Foreign relations of Tajikistan are based on a desire to secure foreign investment and promote regional security while ensuring Tajikistan's independence. Sirodjidin Aslov is the current Foreign’s Minister of Tajikistan.[1]

Disputes

Outstanding boundary negotiations include talks begun with Uzbekistan to demine and delimit border; however, disputes in Isfara Valley delay completion of delimitation with Kyrgyzstan.[2]

Diplomatic relations

Diplomatic relations of Tajikistan
Diplomatic relations of Tajikistan

List of countries which Tajikistan has diplomatic relations with:[3]

  1.  Afghanistan – 15 July 1989 / 15 July 1992[4]
  2.  Australia – 26 December 1991
  3.  Canada – 1 January 1992 / 28 March 1992[4]
  4.  China – 4 January 1992
  5.  Iran – 9 January 1992
  6.  Mexico – 14 January 1992
  7.  United Kingdom – 15 January 1992
  8.  Denmark – 21 January 1992
  9.  Turkey – 29 January 1992
  10.  Japan – 2 February 1992
  11.  North Korea – 5 February 1992
  12.  Poland – 11 February 1992
  13.  United States – 14 February 1992
  14.  Saudi Arabia – 22 February 1992
  15.  Finland – 26 February 1992
  16.  Germany – 28 February 1992
  17.  Cyprus – February 1992
  18.  Bangladesh – 1 March 1992
  19.  France – 1 March 1992
  20.  State of Palestine – 6 March 1992
  21.  Malaysia – 11 March 1992
  22.  Austria – 25 March 1992
  23.  Cuba – 25 March 1992
  24.  Philippines – 25 March 1992
  25.  Israel – 26 March 1992
  26.  Syria – 29 March 1992
  27.  Russia – 8 April 1992
  28.  Mongolia – 24 April 1992
  29.  Ukraine – 24 April 1992
  30.  South Korea – 27 April 1992
  31.  Belgium – 29 April 1992
  32.  South Africa – 5 May 1992
  33.  Italy –15 May 1992
  34.  Luxembourg – 22 May 1992
  35.  Azerbaijan – 29 May 1992
  36.  Czech Republic – 5 June 1992
  37.  Pakistan – 5 June 1992
  38.  Norway – 10 June 1992[5]
  39.  Hungary – 2 July 1992
  40.  Vietnam –14 July 1992
  41.  Romania – 20 July 1992
  42.  Netherlands – 27 July 1992
  43.  Spain – 4 August 1992
  44.  Portugal – 4 August 1992
  45.  Thailand – 5 August 1992
  46.  Lithuania – 13 August 1992
  47.  India – 28 August 1992
  48.  New Zealand – August 1992 / 5 April 2013[4]
  49.  Greece – 30 September 1992
  50.  Armenia – 21 October 1992[6]
  51.  Uzbekistan – 22 October 1992
  52.   Switzerland – 9 December 1992
  53.  Sweden – 9 December 1992
  54.  Kazakhstan – 7 January 1993
  55.  Kyrgyzstan – 14 January 1993
  56.  Moldova – 26 January 1993
  57.  Turkmenistan – 27 January 1993
  58.  Slovakia – 4 February 1993
  59.  Chad – 27 February 1993
  60.  Egypt – 1 April 1993
  61.  Madagascar – 12 June 1993
  62.  Bulgaria – 14 June 1993
  63.  Maldives – 6 October 1993
  64.  Mali – 15 October 1993
  65.  Ghana – 2 November 1993[4]
  66.  Albania – 22 December 1993[4]
  67.  Guinea – 27 December 1993[4]
  68.  Latvia – 11 May 1994
  69.  Georgia – 4 August 1994
  70.  Indonesia – 27 August 1994
  71.  Chile – 14 October 1994 / December 2004[4]
  72.  Qatar – 13 December 1994
  73.  Morocco – 15 December 1994
  74.  Kuwait – 31 March 1995
  75.  Bahrain – 20 May 1995
  76.  Zambia – 31 October 1995
  77.  Serbia – 8 November 1995
  78.  Cambodia – 29 November 1995
  79.  Iraq – 30 November 1995
  80.  Singapore – 8 December 1995
  81.  United Arab Emirates – 18 December 1995
  82.  North Macedonia – 4 January 1996
  83.  Brazil – 29 March 1996
  84.   Holy See – 15 June 1996
  85.  Lebanon – 21 June 1996
  86.  Bolivia –9 August 1996[4]
  87.  Belarus – 5 September 1996
