Mongolia has diplomatic relations 191 UN states, the Holy See–and the European Union.[1] Of the states with limited recognition it has relations only with the State of Palestine.

It seeks neutrality and cordial relations with many countries including in cultural and economic matters. It has a modest number of missions abroad.

Diplomatic relations

Countries which Mongolia maintains diplomatic relations with:
Countries which Mongolia maintains diplomatic relations with:

As of 2021, Mongolia has diplomatic relations with all United Nations members except Botswana:

# Diplomatic relations[2] Date
1  Russia 5 November 1921
2  North Korea 15 October 1948
3  Albania 24 March 1949
4  China 16 October 1949
5  Poland 14 April 1950
6  Bulgaria 22 April 1950
7  Hungary 28 April 1950
8  Romania 29 April 1950
9  Vietnam 17 November 1954
10  India 24 December 1955
11  Myanmar 26 September 1956
12  Serbia 20 November 1956
13  Indonesia 22 December 1956
14  Guinea 22 April 1960
15  Cambodia 30 November 1960
16  Cuba 7 December 1960
17    Nepal 5 January 1961
18  Mali 25 January 1961
19  Algeria 25 June 1961
20  Sri Lanka 1 February 1962
21  Afghanistan 1 February 1962
22  Iraq 5 February 1962
23  Pakistan 6 July 1962
24  Laos 12 September 1962
25  United Kingdom 23 January 1963
26  Egypt 2 April 1963
27  Austria 1 July 1963
28  Finland 15 July 1963
29   Switzerland 22 May 1964
30  Sweden 30 June 1964
31  France 27 April 1965
32  Ghana 7 December 1965
33  Congo 31 December 1966
34  Tanzania 17 January 1967
35  Ethiopia 24 January 1967
36  Greece 3 March 1967
37  Mauritania 30 June 1967
38  Syria 31 July 1967
39  Norway 11 January 1968
40  Denmark 5 August 1968
41  Turkey 24 June 1969
42  Singapore 11 June 1970
43  Central African Republic 18 June 1970
44  Italy 29 June 1970
45  Sudan 7 July 1970
46  Morocco 14 July 1970
47  Yemen 28 August 1970
48  Somalia 28 February 1971
49  Iran 20 May 1971
50  Chile 1 June 1971
51  Belgium 8 July 1971
52  Argentina 7 September 1971
53  Malaysia 8 September 1971
54  Nigeria 21 September 1971
55  Japan 24 February 1972
56  Netherlands 6 March 1972
57  Bangladesh 28 June 1972
58  Australia 15 September 1972
59  Philippines 11 October 1973
60  Canada 30 November 1973
61  Cyprus 19 December 1973
62  Germany 31 January 1974
63  Thailand 5 March 1974
64  Iceland 4 June 1974
65  Portugal 26 July 1974
66  Democratic Republic of the Congo 4 February 1975
67  New Zealand 8 April 1975
68  Kuwait 17 June 1975
69  Mexico 24 September 1975
70  Mozambique 27 September 1975
71  Guinea-Bissau 14 October 1975
72  Sao Tome and Principe 22 October 1975
73  Cabo Verde 19 November 1975
74  Angola 10 February 1976
75  Fiji 15 March 1976
76  Liberia 23 April 1976
77  Libya 16 June 1976
78  Papua New Guinea 16 June 1976
79  Luxembourg 11 July 1976
80  Tunisia 15 February 1977
81  Benin 2 April 1977
82  Costa Rica 6 June 1977
83  Spain 5 July 1977
84  Zambia 2 October 1978
 State of Palestine 25 April 1979
85  Madagascar 11 May 1979
86  Malta 8 August 1979
87  Nicaragua 13 October 1979
88  Guyana 15 November 1979
89  Grenada 25 July 1980
90  Jordan 21 May 1981
91  Seychelles 21 August 1981
