Countries in which Turkey maintains its own embassy
Turkish ambassador's residence in Embassy of Turkey, Washington, D.C.
Turkish ambassador's residence in Embassy of Turkey, Washington, D.C.

Physically bridging Europe and Asia, Turkey is a secular country that has pursued a Western-oriented foreign policy.[1] To this end, Turkey uses its global diplomatic network—the fourth most extensive—of 246 diplomatic and consular missions.[2][3]

Since the Cold War, Turkey's most important ally has been the United States, which shared Turkey's interest in containing Soviet expansion.[4][5] In support of the United States, Turkey contributed personnel to the UN forces in the Korean War (1950–1953), joined NATO in 1952, recognized Israel in 1948 and has cooperated closely with it.[6]

Turkey's alliance with Israel during the Arab–Israeli conflict strained its relations with the Arab world,[7] and Iran,[1] and subsequently led to overt Syrian support for Palestinian and Armenian terrorist operations against Turkish diplomats abroad until 1990.[8][9][10]

History

Historically, the Foreign relations of the Ottoman Empire and later Turkey balanced regional and global powers off against one another, forming alliances that best protected the interests of the incumbent regime.[11] The Soviet Union played a major role in supplying weapons to and financing Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's faction during the Turkish War of Independence but Turkey's followed a course of relative international isolation during the period of Atatürk's Reforms in 1920s and 1930s. International conferences gave Turkey full control of the strategic straits linking the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, through the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923 and the Montreux Convention of 1936.[12]

In the late 1930s Nazi Germany made a major effort to promote anti-Soviet propaganda in Turkey and exerted economic pressure. Britain and France, eager to outmaneuver Germany, negotiated a tripartite treaty in 1939. They gave Turkey a line of credit to purchase war materials from the West and a loan to facilitate the purchase of commodities.[13] Afraid of threats from Germany and Russia, Turkey maintained neutrality.[14] It sold chrome—an important war material—to both sides. It was clear by 1944 that Germany would be defeated and the chrome sales to Germany stopped.[15][16][17]

After 1945

Angela Merkel, Emmanuel Macron, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and Vladimir Putin when giving a press conference as part of Syria summit in Istanbul, Turkey.
Angela Merkel, Emmanuel Macron, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and Vladimir Putin when giving a press conference as part of Syria summit in Istanbul, Turkey.

After World War II Turkey sought closer relations with Western powers. It became a founding member of the United Nations in 1945, a recipient of Marshall Plan aid and a member of North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1952. European Union–Turkey relations warmed during the Cold War period and the post-Cold War period has seen a diversification of relations, with Turkey, at various moments, seeking to strengthen its regional presence in the Balkans, the Middle East and the Caucasus, as well as taking steps toward EU membership.

Under the AKP government (2003–), Turkey's economy has grown rapidly and the country's influence has grown in the Middle East based on a strategic depth doctrine, also called Neo-Ottomanism.[18][19] Debate on Turkey's foreign relations is controversial both within Turkey itself and outside the country. In the West, there is a divide between those who are worried about Turkey's perceived movement away from the West toward a less democratic, more Islamic or more pro-Russian and pro-Chinese[20] orientation and those who do not see Turkey's changing political structure, growing regional power and relations with Russia as a threat.[21]

Bilateral relations

Despite being one of the first countries to recognize Armenia's independence, Turkey has never established formal diplomatic relations with Armenia. Turkey formerly had diplomatic relations with Cyprus, Taiwan and Syria.