  88.  Bosnia and Herzegovina – 12 January 1997
  89.  Yemen – 25 February 1997
  90.  Algeria – 10 June 1997
  91.  Laos – 1 October 1997
  92.  Libya – 27 April 1998
  93.  Uruguay – 1 October 1998
  94.  Croatia – 1 April 1999
  95.  El Salvador – 7 April 1999
  96.  Myanmar – 29 September 1999
  97.  Peru – 21 January 2000[7]
  98.  Ireland – 18 June 2000
  99.  Costa Rica – 28 February 2001[7]
  100.  Sri Lanka – 26 April 2001[4]
  101.  Sovereign Military Order of Malta – 1 June 2001
  102.  Argentina – 14 September 2001
  103.  Slovenia – 4 April 2002
  104.  Brunei – 2 June 2004
  105.  Somalia – 28 July 2004
  106.  Uganda – 8 September 2005
  107.    Nepal – 13 September 2005
  108.  Sudan – 17 September 2005
  109.  Eritrea – 19 September 2005
  110.  Timor-Leste – 4 October 2005
  111.  Venezuela – 5 October 2005
  112.  Saint Lucia – 5 October 2005
  113.  Iceland – 14 February 2006
  114.  Estonia – 23 February 2006
  115.  Cameroon – 3 March 2006
  116.  Tunisia – 19 June 2006[4]
  117.  Montenegro – 3 August 2006
  118.  Guatemala – 22 August 2006[4]
  119.  Paraguay – 30 August 2007
  120.  Malta – 25 September 2007
  121.  Andorra – 9 November 2007
  122.  Oman – 15 November 2007
  123.  Liechtenstein – 28 January 2008
  124.  Marshall Islands – 18 February 2010[7]
  125.  Dominican Republic – 25 May 2010[4]
  126.  Fiji – 20 July 2010[7]
  127.  Antigua and Barbuda – 12 April 2011[7]
  128.  Dominica – 13 April 2011[7]
  129.  Tuvalu – 1 September 2011[7]
  130.  Burkina Faso – 12 January 2012[7]
  131.  Jordan – 13 January 2012[7]
  132.  Solomon Islands – 21 February 2012[7]
  133.  Ethiopia – 3 July 2012[4]
  134.  Colombia – 5 October 2012[8]
  135.  Bhutan – 24 January 2013[9]
  136.  Mozambique – 5 September 2013[7]
  137.  Benin – 8 July 2014[7]
  138.  Ivory Coast – 2 March 2016[7]
  139.  Togo – 2 March 2016[4]
  140.  Haiti – 9 March 2016[7]
  141.  Nicaragua – 30 March 2016[7]
  142.  Ecuador – 12 July 2016[7]
  143.  Monaco – 13 January 2017[4]
  144.  Djibouti – 17 March 2017[7]
  145.  Mauritius – 10 May 2017[7]
  146.  Republic of the Congo – 13 June 2017[4]
  147.  Niger – 26 August 2017[4]
  148.  Grenada – 13 October 2017[4]
  149.  Bahamas – 5 December 2017[7]
  150.  Jamaica – 11 December 2017[7]
  151.  Gambia – 18 December 2017[4]
  152.  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines – 18 December 2017[7]
  153.  Nauru – 20 December 2017[4]
  154.  Belize – 21 December 2017[7]
  155.  Samoa – 22 December 2017[7]
  156.  Seychelles – 28 December 2017[7]
  157.  Zimbabwe – 28 December 2017[7]
  158.  Federated States of Micronesia – 29 January 2018[4]
  159.  Palau – 30 January 2018[7]
  160.  Central African Republic – 15 February 2018[4]
  161.  Panama – 29 March 2018[4]
  162.  Equatorial Guinea – 21 May 2018[7]
  163.  Cabo Verde – 7 June 2018[7]
  164.  Saint Kitts and Nevis – 7 June 2018[7]
  165.  Rwanda – 30 July 2018[7]
  166.  San Marino – 3 August 2018[4]
  167.  Vanuatu – 16 August 2018[7]
  168.  Comoros – 17 August 2018[7]
  169.  Sao Tome and Principe – 24 September 2018[7]
  170.  Senegal – 24 September 2018[4]
  171.  Suriname – 2 October 2018[7]
  172.  Burundi – 18 October 2018[7]
  173.  Eswatini – 12 November 2018[7]
  174.  Kiribati – 5 April 2019[7]
  175.  Kenya – 6 August 2019[7]
  176.  Barbados – 8 November 2019[7]
  177.  Sierra Leone – 2 October 2020[7]
  178.  Angola – 5 October 2020[7]
  179.  Trinidad and Tobago – 26 February 2021[7]