92  Ecuador 30 October 1982
93  Zimbabwe 30 August 1984
94  Lesotho 2 July 1985
95  Burkina Faso 25 October 1985
96  Maldives 6 November 1985
97  Senegal 12 December 1985
98  Ivory Coast 6 July 1986
99  United States 27 January 1987
100  Brazil 19 June 1987
101  Colombia 10 August 1988
102  Bolivia 1 March 1989
103  South Korea 26 March 1990
104  Namibia 30 November 1990
105  Venezuela 14 December 1990
106  Israel 2 October 1991
107  Latvia 15 October 1991
108  Estonia 20 November 1991
109  Lithuania 11 December 1991
110  Ukraine 21 January 1992
111  Kazakhstan 22 January 1992
112  Belarus 24 January 1992
113  Uzbekistan 25 January 1992
114  Moldova 30 January 1992
115  Armenia 21 February 1992
  Holy See 4 April 1992
116  Azerbaijan 16 April 1992
117  Kyrgyzstan 22 April 1992
118  Turkmenistan 23 April 1992
119  Tajikistan 24 April 1992
120  Oman 27 April 1992
121  Georgia 12 May 1992
122  Brunei 18 May 1992
123  Czech Republic 1 January 1993
124  Slovakia 1 January 1993
125  Slovenia 18 January 1993
126  Bosnia and Herzegovina 24 February 1993
127  Croatia 10 March 1993
128  South Africa 25 May 1994
129  North Macedonia 27 June 1995
130  United Arab Emirates 1 April 1996
131  Peru 30 May 1997
132  Uruguay 7 October 1997
133  Qatar 21 January 1998
134  Lebanon 5 February 1998
135  Liechtenstein 18 March 1998
136  Bahrain 16 May 1998
137  Ireland 22 December 1998
138  El Salvador 14 July 1999
139  Tonga 4 April 2000
140  Paraguay 17 June 2003
141  Timor-Leste 28 October 2003
142  Guatemala 3 July 2006
143  Montenegro 1 February 2007
144  Saudi Arabia 12 February 2007
145  San Marino 25 April 2007
146  Monaco 22 May 2008
147  Dominican Republic 27 May 2010
148  Nauru 13 October 2011
149  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 13 October 2011
150  Solomon Islands 13 October 2011
151  Dominica 18 October 2011
152  Honduras 19 October 2011
153  Andorra 21 October 2011
154  Comoros 5 December 2011
155  Tuvalu 5 December 2011
156  South Sudan 20 December 2011
157  Malawi 21 December 2011
158  Samoa 21 December 2011
159  Gambia 22 December 2011
160  Panama 17 January 2012
161  Bhutan 17 January 2012
162  Kenya 22 March 2012
163  Jamaica 26 October 2012
164  Antigua and Barbuda 19 April 2013
165  Eritrea 24 June 2013
166  Burundi 8 July 2013
167  Togo 6 September 2013
168  Vanuatu 23 September 2013
169  Palau 25 September 2013
170  Suriname 27 September 2013
171  Sierra Leone 27 September 2013
172  Uganda 20 November 2013
173  Rwanda 25 November 2013
174  Federated States of Micronesia 6 December 2013
175  Haiti 14 January 2014
176  Kiribati 15 January 2014
177  Equatorial Guinea 20 February 2014
178  Chad 3 April 2014
179  Mauritius 3 July 2014
180  Gabon 19 September 2014
181  Saint Lucia 27 September 2014
182  Niger 25 March 2015
183  Cameroon 2 April 2015
184  Marshall Islands 23 May 2015
185  Djibouti 20 January 2016
186  Saint Kitts and Nevis 12 April 2016
187  Bahamas 8 July 2016
188  Belize 20 June 2017
189  Eswatini 21 November 2018[3]
190  Barbados 17 January 2019[3]
191  Trinidad and Tobago 24 February 2021[3]

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Botswana none
 Egypt 1963-04-02

