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Turkish ambassador's residence in Embassy of Turkey, Washington, D.C.

Physically bridging Europe and Asia and being above Africa, Turkey is a secular country that has historically pursued a Western-oriented foreign policy.[1] To this end, Turkey uses its global diplomatic network—the third most extensive—of 252 diplomatic and consular missions.[2][3][4]

Since the Cold War, Turkey's most important ally has been the United States, which shared Turkey's interest in containing Soviet expansion.[5][6] In support of the United States, Turkey contributed personnel to the UN forces in the Korean War (1950–1953), joined NATO in 1952, recognized Israel in 1949 and has cooperated closely with it.[7]

Turkey's alliance with Israel during the Arab–Israeli conflict strained its relations with the Arab world,[8] and Iran,[1] and subsequently led to overt Syrian support for Palestinian and Armenian militant operations against Turkish diplomats abroad until 1990.[9][10][11]

History

Historically, the Foreign relations of the Ottoman Empire and later Turkey balanced regional and global powers off against one another, forming alliances that best protected the interests of the incumbent regime.[12] The Soviet Union played a major role in supplying weapons to and financing Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's faction during the Turkish War of Independence but Turkey's followed a course of relative international isolation during the period of Atatürk's Reforms in 1920s and 1930s. International conferences gave Turkey full control of the strategic straits linking the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, through the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923 and the Montreux Convention of 1936.[13]

In the late 1930s Nazi Germany made a major effort to promote anti-Soviet propaganda in Turkey and exerted economic pressure. Britain and France, eager to outmaneuver Germany, negotiated a tripartite treaty in 1939. They gave Turkey a line of credit to purchase war materials from the West and a loan to facilitate the purchase of commodities.[14] Afraid of threats from Germany and Russia, Turkey maintained neutrality.[15] It sold chrome—an important war material—to both sides. It was clear by 1944 that Germany would be defeated and the chrome sales to Germany stopped.[16][17][18]

After 1945

Northern Cyprus is considered one of Turkey’s closest allies.

After World War II Turkey sought closer relations with Western powers. It became a founding member of the United Nations in 1945, a recipient of Marshall Plan aid and a member of North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1952. European Union–Turkey relations warmed during the Cold War period and the post-Cold War period has seen a diversification of relations, with Turkey, at various moments, seeking to strengthen its regional presence in the Balkans, the Middle East and the Caucasus, as well as taking steps toward EU membership.

The independence of the Turkic states of the Soviet Union in 1991, with which Turkey shares a common cultural, historic and linguistic heritage, allowed Turkey to extend its economic and political relations deep into Central Asia.[19] The International Organization of Turkic Culture (TURKSOY) was established in 1993, and the Organization of Turkic States (OTS) was established in 2009. The Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan pipeline, a multi-billion-dollar oil and natural gas pipeline that extends from Baku in Azerbaijan to the port of Ceyhan in Turkey, forms part of Turkey's foreign policy strategy to become an energy conduit from the Caspian Sea basin to Europe. Turkey sealed its land border with Armenia in a gesture of support to Azerbaijan (a Turkic state in the Caucasus region) during the First (1993) and Second (2020) Nagorno-Karabakh Wars, and it remains closed.[20] Armenia and Turkey started diplomatic talks in order to normalize the relationship between the two countries. The discussions include opening the closed borders and starting trade. Turkey and Armenia have also restarted commercial flights between the two countries.[21]

Under the AKP government (2003–), Turkey's economy has grown rapidly and the country's influence has grown in the Middle East based on a strategic depth doctrine, sometimes mistakenly called Neo-Ottomanism.[22][23] Debate on Turkey's foreign relations is controversial both within Turkey itself and outside the country. In the West, there is a divide between those who are worried about Turkey's perceived movement away from the West toward a less democratic, more Islamic or more pro-Russian and pro-Chinese[24] orientation and those who do not see Turkey's changing political structure, growing regional power and diversification of relations with countries such as Russia as a threat.[25]

Diplomatic relations

Despite being one of the first countries to recognize Armenia's independence, Turkey has never established formal diplomatic relations with Armenia. Turkey formerly had diplomatic relations with Cyprus, Syria and Taiwan.

List of countries which Turkey maintains diplomatic relations with:

# Country Date
1  Russia 31 August 1492[26]
2  Austria 1526[27]
3  United Kingdom 23 April 1583[28]
4  Sweden 1603[29]
5  Netherlands 1612[30]
6  United States 13 September 1831[31]
7  Greece 24 August 1833[32]
8  Iran 1835[33]
9  Belgium 4 April 1838[34]
10  Portugal 20 March 1843[35]
11  Italy 25 September 1856[36]
12  Guatemala 18 July 1874[37]
13  Romania 22 October 1878[38]
14  Bulgaria July 1879[39]
15  Serbia 1879[40]
16   Switzerland 1899[41]
17  Norway 31 December 1905[42]
18  Afghanistan 1 March 1921[43]
19  France 20 October 1921[44]
20  Poland 23 July 1923[45]
21  Albania 15 December 1923[46]
22  Spain 27 September 1924[47]
23  Czech Republic 11 October 1924[48]
24  Finland 9 December 1924[49]
25  Denmark 26 January 1925[50]
26  Japan March 1925[51]
27  Egypt 8 May 1925[52]
28  Chile 30 January 1926[53]
29  Ethiopia 30 January 1926[54]
30  Argentina 29 June 1926[55]
31  Brazil 8 September 1927[56]
32  Iraq 16 January 1928[57]
33  Mexico 12 July 1928[58]
34  Saudi Arabia 3 August 1929[59]
35  Uruguay 8 December 1933[60]
36  Canada 25 November 1943[61]
37  Yemen 4 March 1946[62]
38  Lebanon 8 March 1946[63]
 Syria (suspended) 8 March 1946[63]
39  Haiti 10 July 1946[64]
40  Luxembourg 10 July 1946[65]
41  Hungary 23 January 1947[66]
42  Jordan 31 March 1947[67]
43  India 15 August 1947[68]
44  Pakistan 30 November 1947[69]
45  Sri Lanka 4 February 1948[70]
46  Philippines 13 June 1949[71]
47  Israel January 1950[72]
48  Honduras 4 April 1950[73]
49  Panama 14 April 1950[74]
50  Bolivia 26 July 1950[75]
51  Indonesia 30 July 1950[76]
52  Costa Rica 21 September 1950[77]
53  El Salvador 21 September 1950[78]
54  Nicaragua 21 September 1950[79]
55  Venezuela 29 December 1950[80]
56  Ireland 2 October 1951[81]
57  Dominican Republic 28 November 1951[82]
58  Germany 21 June 1952[83]
59  Cuba 25 November 1952[84]
60  Libya 30 December 1952[85]
61  Peru 1952[86]
62  Paraguay 11 September 1953[87]
63  Morocco 17 April 1956[88]
64  Tunisia 1956[89]
65  South Korea 8 March 1957[90]
66  Sudan 20 July 1957[91]
67  Iceland 25 November 1957[92]
68  Thailand 12 May 1958[93]
69  Laos 20 June 1958[94]
70  Liberia 1 August 1958[95]
71  Myanmar 2 September 1958[96]
72  Ghana 1958[97][98]
73  Colombia 10 April 1959[99]
74  Ecuador 11 December 1959[100]
 Holy See 25 January 1960[101]
 Cyprus (suspended) 18 August 1960[102]
75  Nigeria 16 February 1961[103]
76  Cameroon 11 October 1962[104][105]
77  Guinea 11 October 1962[105]
78    Nepal 15 November 1962[106]
79  Togo 6 December 1962[107]
80  Madagascar 30 January 1963[108]
81  Gabon 1 February 1963[109]
82  Mali 17 April 1963[110]
83  Algeria 30 June 1963[111]
84  Tanzania 5 July 1963[112]
85  Senegal 17 October 1963[113]
86  Kuwait 10 January 1964[114]
87  Malaysia 17 June 1964[115]
88  Ivory Coast 14 July 1964[116]
89  Somalia 13 December 1965[117]
90  Gambia 1965[118]
91  Australia 28 February 1967[119]
92  Niger 30 March 1967[120]
93  Malta 10 October 1967[121]
94  Kenya 30 March 1968[122]
95  Singapore 12 February 1969[123]
96  Mongolia 24 June 1969[124]
97  Malawi 4 August 1969[125]
98  Uganda 18 September 1969[126]
99  Chad 27 January 1970[127]
100  Burkina Faso 6 April 1970[128]
101  Mauritania 14 April 1970[129]
102  Sierra Leone 15 February 1971[130]
103  Zambia 25 February 1971[131]
104  Jamaica 30 March 1971[132]
105  China 4 August 1971[133]
106  Trinidad and Tobago 22 May 1972[134]
107  Barbados 20 September 1972[135]
108  Qatar 20 March 1973[136]
109  United Arab Emirates 21 March 1973[137]
110  Bahrain 12 April 1973[138]
111  Guyana 2 May 1973[139]
112  Oman 18 June 1973[140]
113  Bangladesh 22 February 1974[141]
114  Benin 29 March 1974[142]
115  Bahamas 5 November 1974[143]
116  Grenada 8 May 1975[144]
117  Democratic Republic of the Congo 22 October 1975[145]
118  Fiji 17 November 1975[146]
119  Guinea-Bissau 1975[147]
120  Tonga 26 January 1976[148]
121  Nauru 27 April 1976[149]
122  Suriname 29 June 1976[150]
123  Mauritius 18 October 1976[151]
124  Vietnam 7 June 1978[152]
125  New Zealand 12 December 1978[153]
126  Solomon Islands 8 March 1979[154]
127  Samoa 12 April 1979[155]
128  Maldives 28 May 1979[156]
129  Papua New Guinea 30 May 1979[157]
130  Cape Verde 24 June 1979[158]
131  Djibouti 25 June 1979[159]
132  Tuvalu 19 July 1979[160]
133  Comoros 22 August 1979[161]
134  Central African Republic 29 January 1980[162]
135  Rwanda 18 February 1980[163]
136  Burundi 30 April 1980[164]
137  Angola 9 July 1980[165]
138  Equatorial Guinea 16 September 1980[166]
139  Lesotho 1980[167]
140  Botswana 20 January 1981[168]
141  Eswatini 20 January 1981[169]
142  Mozambique 20 January 1981[170]
143  Republic of the Congo 9 November 1981[171]
144  São Tomé and Príncipe 1981[172]
145  Zimbabwe 2 July 1982[173]
 Northern Cyprus 1983[174]
146  Brunei 27 June 1984[175]
147  Belize November 1987[176]
148  Namibia 27 March 1990[177]
149  Lithuania 3 September 1991[178]
150  Latvia 22 October 1991[179]
151  Estonia 23 October 1991[180]
 State of Palestine 19 December 1991[181]
152  Kyrgyzstan 23 December 1991[182]
153  Azerbaijan 14 January 1992[183]
154  Tajikistan 29 January 1992[184]
155  Moldova 3 February 1992[185]
156  Turkmenistan 29 February 1992[186]
157  Kazakhstan 2 March 1992[187]
158  Ukraine 3 March 1992[188]
159  Uzbekistan 4 March 1992[189]
160  Belarus 25 March 1992[190]
161  Georgia 21 May 1992[191]
162  Croatia 26 August 1992[192]
163  North Macedonia 26 August 1992[193]
164  Slovenia 26 August 1992[194]
165  Bosnia and Herzegovina 29 August 1992[195]
166  Liechtenstein 2 October 1992[196]
167  South Africa 12 October 1992[197]
168  Slovakia 1 January 1993[198]
169  Eritrea 19 July 1993[199]
170  Cambodia 14 June 1994[200]
171  Seychelles 22 June 1995[201]
172  Vanuatu 14 July 1995[202]
173  Andorra 8 October 1998[203]
174  Antigua and Barbuda June 1999[204]
175  North Korea 27 June 2001[205]
176  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4 April 2002[206]
177  East Timor 20 May 2002[207]
178  Saint Lucia 25 May 2005[208]
179  San Marino 12 October 2005[209]
180  Dominica 13 April 2006[210]
181  Palau 2 May 2006[211]
182  Montenegro 3 July 2006[212]
183  Federated States of Micronesia 6 December 2006[213]
 Kosovo 18 February 2008[214]
184  Marshall Islands 11 April 2008[215]
185  Kiribati 20 June 2008[216]
186  Monaco 16 September 2008[217]
 Cook Islands 20 October 2008[218]
187  Saint Kitts and Nevis 3 June 2010[219]
188  South Sudan 9 July 2011[220]
189  Bhutan 26 September 2012[221]
 Niue 7 June 2014[222]