Bilateral relations

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Afghanistan See Afghanistan–Tajikistan relations

Relations with neighboring Afghanistan began in 1992 and are generally satisfactory. The areas which form the two countries were once connected, especially during the Samanid, Ghaznavid, and Timurid periods. After a friendship treaty in 1750 between Ahmad Shah Durrani of Afghanistan and Mohammad Murad Beg of Bukhara, the Amu Darya (Oxus River) became the official border of Afghanistan. The Persian language is widely used in both countries, and there are slightly more Tajiks in Afghanistan than Tajikistan.[10]

In January 2007, with funding from the United States, Afghanistan and Tajikistan opened a bridge over the Pyanj River linking the two countries. Although the goal is to improve trade, the president of Tajikistan expressed concern that it could also increase drug traffic.[11] In March 2008, Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan issued a joint communique for expanding economic and cultural relations, including improving security.[12] In January 2009, the Afghan government agreed that Tajikistan owned 3,000 hectares of disputed land along the Pyanj River. The issue arose when the river shifted course, leaving several Tajik cotton fields on the Afghan side of the river.[13]

 Andorra 9 November 2007
 Armenia 21 October 1992 See Armenia–Tajikistan relations
 Austria See Austria–Tajikistan relations
 Australia

Australia is represented in Tajikistan by its embassy in Moscow.[19]

 Azerbaijan

Although both member of CIS, the economic relations between Azerbaijan and Tajikistan stays at a marginal level. However, in July 2012, Tajik Aluminium Company (TALCO) and Azerbaijani company Azeraluminium signed a cooperation agreement during the official visit of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan Emomali Rahmon to the Republic of Azerbaijan for the construction of an oil refinery in the south of Tajikistan.[20]

 Belize 21 December 2017

Both countries established diplomatic relations on December 21, 2017.[21]

 Bhutan 4 January 2013

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 4 January 2013.[22]

 Brazil 29 March 1996
  • Brazil is accredited to Tajikistan from its embassy in Islamabad, Pakistan.
  • Tajikistan does not have an embassy accredited to Brazil.
 Cambodia 29 November 1995
  • Cambodia embassy in Ankara, Turkey is presented for Tajikistan.
  • Tajikistan does not have an embassy accredited to Cambodia.
 Canada 1992
 China See China–Tajikistan relations

At the time of independence, portions of the Tajik boundary with the People's Republic of China were not defined. This boundary dispute was settled in agreements signed in 2002 that would cede 1,000 km² of the Pamir mountain range to China in return for China relinquishing claims to 28,000 km² of Tajik lands.

In 2016 the official press agency of the People's Republic of China announced that the state will set up an anti-terrorism alliance with Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan.[24]

 Croatia 1 April 1999
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 April 1999.[25][26]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
 Cyprus
  • Both countries have a bilateral agreements on Cooperation in the Fields of Public Health and Medical Science.[27]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
 Egypt 1 April 1993
  • Tajikistan has an embassy in Cairo.
 Estonia 2006
  • Tajikistan is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Minsk, Belarus.[28]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
 Finland 26 February 1992
* Tajikistan is accredited to Finland from its embassy in Minsk, Belarus.
 Georgia
  • Georgia is represented in Tajikistan by its embassy in Tashkent.[29]
  • Tajikistan is represented in Georgia by its embassy in Baku.[30]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
 Greece 1992 See Greece–Tajikistan relations
  • Greece is accredited to Tajikistan from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.[31]
  • Tajikistan is accredited to Greece from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
 Indonesia
  • Indonesia embassy in Nur-Sultan (Kazakhstan) is presented for Tajikistan.
  • Tajikistan is represented in Indonesia via it's embassy in KL.
 India See India-Tajikistan relations