Diplomatic relations between Egypt and Mongolia were established in 1964.[4] Cairo currently hosts Mongolia's only embassy on the African continent.[5][6] In 2001, Mongolia sent policemen to Egypt to attend trainings sessions on anti-terrorism and the prevention of drug trafficking.[7] Mongolian President Natsagiin Bagabandi and his wife Azadsurengiin Oyunbileg paid an official visit to Egypt in April 2004, during which he invited Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak to pay him a return visit in Mongolia.[8] Almost exactly one year later, Egyptian Foreign Minister Ahmed Aboul Gheit visited Mongolia, during which he began the planning of mutual visits of the ministers of finance of the two countries.[9]

Bilateral relations between Mongolia and Egypt (in Mongolian)


Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Canada 1973-11-30[1]

Both countries established diplomatic relations on November 30, 1973. Canada is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Ulaanbaatar. Mongolia has an embassy in Ottawa, and in 2002 opened an honorary consulate in Toronto. Though Canada and Mongolia established diplomatic ties in 1973, ad hoc linkages and minor activities occurred between the two countries mainly through the Canada-Mongolia Society, which disbanded in 1980. When Mongolia formed a democratic government in 1991 after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Canada began to support Mongolia with donor activities through the International Development Research Centre, Canadian International Development Agency and several non-governmental organizations.[10]

 Mexico 1975-09-24

In October 2001, Mexican President Vicente Fox paid an official visit to Mongolia.[11]

  • Mexico is accredited to Mongolia from its embassy in Seoul, South Korea and maintains an honorary consulate in Ulaanbaatar.[12][13][14]
  • Mongolia is accredited to Mexico from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States and maintains an honorary consulate in Mexico City.[15][16]
 Paraguay 2003-06-17[1]
  • Mongolia is accredited to Paraguay through its embassy in Brasilia, Brazil.
  • Paraguay is accredited to Mongolia through its embassy in Seoul, South Korea.
  • Mongolia signed a visa-free agreement with Paraguay on 26 September 2019.[17]
 Trinidad and Tobago 2021-02-24[18]
 United States 1987-01-27[1]

The U.S. government recognized Mongolia in January 1987 and established its first embassy in Ulaanbaatar in June 1988. It formally opened in September 1988. The first U.S. ambassador to Mongolia, Richard L. Williams, was not a resident there. Joseph E. Lake, the first resident ambassador, arrived in July 1990. Secretary of State James A. Baker, III visited Mongolia in August 1990, and again in July 1991. Mongolia accredited its first ambassador to the United States in March 1989. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright visited Mongolia in May 1998, and Prime Minister Enkhbayar visited Washington in November 2001. Deputy Secretary of State Richard L. Armitage visited Mongolia in January 2004, and President Bagabandi came to Washington for a meeting with President George W. Bush in July 2004. President Bush, Mrs. Bush, and Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice visited Mongolia in November 2005. It was the first ever visit of a U.S. President to Mongolia.[19][20] Defense Secretary Rumsfeld visited in October 2005 and Speaker of the House of Representatives Dennis Hastert visited Mongolia in August 2005. Agriculture Secretary Johanns led a presidential delegation in July 2006 in conjunction with Mongolia's celebration of its 800th anniversary. President Enkhbayar visited the White House in October 2007 and the two presidents signed the Millennium Challenge Compact for Mongolia.

In 2008, the IRS presented a discussion of US Federal income tax to Director General Zorig Luvsandash from the General Department of National Taxation of the Republic of Mongolia.

In August 2011, Joe Biden made the first visit to Mongolia by a sitting U.S. vice president since Henry Wallace toured the region in 1944.[21]

East Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 People's Republic of China 1949-10-16[1]

In the Post–Cold War era, China has taken major steps to normalize its relationship with Mongolia, emphasizing its respect for Mongolia's sovereignty and independence. In 1994, Chinese Premier Li Peng signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation.[22] China has become Mongolia's biggest trade partner and source of foreign investment as well as the destination for 48% of Mongolian exports.[23] Bilateral trade reached US$1.13 billion by the first nine months of 2007, registering an increase of 90% from 2006.[24] China offered to allow the use of its Tianjin port to give Mongolia and its goods access to trade with the Asia Pacific region.[23] China also expanded its investments in Mongolia's mining industries, seeking to exploit the country's natural resources.[23][24] Mongolia and China have stepped up cooperation on fighting terrorism and bolstering regional security. China is likely to support Mongolia's membership in to the Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD), Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and granting it observer status in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.[23]