Bilateral relations

Multilateral

Organization Formal Relations Began Notes
 European Union See European Union–Turkey relations and Accession of Turkey to the European Union
President of the European Commission Ursula von der Leyen and Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan in Vilnius, July 2023
 NATO See Turkey in NATO

Africa

There has been a revival in Turkey's relation with Africa after 1998 and civil society is the leading factor in this process.[223] Initially this revival came as a passive attempt, but after 2005 it became an offensive interest in developing relations with the continent. The recent Turkey–Africa Cooperation Summit in 2008 marks the latest stage in Turkey's keen interest in developing relations with Africa, and should be seen as a turning point.[224] Turkey since its involvement in Somalia in 2011, is eager to be considered as a political actor in the continent.[225][226]

Northern Africa

Country/Region Relations began Notes Free trade agreement
 Algeria See Algeria–Turkey relations X
 Egypt 8 May 1925[230] See Egypt–Turkey relations [235]
 Libya 30 December 1952[236] See Libya–Turkey relations
  • Libya has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Tripoli.[237] and a Consulate General in Misurata.[238]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.87 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 1.50/0.37 billion USD).[239]
  • 188,312 Libyan tourists visited Turkey in 2018.[239]
X
 Mauritania 14 April 1970[129] See Mauritania–Turkey relations X
 Morocco 17 April 1956[241] See Morocco–Turkey relations
  • Morocco has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Rabat.[242]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 2.71 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 1.99/0.72 billion USD).[243]
  • 114,155 Moroccan tourists visited Turkey in 2017.[243]
  • Yunus Emre Institute has a local headquarters in Rabat.
[235]
 Sudan 20 July 1957[91] See Sudan–Turkey relations X
 Tunisia 1956[244] See Tunisia–Turkey relations [235]

Sub–Saharan Africa

Since 2008, Turkey has prioritized friendly relations with Africa partly to build friendly and conflict–free relations, which was not available in the hostile atmosphere in its neighborhood.[247] Capitalizing on a strong sentiment of fellowship among Turkish people towards Africans, economic and diplomatic relations with Africa flourished: Foreign trade between sub-Saharan Africa and Turkey increased from US$581 million[248] in 1998 to US$5.08[249] billion in 2015.

Dating back to 1800, Turkey's relations with sub-Saharan Africa flourished from the 1860s—when the Ottoman Empire started sending trained imams to the region—until 1885 when other European colonial powers blocked Ottoman influence.[250] Relations were restored in the 1950s,[251] and gained momentum when Emperor Haile Selassie visited Turkey in March 1967 and December 1969.[252]

Since 2008, Turkey has contributed to the region through participation in peacekeeping missions, including the UN Mission in Ivory Coast (UNOC), the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Central African Republic, Chad.[253]

Turkey has also dramatically increased financial aid to the region,[248] providing a total of US$6.38 billion to the region just between 2006 and 2011[254] including the 2011 donation of US$200 million to fight the famine in East Africa.[253]