Africa

There has been a revival in Turkey's relation with Africa after 1998 and civil society is the leading factor in this process.[22] Initially this revival came as a passive attempt, but after 2005 it became an offensive interest in developing relations with the continent. The recent Turkey–Africa Cooperation Summit in 2008 marks the latest stage in Turkey's keen interest in developing relations with Africa, and should be seen as a turning point.[23] Turkey since its involvement in Somalia in 2011, is eager to be considered as a political actor in the continent.[24][25]

Northern Africa

Country Relations began Notes Free trade agreement
 Algeria 1962[26] See Algeria–Turkey relations X
 Egypt 8 May 1925[30] See Egypt–Turkey relations [35]
 Libya 1 January 1952[36] See Libya–Turkey relations
  • Libya has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Tripoli.[37] and a Consulate General in Misurata.[38]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.87 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 1.50/0.37 billion USD).[39]
  • 188,312 Libyan tourists visited Turkey in 2018.[39]
X
 Morocco 17 April 1956[40] See Morocco–Turkey relations
  • Morocco has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Rabat.[41]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 2.71 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 1.99/0.72 billion USD).[42]
  • 114,155 Moroccan tourists visited Turkey in 2017.[42]
  • Yunus Emre Institute has a local headquarters in Rabat.
[35]
 Tunisia 1956[43] See Tunisia–Turkey relations [35]

Sub–Saharan Africa

Since 2008, Turkey has prioritized friendly relations with Africa partly to build friendly and conflict–free relations, which was not available in the hostile atmosphere in its neighborhood.[46] Capitalizing on a strong sentiment of fellowship among Turkish people towards Africans, economic and diplomatic relations with Africa flourished: Foreign trade between sub-Saharan Africa and Turkey increased from US$581 million[47] in 1998 to US$5.08[48] billion in 2015.

Dating back to 1800, Turkey's relations with sub-Saharan Africa flourished from the 1860s—when the Ottoman Empire started sending trained imams to the region—until 1885 when other European colonial powers blocked Ottoman influence.[49] Relations were restored in the 1950s,[50] and gained momentum when Emperor Haile Selassie visited Turkey in March 1967 and December 1969.[51]

Since 2008, Turkey has contributed to the region through participation in peacekeeping missions, including the UN Mission in Ivory Coast (UNOC), the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Central African Republic, Chad.[52]

Turkey has also dramatically increased financial aid to the region,[47] providing a total of US$6.38 billion to the region just between 2006 and 2011[53] including the 2011 donation of US$200 million to fight the famine in East Africa.[52]