 Republic of China (Taiwan) none

As the Republic of China did not recognize Mongolia until 1945, both countries did not exchange any diplomats between 1946 and 1949, and Mongolia recognized the People's Republic of China in 1949, there have never been formal diplomatic relations between Mongolia and the Republic of China. Until the 1990s, the Republic of China still considered Mongolia part of its territory. The Republic of China (currently on Taiwan) has not renounced claim to Mongolia as one of its provinces, primarily out of concern that such a move would be viewed as a precursor to renouncing sovereignty over all of Mainland China and Taiwan independence. In 2002 several ROC officials and government agencies passed laws and made strong statements recognizing Mongolia's sovereignty over the area (unofficially). "Outer Mongolia" was removed from the ROC's official maps and a representative office was established in Ulaanbaatar.

Citizens of the Republic of China may travel to Mongolia using Republic of China passports (as is the case for most countries except the PRC), but Mongolian visas are stapled into (and not applied directly onto) the passport and Mongolian immigration authorities stamp the stapled visa instead of the passport. This is also the case for Hong Kong visas and entry/exit stamps.

 Japan 1972-02-24[1]

Japan has been a major ally of Mongolia since the advent of democracy in 1991, and remains the largest single donor. Japanese aid and loans to Mongolia between 1991 and 2003 equal $1.2 billion, equaling 70 percent of total aid and loans.

The two countries established a cultural exchange dialogue in 1974, a trade agreement in 1990, an air relations agreement in 1993, and an investment agreement in 2003. Trade between Mongolia and Japan in the first ten months of 2004 was $83.3 million. In addition, about 500 Mongolian students study in Japan.

Mongolian President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj visited Japan in 2011, and the two countries made a joint announcement regarding a strategic alliance.

In 1991, Japanese Prime Minister Toshiki Kaifu visited Mongolia, becoming the first to do so. Mongolian President Natsagiin Bagabandi first visited Japan in 1998. Mongolia has an embassy in Tokyo, established in 1973. Japan has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar.

 North Korea 1948-10-15[1]

Mongolia has an embassy in North Korea. Relations date back to 1948, when Mongolia recognised Kim Il-sung's Soviet-backed government in the North. North Korean refugees are a delicate issue between the two governments. In 2005, South Korean charity groups received from the Mongolian government an allocation of 1.3 square kilometres of land at an unspecified location 40 kilometres outside of Ulaanbaatar to establish a refugee camp.[25] However, as of November 2006, Miyeegombyn Enkhbold, Mongolia's prime minister, officially denied the existence of such camps. One scholar estimated that 500 North Korean refugees enter Mongolia each month, along with some legal migrant labourers who come under an inter-governmental agreement to work in light industry and infrastructure projects.[26]

 South Korea 1990-03-26[1]

Mongolians in South Korea form the largest population of Mongolian citizens abroad.[1]. Their numbers were estimated at 33,000 as of 2008.

South Korea established an embassy in Ulaanbaatar in 1990.[27] Mongolia established its embassy in Seoul in 1991. The relationship between the two countries has been defined by the Joint Mongolia-South Korean notice made during the visit of South Korean president Kim Dae-jung to Mongolia in 1990.