Country/Region Relations began Notes Free trade agreement
 Angola 9 July 1980[255] See Angola–Turkey relations X
 Benin 29 March 1974[258] See Benin–Turkey relations
  • Benin closed its embassy in Ankara in 2021.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Cotonou.[259]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 142 million USD in 2019.[259]
  • There are direct flights from Istanbul to Cotonou since 2014.[259]
X
 Botswana 20 January 1981[260]
  • Permanent Representation of Botswana in the UN Geneva Office is also accredited to Turkey.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Gaborone.[261]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 2.9 million USD in 2019.[261]
X
 Burkina Faso 6 April 1970[262] See Burkina Faso–Turkey relations X
 Burundi 30 April 1980[264] See Burundi–Turkey relations
  • Burundi has an Embassy in Ankara.[265]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Bujumbura.[265]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 3.1 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 2.6/0.5 million USD).[265]
X
 Cameroon 9 August 1963[266] See Cameroon–Turkey relations
  • Cameroon has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Yaoundé.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 205 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 151/54 million USD).[267]
  • There are direct flights from Istanbul to Yaoundé.
X
 Cape Verde 24 June 1979[268] See Cape Verde–Turkey relations X
 Central African Republic 18 February 1980[270] See Central African Republic–Turkey relations X
 Chad 27 January 1970[272] See Chad–Turkey relations
  • Chad has an Embassy in Ankara.[273]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in N'Djamena.[273]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 72.4 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 39.9/32.5 million USD).[273]
  • There are direct flights from Istanbul to N'Djamena since 12 December 2013.[273]
X
 Comoros 22 August 1979[274] See Comoros–Turkey relations X
 Congo 9 November 1981[171] See Republic of the Congo–Turkey relations
  • Congo has an Embassy in Ankara.[276]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Brazzaville.[276]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 57.25 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 55.8/1.47 million USD).[276]
X
 Côte d'Ivoire 14 July 1964[116] See Ivory Coast–Turkey relations X
 Democratic Republic of Congo 22 October 1975[145] See Democratic Republic of Congo–Turkey relations X
 Djibouti 25 June 1979[159] See Djibouti–Turkey relations X
 Eritrea 19 July 1993[199] See Eritrea–Turkey relations
  • The ambassador of Eritrea in Doha to Qatar is also accredited to Turkey.[280]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Asmara.[280]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 13.9 million USD in 2019.[280]
X
 Equatorial Guinea 16 September 1980[166] See Equatorial Guinea–Turkey relations X
 Eswatini 20 January 1981[282] X
 Ethiopia 30 January 1926, severed in 1936, re-established 23 December 1957[284] See Ethiopia–Turkey relations
  • Ethiopia has an Embassy in Ankara.[285]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Addis Ababa.[285]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 398.8 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 378.3/27.5 million USD).[285]
X
 Gabon 1 February 1963[286] See Gabon–Turkey relations X
 Gambia 1965[118] See Gambia–Turkey relations X
 Ghana See Ghana–Turkey relations Pending Ratification[235]
 Guinea See Guinea–Turkey relations X
 Guinea Bissau See Guinea-Bissau–Turkey relations X
 Kenya 30 March 1968[122] See Kenya–Turkey relations X
 Lesotho 1980[167]
  • The Embassy of Lesotho in Rome is also accredited to Turkey.[292]
  • The Turkish ambassador in Pretoria to South Africa is also accredited to Lesotho.[292]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.65 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 1.62/0.03 million USD).[292]
X
 Liberia 1 August 1958[95] See Liberia–Turkey relations X
 Madagascar See Madagascar–Turkey relations
  • Embassy of Madagascar in Rome to Italy is also accredited to Turkey.[294]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Antananarivo.[294]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 76.5 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 71.3/5.2 million USD).[294]
X
 Mali 17 April 1963[295] See Mali–Turkey relations
  • Mali has an Embassy in Ankara.[296]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Bamako.[296]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 57 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 48.4/8.6 million USD).[296]
X
 Malawi 4 August 1969[125] See Malawi–Turkey relations
  • The Embassy of Malawi in Berlin to Germany is also accredited to Turkey.[297]
  • The Turkish ambassador in Lusaka to Zambia is also accredited to Malawi.[297]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 21 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 4.67/16.4 million USD).[297]
X
 Mauritius 18 October 1976[151] See Mauritius–Turkey relations [235]
 Mozambique 20 January 1981[299] See Mozambique–Turkey relations X
 Namibia 27 March 1990[177] See Namibia–Turkey relations
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Windhoek.[301]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 11.84 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 9.40/2.44 million USD).[301]
X
 Niger 30 March 1967[120] See Niger–Turkey relations X
 Nigeria 16 February 1961[303] See Nigeria–Turkey relations X
 Rwanda 18 February 1980[305] See Rwanda–Turkey relations
  • Rwanda has an Embassy in Ankara.[306]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Kigali.[306]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 32.4 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 32.2/0.2 million USD).[306]
X
 São Tomé and Príncipe X
 Senegal 17 October 1963[308] See Senegal–Turkey relations X
 Seychelles 22 June 1995[310] See Seychelles–Turkey relations
  • The Embassy of Seychelles in Paris is also accredited to Turkey.[311]
  • The Turkish ambassador in Nairobi to Kenya is also accredited to the Seychelles.[311]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 25.4 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 17.7/7.7 million USD).[311]
X
 Sierra Leone 15 February 1971[130] See Sierra Leone–Turkey relations X
 Somalia 13 December 1965[117] See Somalia–Turkey relations X
 South Africa 12 October 1992[314] See South Africa–Turkey relations X
 South Sudan 9 July 2011[220] See South Sudan–Turkey relations X
 Tanzania 5 July 1963[317] See Tanzania–Turkey relations X
 Togo 6 December 1962[319] See Togo–Turkey relations
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Lomé (planned).[320]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 106 million USD in 2019.[320]
X
 Uganda 18 September 1969[126] See Turkey–Uganda relations X
 Zambia 25 February 1971[131] See Turkey–Zambia relations
  • Zambia has an Embassy in Ankara.[322]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Lusaka.[322]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 23.7 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 17.8/5.9 million USD).[322]
  • There are direct flights from Istanbul to Lusaka since 14 December 2018.[322]
X
 Zimbabwe 2 July 1982[173] See Turkey–Zimbabwe relations
  • Zimbabwe has an Embassy in Ankara.[323]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Harare.[323]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 17.7 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 5.9/11.8 million USD).[323]
X

Americas

Southern Cone

Country/Region Relations began Notes Free trade agreement
 Argentina 29 June 1926[55] See Argentina–Turkey relations
President Erdoğan with then-president Mauricio Macri in Buenos Aires.
  • Argentina has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Buenos Aires.
  • Both countries are members of G20 and WTO.
  • Flights from Istanbul to Buenos Aires via São Paulo commenced in December 2013 and are taking place on a daily basis.[324]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 455 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 161/294 million USD.[324]
  • 64,483 Argentine tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 Chile 30 January 1926[53] See Chile–Turkey relations
President Erdoğan and Sebastián Piñera
  • Chile has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Santiago.
  • Both countries are members of OECD and WTO.
  • Chile–Turkey Free Trade Agreement was signed on 14 July 2009 and is in effect since 1 March 2011.[325]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 579 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 344/236 million USD.[325]
  • 18,509 Chilean tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
  • Chile was the first country in Latin America that recognized Turkey.
[235]
 Paraguay 11 September 1953[87] See Paraguay–Turkey relations
  • Paraguay has an Embassy in Ankara.[326]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Asunción.[326]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 82.1 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 47.1/35 million USD).[326]
  • 1,328 Paraguayan tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 Uruguay 8 December 1933[60] See Turkey–Uruguay relations
  • Uruguay has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate-general in Istanbul.[327]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Montevideo.[327]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 341.4 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 42.8/298.6 million USD).[327]
  • 7,191 Uruguayan tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X

North America

Country Relations began Notes Free trade agreement
 Canada 25 November 1943[61] See Canada–Turkey relations X
 Mexico 12 July 1928[58] See Mexico–Turkey relations
President Erdoğan visiting Mexico with former Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto
X
 United States 13 September 1831, relations broke off 20 April 1917, re-established 17 February 1927[333] See Turkey–United States relations
Presidents Erdoğan and Trump with the First Ladies.
X