Diplomatic relations between India and Tajikistan were established soon after Tajikistan gained independence following the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union. Tajikistan occupies a strategically important position in Central Asia, bordering Afghanistan and the People's Republic of China and separated by a small strip of Afghan territory from Pakistan. India's role in fighting the Taliban and al-Qaeda and its strategic rivalry with both China and Pakistan have made its ties with Tajikistan important to its strategic and security policies. India's military presence and activities have been significant, beginning with India's extensive support to the anti-Taliban Afghan Northern Alliance (ANA).

In 2002, India undertook a US$10 million project to upgrade an old Soviet military base in Ayni, Tajikistan which would support the Northern Alliance forces.[32] The base also had a hospital to treat injured anti-Taliban forces.[33] India provided extensive counter-insurgency military training to Tajikistan and also supplied them with new aircraft.[34] In 2003, the two countries also held a military exercise, the first such war-game by Indian troops in Central Asia.[35] Following the downfall of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan, the two countries signed a military agreement to increase military cooperation. Under this agreement, India has deployed 17 Mil Mi-17 helicopters and 150 Indian Army personnel at the Farkhor Air Base with a plan to deploy at least 12 IAF MiG-29s.[36][37]

Despite their common efforts, bilateral trade has been comparatively low, valued at US$12.09 million in 2005; India's exports to Tajikistan were valued at US$6.2 million and its imports at US$5.89 million.[38] A Tajik proposal to transmit electric power to India is currently under review.[39] India gave US$2 million worth emergency aid to Tajikistan during the 2008 Central Asia energy crisis.[40]

 Iran 1991 See Iran–Tajikistan relations

Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan has enjoyed a close relationship with Iran, helped along via a shared Persian identity. Iran was the first nation to establish an embassy in Dushanbe. It was also one of the first countries to extend diplomatic recognition of the newly independent Tajikistan in 1991. Iran provided diplomatic assistance and built new mosques within Tajikistan. Due to the resurgence of Iranian culture within Tajikistan, Iran helped encourage cultural exchange through conferences, media, and film festivals. Iranian television programs, magazines, and books became increasingly common in Tajikistan.

However, despite the many things the nations have in common, there are also vast differences. Tajikistan's post communist government is secular while Iran's is Islamic. Furthermore, Iran is a predominantly Shia nation while Tajikistan is Sunni. The leading figures of the Islamic revival movement in Tajikistan have stated that Iran would not be a model for whatever Islamic government they advocate for Tajikistan.

As of 2011 Iran is the second largest investor in Tajikistan after China.

 Israel April 1992

Both countries established diplomatic relations in April 1992.[41]

 Japan 2 February 1992

Diplomatic relations between Japan and Tajikistan were established on 2 February 1992. Japan opened an embassy at Dushanbe in January 2002, and Tajikistan opened an embassy in Tokyo in November 2007.[42]

 Laos
  • Laos embassy in Moscow (Russia) is presented for Tajikistan.
  • Tajikistan does not have an embassy accredited to Laos.
 Latvia 11 May 1994
  • Tajikistan is accredited to Latvia from its embassy in Minsk, Belarus.[43]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
 Lithuania 13 April 1992
  • Tajikistan is accredited to Lithuania from its embassy in Minsk, Belarus.[44]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
 Malaysia 11 March 1992 See Malaysia–Tajikistan relations

Tajikistan has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.[45]

 Malta 25 September 2007
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 September 2007.[46]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
 Mexico 14 January 1992
 Mongolia 24 April 1992
  • Mongolia is accredited to Tajikistan from its embassy in Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.
  • Tajikistan is accredited to Mongolia from its embassy in Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.[48]
 Montenegro 23 August 2006.
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 August 2006.[49]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
   Nepal 13 September 2005