South East Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Cambodia 1960-11-30[1]
 Malaysia 1971-09-08[1] Mongolia did not present an ambassador to Malaysia for seven years due to the murder of a Mongolian citizen in the country, but later decided to appoint an ambassador in 2014.[29]
 Singapore 1970-06-11[1]
  • Mongolia has an embassy in Singapore.
  • The Embassy of Singapore accredited to Mongolia is in Seoul.
  • Around 20 Singaporeans live in Mongolia;[30] 4,804 Singaporeans visited Mongolia in 2017-2018. [31]
  • Around 250 Mongolians live in Singapore; 7,196 Mongolians visited Singapore in 2017-2018. [32]
 Vietnam 1954-11-17[1] The two countries established diplomatic ties in 1954.[33] Mongolia has an embassy in Vietnam. The countries signed a Friendship and Cooperation Treaty in 1961, renewed it in 1979, and signed a new one in 1995.[33] On 13 January 2003, the countries signed an 8-point cooperative document committing to cooperation between the two governments and their legislative bodies, replacing an earlier document signed in 1998.[34]

South Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Afghanistan 1962-02-01[1] In December 2013 Mongolia re-established its embassy in Kabul.[35][36]
 India 1955-12-24[1]

India established diplomatic relations in December 1955. India was the first country outside the Soviet bloc to establish diplomatic relations with Mongolia. Since then, there have been treaties of mutual friendship and cooperation between the two countries in 1973, 1994, 2001 and 2004.

Russia, Central Asia and West Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Armenia 1992-02-11[1]
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 February 1992.[37]
  • Armenia is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Beijing, China.[37]
 Kazakhstan 1992-01-22[1] Mongolia has an embassy in Nur-Sultan and a consulate general in Almaty. Kazakhstan has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar.

Ethnic Kazakhs make up the only significant ethnic minority in Mongolia.

 Kyrgyzstan 1992-04-22[1] Mongolian president Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj made an official visit to Kyrgyzstan in 2012.
 Qatar 1998-01-21[1]

In 2020, Mongolia signed a memorandum of understanding with Qatar to establish political consultations between the ministries of foreign affairs of both the countries.[38]

 Russia 1921-11-05[1]

Relations between Mongolia and the Russian Federation have been traditionally strong since the Communist era, when Soviet Russia was the closest ally of the Mongolian People's Republic. Russia has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar and two consulate generals (in Darkhan and Erdenet). Mongolia has an embassy in Moscow, three consulate generals (in Irkutsk, Kyzyl and Ulan Ude), and a branch in Yekaterinburg. Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (Russia is a participating state, while Mongolia is a partner).

After the disintegration of the former Soviet Union, Mongolia developed relations with the new independent states. Links with Russia and other republics were essential to contribute to stabilisation of the Mongolian economy. The primary difficulties in developing fruitful coordination occurred because these new states were experiencing the same political and economic restructuring as Mongolia. Despite these difficulties, Mongolia and Russia successfully negotiated both a 1991 Joint Declaration of Cooperation and a bilateral trade agreement. This was followed by a 1993 Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation[22] establishing a new basis of equality in the relationship. Mongolian President Bagabandi visited Moscow in 1999, and Russian President Vladimir Putin visited Mongolia in 2000[22] in order to sign the 25-point Ulaanbaatar Declaration, reaffirming Mongol-Russian friendship and cooperation on numerous economic and political issues.

 Syria 1967-07-31[1] Ties between Mongolia and Syria were established on July 31, 1967, when both countries had socialist governments. Mongolian delegates (from the then-ruling Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party) traveled to Syria in 1978, 1982, and 1985, while Syrian (Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party) delegates visited Mongolia in 1983 and 1986.

Bilateral relations between Mongolia and Syria (in Mongolian)

 Tajikistan 1992-04-24[1]
  • Mongolia is accredited to Tajikistan through its embassy in Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.
  • Tajikistan is accredited to Mongolia through its embassy in Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.[39]
 Turkey 1969-06-24[1] See Mongolia–Turkey relations
  • Mongolia has an embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar.
  • Both countries are members of Asia Cooperation Dialogue and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 39.7 million USD in 2019 (Mongolian exports/imports: 0.5/39.2 million USD.[40]
  • There are around 134 Turks who live in Mongolia.
 Uzbekistan 1992-01-25[1]
  • Uzbekistan is accredited to Mongolia through its embassy in Beijing, China.
  • Mongolia is accredited to Uzbekistan through its embassy in Ankara, Turkey. [41]

Europe

Mongolia seeks closer relations with countries in Europe and hopes to receive most-favoured-nation status from the European Union (EU). During 1991, Mongolia signed investment promotion and protection agreements with Germany and France and an economic cooperation agreement with the United Kingdom. Germany continued former East German cooperative programs and also provided loans and aid.