Caribbean

Country/Region Relations began Notes Free trade agreement
 Antigua and Barbuda June 1999[204] X
 Bahamas 5 November 1974[143] See Bahamas–Turkey relations X
 Barbados 20 September 1972[135] X
 Cuba 25 November 1952[84] See Cuba–Turkey relations
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Havana.[337]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 54.7 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 42.9/11.8 million USD).[337]
  • The Ottoman Empire Embassy to Cuba opened in 1873.[338]
X
 Dominica 13 April 2006[339] X
 Dominican Republic 28 November 1951[341] See Dominican Republic–Turkey relations
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Santo Domingo.[342]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 132.7 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 118.6/14.1 million USD).[342]
X
 Grenada 8 May 1975[144] X
 Haiti 1950[344] See Haiti–Turkey relations X
 Jamaica 30 March 1971[132] See Jamaica–Turkey relations
  • The Turkish ambassador in Havana to Cuba is also accredited to Jamaica.[345]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 90.5 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 90/0.5 million USD).[345]
X
 St. Kitts and Nevis X
 St. Lucia 25 May 2005[208] X
 St. Vincent and Grenadines 4 April 2002[348] See Saint Vincent and the Grenadines–Turkey relations X
 Trinidad and Tobago 22 May 1972[134] See Trinidad and Tobago–Turkey relations
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Port of Spain.[350]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 120.8 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 68.4/52.4 million USD).[350]
X

Central America

Country/Region Relations began Notes Free trade agreement
 Belize November 1987[351] See Belize–Turkey relations X
 Costa Rica 21 September 1950[77] See Costa Rica–Turkey relations
  • Costa Rica has an Embassy in Ankara.[353]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in San Jose.[353]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 100 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 58.9/41.8 million USD).[353]
X
 El Salvador 21 September 1950[78]
  • El Salvador has an embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an embassy in San Salvador.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 17.1 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 14.8/2.3 million USD).[354]
X
 Guatemala 1952[355] See Guatemala–Turkey relations X
 Honduras 4 April 1950[73]
  • The Turkish ambassador in Guatemala City to Guatemala is also accredited to Honduras.[357]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 19.8 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 15/4.8 million USD).[357]
X
 Nicaragua 21 September 1950[78] See Nicaragua–Turkey relations
  • The Turkish ambassador in San José to Costa Rica is also accredited to Nicaragua.[358]
  • Nicaraguan Embassy in Berlin to Germany is also accredited to Turkey.[358]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 11.6 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 11.1/0.5 million USD).[358]
X
 Panama 14 April 1950[74] See Panama–Turkey relations
  • Panama has an Embassy in Ankara.[359]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Panama.[359]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 260.9 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 248.8/12.1 million USD).[359]
X

Latin America, rest of

Country/Region Relations began Notes Free trade agreement
 Bolivia 26 July 1950[75] See Bolivia–Turkey relations
  • Turkey has an Embassy in La Paz.[360]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 130 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 22/108 million USD).[360]
  • 2,491 Bolivian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 Brazil 8 September 1927[361] See Brazil–Turkey relations
Prime Minister Erdoğan meets with President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva.
X
 Colombia 10 April 1959[99] See Colombia–Turkey relations
  • Colombia has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Bogotá.
  • Both countries are members of OECD and WTO.
  • Flights from Istanbul to Bogotá commenced in May 2016.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.7 billion USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 0.25/1.46 billion USD).[363]
  • 70,974 Colombian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 Ecuador 11 December 1959[364][365] See Ecuador–Turkey relations
  • Ecuador has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Quito and a Consulate General in Guayaquil.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 117 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 59/58 million USD).[366]
  • 8,416 Ecuadorian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 Guyana 2 May 1973[139] X
 Peru 1952[368] See Peru–Turkey relations
  • Peru has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.[369]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Lima.[369]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 250 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 177.4/72.6 million USD).[369]
  • 11,430 Peruvian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 Suriname 29 June 1976[370] See Suriname–Turkey relations X
 Venezuela 29 December 1950[citation needed] See Turkey–Venezuela relations
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Caracas and an Honorary Consulate in Maracaibo.[372]
  • Venezuela has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 150 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 130/20 million USD).[372]
X

Asia and Oceania

Turkic states

Country/Region Relations began Notes Free trade agreement
 Azerbaijan 14 Jan. 1992[373] See Azerbaijan–Turkey relations X
 Kazakhstan 2 March 1992[375] See Kazakhstan–Turkey relations X
 Kyrgyzstan 29 Jan. 1992[377] See Kyrgyzstan–Turkey relations X
 Turkmenistan 29 Feb. 1992[380] See Turkey–Turkmenistan relations X
 Uzbekistan 4 March 1992[382] See Turkey–Uzbekistan relations X