Country Relations began Notes Free trade agreement
 Angola 9 July 1980[54] See Angola–Turkey relations X
 Benin 1973[57] See Benin–Turkey relations
  • Benin closed its embassy in Ankara in 2021.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Cotonou.[57]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 142 million USD in 2019.[57]
  • There are direct flights from Istanbul to Cotonou since 2014.[57]
X
 Botswana 20 January 1981[58] See Botswana–Turkey relations
  • Permanent Representation of Botswana in the UN Geneva Office is also accredited to Turkey.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Gaborone.[59]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 2.9 million USD in 2019.[59]
X
 Burkina Faso 6 April 1970[60] See Burkina Faso–Turkey relations
  • Burkina Faso has an Embassy in Ankara.[61]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Ouagadougou.[61]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 52.2 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 31.4/20.8 million USD).[61]
X
 Burundi 30 April 1981[62] See Burundi–Turkey relations
  • Burundi has an Embassy in Ankara.[63]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Bujumbura.[63]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 3.1 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 2.6/0.5 million USD).[63]
X
 Cameroon 9 August 1963[64] See Cameroon–Turkey relations
  • Cameroon has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Yaoundé.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 205 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 151/54 million USD).[65]
  • There are direct flights from Istanbul to Yaoundé.
X
 Cape Verde 24 June 1979[66] See Cape Verde–Turkey relations
  • The Turkish ambassador in Dakar to Senegal is also accredited to Cabo Verde.[67]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 9.5 million USD in 2019.[67]
X
 Central African Republic 18 February 1980[68] See Central African Republic–Turkey relations X
 Chad 27 January 1970[70] See Chad–Turkey relations
  • Chad has an Embassy in Ankara.[71]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in N'Djamena.[71]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 72.4 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 39.9/32.5 million USD).[71]
  • There are direct flights from Istanbul to N'Djamena since December 12, 2013.[71]
X
 Comoros 22 August 1979[72] See Comoros–Turkey relations
  • The ambassador of the Comoros in Cairo to Egypt is also accredited to Turkey.[73]
  • The Turkish ambassador in Antananarivo to Madagascar is also accredited to the Union of the Comoros.[73]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 21.1 million USD in 2019.[73]
X
 Congo 9 November 1981[74] See Republic of the Congo–Turkey relations
  • Congo has an Embassy in Ankara.[75]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Brazzaville.[75]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 57.25 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 55.8/1.47 million USD).[75]
X
 Côte d'Ivoire 14 July 1964[76] See Ivory Coast–Turkey relations X
 Democratic Republic of Congo 22 October 1975[78] See Democratic Republic of Congo–Turkey relations X
 Djibouti 25 June 1979[80] See Djibouti–Turkey relations X
 Eritrea 19 July 1993[82] See Eritrea–Turkey relations
  • The ambassador of Eritrea in Doha to Qatar is also accredited to Turkey.[82]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Asmara.[82]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 13.9 million USD in 2019.[82]
X
 Equatorial Guinea 22 September 1980[83] See Equatorial Guinea–Turkey relations X
 Eswatini 20 January 1981[85] See Eswatini–Turkey relations X
 Ethiopia 30 January 1926, severed in 1936, re-established 23 December 1957[87] See Ethiopia–Turkey relations
  • Ethiopia has an Embassy in Ankara.[88]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Addis Ababa.[88]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 398.8 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 378.3/27.5 million USD).[88]
X
 Gabon 1 February 1963[89] See Gabon–Turkey relations X
 Gambia 1965[90] See Gambia–Turkey relations X
 Ghana 1958[91] See Ghana–Turkey relations
  • Ghana has an Embassy in Ankara.[91]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Accra.[91]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 353.3 million USD in 2018.[91]
Pending Ratification[35]
 Guinea 1962[92] See Guinea–Turkey relations X
 Guinea Bissau 1975[93] See Guinea-Bissau–Turkey relations
  • Guinea Bissau has an embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Bissau.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 4.95 million USD in 2019.[93]
X
 Kenya 30 March 1968[94] See Kenya–Turkey relations X
 Lesotho 1980[96] See Lesotho–Turkey relations
  • The Embassy of Lesotho in Rome is also accredited to Turkey.[97]
  • The Turkish ambassador in Pretoria to South Africa is also accredited to Lesotho.[97]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.65 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 1.62/0.03 million USD).[97]
X
 Liberia 15 April 1970[98] See Liberia–Turkey relations X
 Madagascar 30 January 1963[100] See Madagascar–Turkey relations
  • Embassy of Madagascar in Rome to Italy is also accredited to Turkey.[101]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Antananarivo.[101]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 76.5 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 71.3/5.2 million USD).[101]
X
 Mali 3 August 1970[102] See Mali–Turkey relations
  • Mali has an Embassy in Ankara.[103]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Bamako.[103]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 57 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 48.4/8.6 million USD).[103]
X
 Malawi 6 August 1969[104] See Malawi–Turkey relations
  • The Embassy of Malawi in Berlin to Germany is also accredited to Turkey.[105]
  • The Turkish ambassador in Lusaka to Zambia is also accredited to Malawi.[105]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 21 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 4.67/16.4 million USD).[105]
X
 Mauritius 18 October 1976[106] See Mauritius–Turkey relations [35]
 Mauritania 14 April 1970[108] See Mauritania–Turkey relations X
 Mozambique 20 January 1981[109] See Mozambique–Turkey relations X
 Namibia 27 March 1990[111] See Namibia–Turkey relations
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Windhoek.[112]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 11.84 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 9.40/2.44 million USD).[112]
X
 Niger 30 March 1967[113] See Niger–Turkey relations X
 Nigeria 16 February 1961[115] See Nigeria–Turkey relations X
 Rwanda 18 February 1980[117] See Rwanda–Turkey relations
  • Rwanda has an Embassy in Ankara.[118]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Kigali.[118]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 32.4 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 32.2/0.2 million USD).[118]
X
 São Tomé and Príncipe 1981[119] See São Tomé and Príncipe–Turkey relations X
 Senegal 17 October 1963[120] See Senegal–Turkey relations X
 Seychelles 22 June 1995[122] See Seychelles–Turkey relations
  • The Embassy of Seychelles in Paris is also accredited to Turkey.[123]
  • The Turkish ambassador in Nairobi to Kenya is also accredited to the Seychelles.[123]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 25.4 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 17.7/7.7 million USD).[123]
X
 Sierra Leone 15 February 1971[124] See Sierra Leone–Turkey relations X
 Somalia 13 December 1965[126] See Somalia–Turkey relations X
 South Africa 12 October 1992[128] See South Africa–Turkey relations X
 South Sudan 9 July 2011[130] See also South Sudan–Turkey relations X
 Sudan 20 July 1957[132] See also Sudan–Turkey relations X
 Tanzania 1963[133] See Tanzania–Turkey relations X
 Togo 27 April 1960[134] See Togo–Turkey relations
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Lomé (planned).[135]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 106 million USD in 2019.[135]
X
 Uganda 18 September 1969[136] See Turkey–Uganda relations X
 Zambia 25 February 1971[138] See Turkey–Zambia relations
  • Zambia has an Embassy in Ankara.[139]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Lusaka.[139]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 23.7 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 17.8/5.9 million USD).[139]
  • There are direct flights from Istanbul to Lusaka since December 14, 2018.[139]
X
 Zimbabwe 2 July 1982[140] See Turkey–Zimbabwe relations
  • Zimbabwe has an Embassy in Ankara.[141]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Harare.[141]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 17.7 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 5.9/11.8 million USD).[141]
X

