.S. government supports Macau's autonomy by strengthening bilateral ties through the promotion of bilateral trade and investment, law enforcement cooperation, academic and cultural links, and high-level dialogue and visits.

After the September 11 attacks, Macau officials pledged full cooperation with U.S. and global efforts against terrorism. Macau's legislature passed an anti-terrorism law in April 2002 that includes provisions that are consistent with the requirements of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373.

Macau's clothes and textiles continued to enter the United States under quotas separate from those of China. Under the terms of a September 2000 bilateral Memorandum of Understanding, Macau and the US government cooperate in enforcing textile quotas and preventing illegal trans-shipment. The US continued periodic visits by U.S. Customs Textile Production Verification Teams to ensure compliance with Macau bilateral textile commitments.

The protection of intellectual property rights remains a priority issue on the U.S.-Macau bilateral economic agenda. Macau progress since 1999 in strengthening IPR laws, tightening controls over DVD and VCD manufacturing, and stepping up street-level IPR enforcement resulted in Macau being removed from USTR's Special 301 list in 2002. Macau's new customs service worked with U.S. industry associations and maintained high tempo operations to combat piracy.[35]

U.S. investment in Macau, while small in the past, is expected to increase in coming years as the result of the 2002 awarding of two gaming concessions to consortia with U.S. interests. Though trade with Macau represents a small portion of U.S. trade, the United States was Macau's second largest trading partner after the People's Republic of China. U.S. exports to and imports from Macau in 2002 were US$79 million and US$1.2 billion, respectively. After the Macau government ended the 40-year-old gaming monopoly of the Sociedade de Turismo e Diversões de Macau (STDM) in February 2002, the government awarded concessions to three consortia, including two with significant U.S. investment. The restructuring of the gaming industry remains the centerpiece of Macau - efforts to improve its international reputation and become a Las Vegas-like gaming, convention, and family-oriented holiday destination. The possible new investment of US$1.5-2.5 billion in the medium term will increase jobs and income and dramatically raise the U.S. business profile in Macau.

Specialized diplomacy

Medical Diplomacy

On June 12, 2020, the Chinese medical expert group assisting Sudan successfully completed its mission to aid Africa and returned to China by plane. They ended their 30-day work in Algeria and Sudan.Among them, the China International Emergency Medical Team (Macau) sent five members to join the Chinese government expert group to successfully complete the first foreign aid international emergency medical practice since the team was formed last year.

Sister cities

See also


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