Asia-Pacific

Country/Region Relations began Notes Free trade agreement
 Afghanistan 1 March 1921[384] See Afghanistan–Turkey relations X
 Australia 1967[386] See Australia–Turkey relations X
 Bangladesh See Bangladesh–Turkey relations
  • Bangladesh has an Embassy in Ankara.[388]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Dhaka.[388]
  • Both countries are members of OIC.[388]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 934 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 427/509 million USD).[389]
X
 Bhutan 26 September 2012[390]
  • Bhutan and Turkey cooperate through their respective embassies in New Delhi.[391]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.58 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 0.1/1.48 million USD).[392]
X
 Brunei Darussalam 27 June 1984[393] See Brunei–Turkey relations X
 Cambodia 1959[396] See Cambodia–Turkey relations
  • Cambodia has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Phnom Penh.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 108.4 million USD in 2015 (Turkish exports/imports: 13.7/94.7 million USD).[397]
X
 China 1971[398] See China–Turkey relations X
 Cook Islands 28 Oct. 2008[403] X
 East Timor 20 May 2002[404] See East Timor–Turkey relations X
 Fiji 17 Dec. 1975[405] X
 India 15 Aug. 1947[68] See India–Turkey relations
Prime Minister Erdoğan meets with Narendra Modi in India.
  • India has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in New Delhi and Consulates General in Hyderabad and Mumbai.[68]
  • Both countries are members of G20 and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 7.80 billion USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 1.17/6.64 billion USD).[406]
  • 230,131 Indian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 Indonesia 1950[407] See Indonesia–Turkey relations
  • Indonesia has an Embassy in Ankara.[408]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Jakarta.[408]
  • Both countries are members of D-8, G20, MIKTA, OIC and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.85 billion USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 0.21/1.64 billion USD).[409]
  • 127,149 Indonesian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
  • 2,400 Indonesian citizens reside in Turkey.[408]
X
 Japan 1890[410] See Japan–Turkey relations X
 Kiribati 2008[414] X
 Laos 1958[415] See Laos–Turkey relations
  • The Embassy of Laos in Vienna is also accredited to Turkey.[415]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Vientiane.[415]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 2.92 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 1.44/1.48 billion USD).[416]
X
 Maldives 1979[417] See Maldives–Turkey relations
  • The Permanent Mission of the Republic of Maldives to the United Nations Office in Geneva is also accredited to Turkey.[417]
  • The Turkish ambassador in New Delhi to India is also accredited to the Maldives.[417]
  • Both countries are members of OIC.[417]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 46.5 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 28.2/18.3 million USD).[418]
  • There are direct flights from Istanbul to Malé since 24 November 2012.
X
 Malaysia 1964[419] See Malaysia–Turkey relations
 Marshall Islands 9 April 2008[421] See Marshall Islands–Turkey relations X
 Micronesia 6 August 2007[422] X
 Mongolia 24 June 1969[424] See Mongolia–Turkey relations X
 Myanmar 1958[426] See Myanmar–Turkey relations
  • The Burmese Embassy in Cairo to Egypt is also accredited to Turkey.[426]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Yangon.[426]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 38.7 million USD in 2015 (Turkish exports/imports: 30.7/8 million USD).[427]
X
 Nauru X
 New Zealand 12 December 1978[429] See New Zealand–Turkey relations
  • New Zealand has an Embassy in Ankara.[430]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Wellington.[430]
  • Both countries are members of OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 152.8 million USD in 2015 (Turkish exports/imports: 90.1/62.7 million USD).[431]
  • 20,912 New Zealanders visited Turkey in 2019.
  • 1,700 Turkish citizens reside in New Zealand.[430]
X
 Niue 7 June 2014[432]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was negligible in 2018.
X
 North Korea 15 Jan. 2001[433] See North Korea–Turkey relations X
 Pakistan 1947[434] See Pakistan–Turkey relations X
 Palau 10 May 2007[439]
  • Turkish ambassador in Tokyo to Japan is also accredited to Palau.[439]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 3.7 million USD in 2014.[439]
X
 Papua New Guinea 30 May 1979[440] X
 Philippines 13 June 1949[441] See Philippines–Turkey relations
  • Philippines has an Embassy in Ankara.[441]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Manila.[441]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 219.7 million USD in 2015 (Turkish exports/imports: 104/115.7 million USD).[442]
  • 139,126 Filipino tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
  • 2,200 Philippine nationals are residing in Turkey.[441]
  • There are direct flights from Istanbul to Manila since March 2015.[441]
X
 Samoa 12 April 1979[443] See Samoa–Turkey relations X
 Singapore 12 Feb. 1969[444] See Singapore–Turkey relations
 Solomon Islands 8 Mar. 1979[446] See Solomon Islands–Turkey relations X
 South Korea 11 Aug. 1949[447] See South Korea–Turkey relations
  • South Korea has an Embassy in Ankara.[447]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Seoul.[447]
  • Both countries are members of G20, MIKTA, OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 6.53 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 0.88/5.64 billion USD).[448]
  • 212,970 South Korean tourists visited Turkey in 2019.[448]
  • Free Trade Agreement between the two countries entered into force on 1 May 2013 and was updated on 1 August 2018 to include an Investment Agreement.[448]
  • Turkey ranks third in number of martyrs among the 16 countries that participated in the Korean War. United Nations Memorial Cemetery in Busan honors 462 of the 966 Turkish soldiers who died during the war.
  • Yunus Emre Institute has a local branch in Seoul.
 Sri Lanka 4 Feb. 1948[449] See Sri Lanka–Turkey relations
  • Sri Lanka has an Embassy in Ankara.[449]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Colombo.[449]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 185.7 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 84.3/101.4 million USD).[450]
X
 Taiwan Started in 1934, Ended in 1971 See Taiwan–Turkey relations
  • Diplomatic recognition was withdrawn in 1971 by the establishment of diplomatic relations between Turkey and China.
X
 Tajikistan 29 Jan. 1992[451] See Tajikistan–Turkey relations X
 Thailand 1958[453] See Thailand–Turkey relations
  • Thailand has an Embassy in Ankara.[453]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Bangkok.[453]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.34 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 0.26/1.09 billion USD).[454]
  • 62,192 Thai tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
  • Negotiations on a bilateral Free Trade Agreement (FTA) began in 2017.[453]
  • There are direct flights from Istanbul to Bangkok and Phuket.[453]
X
 Tonga 26 Jan. 1976[455] See Tonga–Turkey relations X
 Tuvalu 19 July 1979[456] X
 Vanuatu 10 April 1987[457] X
 Vietnam 1978[458] See Turkey–Vietnam relations X

Western Asia

Country/Region Relations began Notes Free trade agreement
 Armenia See Armenia–Turkey relations X
 Bahrain 12 April 1973[460] See Bahrain–Turkey relations X
 Cyprus
 Northern Cyprus 1983[174] See Northern Cyprus–Turkey relations Free Trade
 Georgia 21 May 1992[463] See Georgia–Turkey relations [235]
 Iran 1835[33] See Iran–Turkey relations X
 Iraq 16 January 1928 See Iraq–Turkey relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 16 January 1928 when has been accredited the first Iraqi ambassador to Turkey Salih Nishat. The first Turkish ambassador, Lütfi Tokay, also presented his letters of credence in Baghdad on 21 December 1929.[468]

  • Iraq has an Embassy in Ankara and Consulates General in Gaziantep and Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Baghdad and a Consulate General in Erbil.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 9.77 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 8.35/1.42 billion USD).[469]
  • 1,374,896 Iraqi tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 Kurdistan Region 2001 See Kurdistan Region–Turkey relations
 Israel See Israel–Turkey relations [235]
 Jordan 11 January 1947[472] See Jordan–Turkey relations X
 Kuwait 10 January 1964[475] See Kuwait–Turkey relations
  • Kuwait has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Kuwait City.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 678 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 534/144 million USD).[476]
  • 374,191 Kuwaiti tourists visited Turkey in 2018.
X
 Lebanon 8 March 1946 See Lebanon–Turkey relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 March 1946.[477]