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 European Union 1989-08-01[1]
 Belgium 1971-07-08[1] The Benelux (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) is represented in Mongolia through embassies in Beijing (China). Mongolia has an embassy in Brussels.
 Bulgaria 1950-04-22[1]

Bulgaria has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar. Mongolia has an embassy in Sofia. Diplomatic relations between the two counties were first initiated on 22 April 1950. Due to the similar ideological situation in both countries, their relations witnessed a steady development up until the 1990s. Bilateral relations somewhat deteriorated for the next ten years. Since 2001, they have been on a more positive track, with Bulgarian president Georgi Parvanov making an official visit to Ulaanbaatar in the summer of 2007. Until the beginning of the 1990s Bulgaria was Mongolia's 3rd biggest trading partner. Agricultural products and light industry goods were the main exports. Due to the subsequent economical and political changes in both countries the volume of trade shrank considerably. The volume of trade between Bulgaria and Mongolia totaled $2 million for 2008, with the main exporter being Bulgaria.[42]

 Cyprus 1973-12-19[1]
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on December 19, 1973.[43][44]
  • Cyprus is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Beijing, China.[45]
  • Mongolia is represented in Cyprus through its embassy in Sofia, Bulgaria.[46]
 Czech Republic 1993-01-01[1]

Diplomatic relations between Mongolia and Czechoslovakia commenced on 25 April 1950. In the 1980s, Czechoslovakia was Mongolia's second-largest trading partner, behind the Soviet Union. After the 1992 dissolution of Czechoslovakia, Mongolia reaffirmed its relations with the newly formed Czech Republic in 1993.[47] However, in the 1990s, trade volumes declined sharply, though the Czech Republic still accounts for about 1% of Mongolia's imports. The Embassy of the Czech Republic in Ulaanbaatar was formally reopened in 1999.[48] As of 2005, annual bilateral trade between the two countries was valued at US$5 million.[49] The Czech government has also been involved in various water supply development programs in Mongolia.

 Denmark 1968-08-05[1]
 Germany 1974-01-31[1]

Mongolia established ties with the Federal Republic of Germany in 1974, with embassies in Ulaanbaatar and Berlin

 Greece 1967-03-03[1] Greece is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Beijing (China). Mongolia is represented in Greece through its embassy in Sofia (Bulgaria) and an honorary consulate in Athens.
 Hungary 1950-04-28[1] Hungary has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar. Mongolia has an embassy in Budapest.[52]
 Kosovo none Mongolia does not recognize Kosovo as a country.
 Netherlands 1972-03-06[1] The Benelux (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) is represented in Mongolia through embassies in Beijing (China). Mongolia has an honorary consulate in Breda.
 Romania 1950-04-29[1]
  • The Romanian embassy in Mongolia was closed in 1995, and the Mongolian one in Bucharest in 1997.[53]
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta none[55]
 Ukraine 1992-01-21[1]
  • Mongolia is represented in Ukraine through its embassy in Poland. An embassy previously existed in Kyiv but was closed and replaced with a consular department.
  • Ukraine is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in China.
 United Kingdom 1963-01-23[1] First Western nation to establish diplomatic ties.

Oceania

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 1972-09-15[1]
The Mongolian Consulate was established in Canberra in March 1997. An embassy was established in October 2008.[56] Sükhbaataryn Batbold became the first head of government to visit Australia in 2011.

Australia opened its embassy in Ulaanbaatar in December 2015.[57]

International organisation participation

AsDB, ASEAN (observer), ASEM, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, SCO (observer)

Mongolia did not join the UN until 1961 because of repeated threats to veto by the Republic of China, which considered Mongolia to be part of its territory (see China and the United Nations).

See also

References

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