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 13 September 2005.[50]

 Pakistan See Pakistan–Tajikistan relations

Relations between the two states were established when the republic of Tajikistan became independent following the collapse of the USSR. Trade and cooperation has steadily grown between the two nations, with several summits being held on how to improve trade between the two nations.[51][52] Although relations between the two countries had been strained by the situation in Afghanistan which shares a border with both countries.[53]

In March 2008 Said Saidbaig, the Tajik Ambassador, announced that his country would be able to export cheap electricity to Pakistan and Iran.[54]

There are hundreds of thousands Tajiks living in Pakistan, although nearly all are from Afghanistan, not Tajikistan.

 Poland See Poland–Tajikistan relations
 Romania 20 July 1992
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 20 July 1992.[55]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
 Russia See Russia–Tajikistan relations
Embassy of Tajikistan in Moscow
Embassy of Tajikistan in Moscow

Until 2005, Russia had 11,000 border guards manning the Tajik frontier with Afghanistan. In September 2012, and after months of negotiating, Russia and Tajikistan have reached an agreement on what Russia will pay for its bases in Tajikistan and extended the lease to 20 or 29 years. The bases are used for 9,000 Russian troops of the 201st Motor Rifle Division. The new deal with Tajikistan makes it worthwhile for Russia to upgrade the four army camps and one air base they occupy. To get the long lease, Russia agreed to sell Tajikistan weapons and military equipment at a sharp discount and train Tajik officers in Russian schools, for free, for the duration of the deal. Tajikistan also promises to help keep the heroin out of Russia.[56]

 Serbia 9 September 1995
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations on 9 September 1995, Tajikistan strongly supports Serbia in Kosovo issue.[57]
  • In 2011, the total trade value amounted EUR 5,64 million.[57]
 South Africa 5 May 1992

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 5 May 1992.[58]

 South Korea

From 1992 to 1993 South Korea has provided Tajikistan with $50,000 worth of aid and with $500,000 worth of equipment during the Afghanistan crisis.[59]

 Spain 4 August 1992 See Spain–Tajikistan relations
  • Spain is accredited to Tajikistan from its embassy in Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.
  • Tajikistan is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Geneva, Switzerland.
  Switzerland 9 December 1992
 Turkey Jan. 29, 1992[61] See Tajikistan–Turkey relations
 Ukraine 24 April 1993
 United Kingdom
 United States See Tajikistan–United States relations
Embassy of Tajikistan in Washington, D.C.
Embassy of Tajikistan in Washington, D.C.

U.S.-Tajik relations have developed considerably since September 11, 2001. The two countries now have a broad-based relationship, cooperating in such areas as counter-narcotics, counter-terrorism, non-proliferation, and regional growth and stability. In light of the Russian border forces' withdrawal from the Tajik-Afghan border, the U.S. Government leads an international donor effort to enhance Tajikistan's territorial integrity, prevent the transit of narcotics and material or technology related to weapons of mass destruction (WMD), and support a stable, peaceful Tajikistan in order to prevent the spread of influence and activities of radical groups and terrorists.

 Vietnam 14 July 1992
  • Tajikistan is accredited to Vietnam through its embassy in Beijing, China.[67][68]

Inter-governmental organisation membership

Tajikistan is a member of the following international organisations:

See also

References

  1. ^ "Aslov Sirodjidin Muhridinovich - Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Tajikistan". The Embassy of the Republic of Tajikistan to the Swiss Confederation. Retrieved 2016-09-21.
  2. ^ CIA World Factbook 2000 says, "territorial dispute with Tajikistan on southwestern boundary in Isfara Valley area; periodic target of Islamic terrorists from Uzbekistan and Tajikistan"
  3. ^ "Tajikistan diplomacy: The past and the present I" (PDF). p. 166. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y "LIST OF STATES WITH WHICH THE REPUBLIC OF TAJIKISTAN ESTABLISHED DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS" (PDF). November 2018. Retrieved 30 April 2021.
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Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State document: "Tajikistan".. State.gov (2010-09-22). Retrieved on 2010-10-21.