Pending Ratification[235]
 Oman 18 June 1973[479] See Oman–Turkey relations
  • Oman has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Muscat.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 489 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 422/67 million USD).[480]
X
 Palestine 15 Nov. 1988[481] See Palestine–Turkey relations [235]
 Qatar 20 March 1973[136] See Qatar–Turkey relations X
 Saudi Arabia 3 August 1929[59] See Saudi Arabia–Turkey relations
  • Saudi Arabia has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.[485]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Riyadh and a Consulate General in Jeddah.[486][487]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 4.96 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 2.64/2.32 billion USD).[488]
  • 564,816 Saudi tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 Syria 8 March 1946

(relations suspended 2011)

See Syria–Turkey relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 March 1946.[477]

  • Diplomatic relations suspended since 2011.
[235]
 United Arab Emirates 1971[489] See Turkey–United Arab Emirates relations
  • United Arab Emirates has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Abu Dhabi and a Consulate General in Dubai.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 6.92 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 3.14/3.78 million USD).[490]
X
 Yemen 4 March 1946[62] See Turkey–Yemen relations X

Europe

Country/Region Relations began Notes Free trade agreement
 Albania 15 December 1923[492] See Albania–Turkey relations [235]
 Andorra 8 Oct. 1998[494]
  • The Turkish ambassador in Madrid to Spain is also accredited to Andorra.[494]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 478 thousand USD in 2010 (Turkish exports/imports: 476/1.4 thousand USD).[494]
[235]
 Austria 1526[27] See Austria–Turkey relations [235]
 Belarus 25 Mar. 1992[500] See Belarus–Turkey relations
  • Belarus has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.[501]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Minsk.[501]
  • Both countries are members of OSCE.[502]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 691 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 531/160 million USD).[500]
  • 258,419 Belarusian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 Belgium 1838[503] See Belgium–Turkey relations [235]
 Bulgaria 1908[506] See Bulgaria–Turkey relations [235]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 29 Aug. 1992[511] See Bosnia and Herzegovina–Turkey relations [235]
 Croatia 6 Aug. 1992[513] See Croatia–Turkey relations [235]
 Czech Republic 1924[515] See Czech Republic–Turkey relations
  • Czech Republic has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Prague.[516]
  • Both countries are members of NATO, OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 3.65 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 1/2.65 billion USD).[515]
  • 4,500 Turkish citizens reside in the Czech Republic.[515]
  • 311,359 Czech tourists visited Turkey in 2019.[515]
[235]
 Denmark 1756[517] See Denmark–Turkey relations
  • Denmark has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Copenhagen.[518]
  • Both countries are members of NATO, OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.88 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 1.1/0.81 billion USD).[519]
  • 70 thousand Turkish citizens reside in Denmark.[519] See Turks in Denmark
  • 335,877 Danish tourists visited Turkey in 2018.[519]
[235]
 Estonia 1924[520] See Estonia–Turkey relations
  • Estonia has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Tallinn.[521]
  • Both countries are members of OECD, NATO and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 312 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 92/220 million USD).[520]
  • 77,041 Estonian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.[520]
  • 575 Turkish citizens live in Estonia.[520]
[235]
 Finland 1924[522] See Finland–Turkey relations
  • Finland has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Helsinki.[523]
  • Both countries are members of OECD, NATO and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.32 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 0.34/0.98 billion USD).[522]
  • 13 thousand Turkish citizens reside in Finland.[522] See Turks in Finland
  • 135,192 Finnish tourists visited Turkey in 2018.[522]
[235]
 France 1483[524] See France–Turkey relations [235]
 Germany 1790[532] See Germany–Turkey relations [235]
 Greece 24 August 1833[32] See Greece-Turkey relations
Greek Prime Minister George Papandreou and Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan in Ankara, November 2009
  • Greece has an Embassy in Ankara and Consulates General in Edirne, Istanbul and İzmir.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Athens[547] and Consulates General in Komotini,[548] Piraeus,[549] Rhodes[550] and Thessaloniki.[551]
  • Both countries are members of BSEC, OECD, NATO and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 4.18 billion USD in 2018.[552]
  • 150 thousand muslims that Turkey claims are "ethnic Turks" reside in Western Thrace, Greece.[553]
  • 836,882 Greek tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
  • Turkey and Greece have clashed for decades over the status of Aegean islands and over the extent of territorial waters and airspace. In February 1999, the discovery that Greek authorities had been aiding and abetting Abdullah Öcalan, Turkey's most wanted criminal, caused a diplomatic crisis. When Abdullah Öcalan was captured by Turkish authorities, he was found holding Greek and Cypriot passports and he later revealed that he had been hiding in the Greek Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya. Relations have since improved, particularly following the earthquakes that struck both countries in 1999.
[235]
 Holy See 1960[554] See Holy See–Turkey relations X
 Hungary 1521[555] See Hungary–Turkey relations [235]
 Iceland 17 June 1944[558] See Iceland–Turkey relations
  • Bilateral relations between Turkey and Iceland are being coordinated by the Embassy of the Republic of Turkey in Oslo and the Embassy of Iceland in Copenhagen.[559]
  • Both countries are members of NATO, OECD and WTO.[559]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 51 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 24/27 million USD).[559]
  • 100 Turkish citizens reside in Iceland.[559]
[235]
 Ireland 2 October 1951[560] See Ireland–Turkey relations [235]
 Italy 25 September 1856[36] See Italy–Turkey relations [235]
 Kosovo 18 Feb. 2008[567] See Kosovo–Turkey relations [235]
 Latvia 1925[569] See Latvia–Turkey relations
  • Latvia has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Riga.[570]
  • Both countries are members of OECD, NATO and WTO.
  • 200 Turkish citizens reside in Latvia.[569]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 291 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 126/165 million USD).[569]
  • 86,051 Latvian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
[235]
 Liechtenstein 2 October 1992[196]
  • Bilateral relations between Turkey and Liechtenstein are being coordinated by the Embassies of the Republic of Turkey and Liechtenstein in Bern.[571]
  • Both countries are members of WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 7 million USD in 2017.[572]
[235]
 Lithuania 1930[573] See Lithuania–Turkey relations
  • Lithuania has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Vilnius.[574]
  • Both countries are members of OECD, NATO and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 687 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 277/410 million USD).[573]
  • 229,704 Lithuanian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
  • 350 Turkish citizens reside in Lithuania.[573]
[235]
 Luxembourg 10 July 1946[575] See Luxembourg–Turkey relations
  • Luxembourg has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Luxembourg.[576]
  • Both countries are members of NATO, OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 160 million USD in 2017 (Turkish exports/imports: 36/124 million USD).[577]
  • 900 Turkish citizens reside in Luxembourg.[577]
[235]
 Malta 10 October 1967[578] See Malta–Turkey relations
  • Malta has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Valletta.[579]
  • Both countries are members of WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 593 million USD in 2017 (Turkish exports/imports: 541/52 million USD).[580]
[235]
 Moldova 3 Feb. 1992[581] See Moldova–Turkey relations [235]
 Monaco 1954[585] See Monaco–Turkey relations
  • Bilateral relations between Turkey and Monaco are being coordinated by the Consulates General of Turkey and Monaco in Marseille.[585]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 15.1 million USD in 2017.[585]
[235]
 Montenegro 3 July 2006[586] See Montenegro–Turkey relations [235]
 Netherlands 1612[588] See Netherlands–Turkey relations [235]
 North Macedonia 26 Aug. 1992.[594] See North Macedonia–Turkey relations
  • North Macedonia has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Skopje and a Consulate General in Bitola.
  • Both countries are members of NATO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 503 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 396/107 million USD).[595]
  • 209,519 Macedonian tourists visited Turkey in 2018.[595]
  • Yunus Emre Institute has a local branch in Skopje.
[235]
 Norway 1926[596] See Norway-Turkey relations
  • Norway has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Both countries are members of NATO, OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.28 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 513/765 million USD).[596]
  • 20 thousand Turkish citizens reside in Norway .[596]
  • 208,330 Norwegian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.[596]
[235]
 Poland 1414[597] See Poland–Turkey relations
  • Poland has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Warsaw.[598]
  • Both countries are members of NATO, OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 6.45 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 3.34/3.34 billion USD).[599]
  • 880,839 Polish tourists visited Turkey in 2018.[599]
[235]

See also Polonezköy

 Portugal 1843[600] See Portugal–Turkey relations [235]
 Romania 22 Oct. 1879[603] See Romania–Turkey relations [235]
 Russia 1699[607] See Russia–Turkey relations
President Erdoğan meets with Russian President Vladimir Putin in September 2022
X
 Serbia 1879[613] See Serbia–Turkey relations [235]
 Slovakia 1993[616] See Slovakia–Turkey relations
  • Slovakia has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Bratislava.[617]
  • Both countries are members of OECD, NATO and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.29 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 532/767 million USD).[616]
  • 207,108 Slovak tourists visited Turkey in 2019.[616]
[235]
 Slovenia 6 Feb. 1992[618] See Slovenia–Turkey relations [235]
 Spain 1782[620] See Spain–Turkey relations [235]
 Sweden 1603[29] See Sweden–Turkey relations
  • Sweden has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Stockholm.[624]
  • Both countries are members of OECD, NATO and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 3.2 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 1.5/1.7 billion USD).[29]
  • 115 thousand people of Turkish origin reside in Sweden.[29] See also Turks in Sweden
  • 444,285 Swedish tourists visited Turkey in 2019.[29]
[235]
  Switzerland 1899[41] See Switzerland–Turkey relations [235]
 Ukraine 3 Feb. 1992[629] See Turkey–Ukraine relations Pending Ratification[632]
 United Kingdom 1583[633] See Turkey–United Kingdom relations [235]

International organizations

Main article: Turkey and International Organizations

Turkey is a founding member of the UN (1945),[636] the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (1961),[637] the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (1969),[638] the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) (1973),[639] and the G20 industrial nations (1999). Turkey is a member state of the Council of Europe (1949) and NATO (1952) as well as being in full accession negotiations with the European Union since 2005, having been an associate member since 1963. Turkey was also an associate member of the Western European Union from 1992 to 2011, and signed the E.U. Customs Union agreement in 1995.[640]

Turkey entered NATO in 1952 and serves as the organization's vital eastern anchor, controlling the Turkish Straits which lead from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean and sharing a border with Syria, Iraq, and Iran. A NATO headquarters is located in İzmir, and the United States has maintained air forces at the Incirlik Air Base in the province of Adana.[641]

Turkey is also a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) since 1995. It has signed free trade agreements with the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), Israel, and many other countries. In 1992, Turkey and 10 other regional nations formed the BSEC to expand regional trade and economic cooperation. In 2017, ASEAN-Turkey Sectoral Dialogue Partnership[642] was recognized by the 50th ASEAN Foreign Ministers' Meeting in Manila, Philippines.[643]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Robins, Philip. Turkey and the Middle East. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs and New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1991.
  2. ^ "Global Diplomacy Index – Country Rank". Lowy Institute. Retrieved 26 February 2024.
  3. ^ England, Andrew (26 October 2020). "UAE vs Turkey: the regional rivalries pitting MBZ against Erdoğan". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 10 December 2022. Retrieved 27 December 2020.
  4. ^ Gardner, David (30 September 2020). "Erdoğan is in danger of overreaching with foreign interventionsErdogan is in danger of overreaching with foreign interventions". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 21 November 2020. Retrieved 27 December 2020.((cite news)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  5. ^ Migdalovitz, Carol. "Turkey: Ally in a Troubled Region." Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, 93-835F. Washington: 14 September 1993.
  6. ^ Karasapan, Omer. "Turkey and US Strategy in the Age of Glasnost," Middle East Report, No. 160, September–October 1989, pp. 4–10, 22.
  7. ^ Aybet, Gülnur. Turkey's Foreign Policy and Its Implications for the West: A Turkish Perspective. London: Royal United Services Institute for Defence Studies, 1994.
  8. ^ Fuller, Graham E., Ian O. Lesser, Paul B. Henze, and J.F. Brown. Turkey's New Geopolitics: From the Balkans to Western China. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1993.
  9. ^ United States. Department of Defense. Terrorist Group Profiles. Washington: GPO, 1988.
  10. ^ United States. Department of State. Patterns of Global Terrorism, 1992. Washington: 1993.
  11. ^ United States. Department of State. Patterns of Global Terrorism 1993. Washington: 1994.
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