Americas

Southern Cone

Country Relations began Notes Free trade agreement
 Argentina 29 June 1926[142] See Argentina–Turkey relations
President Erdoğan with then-president Mauricio Macri in Buenos Aires.
President Erdoğan with then-president Mauricio Macri in Buenos Aires.
  • Argentina has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Buenos Aires.
  • Both countries are members of G20 and WTO.
  • Flights from Istanbul to Buenos Aires via São Paulo commenced in December 2013 and are taking place on a daily basis.[143]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 455 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 161/294 million USD.[143]
  • 64,483 Argentine tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 Chile 30 January 1926[144] See Chile–Turkey relations
  • Chile has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Santiago.
  • Both countries are members of OECD and WTO.
  • Chile–Turkey Free Trade Agreement was signed on July 14, 2009 and is in effect since March 1, 2011.[145]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 579 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 344/236 million USD.[145]
  • 18,509 Chilean tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
  • Chile was the first country in Latin America that recognized Turkey.
[35]
 Paraguay 11 September 1953[146] See Paraguay–Turkey relations
  • Paraguay has an Embassy in Ankara.[147]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Asunción.[147]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 82.1 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 47.1/35 million USD).[147]
  • 1,328 Paraguayan tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 Uruguay 4 January 1929[148] See Turkey–Uruguay relations
  • Uruguay has a Consulate General in Istanbul.[149]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Montevideo.[149]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 341.4 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 42.8/298.6 million USD).[149]
  • 7,191 Uruguayan tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X

North America

Country Relations began Notes Free trade agreement
 Canada 25 November 1943[150] See Canada–Turkey relations X
 Mexico 12 July 1928[152] See Mexico–Turkey relations
President Erdoğan visiting Mexico with former Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto
President Erdoğan visiting Mexico with former Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto
X
 United States 13 September 1831, relations broke off 20 April 1917, re-established 17 February 1927[156] See Turkey–United States relations
Presidents Erdoğan and Trump with the First Ladies.
Presidents Erdoğan and Trump with the First Ladies.
X

Caribbean

Country Relations began Notes Free trade agreement
 Antigua and Barbuda June 1999[157] See Antigua and Barbuda–Turkey relations X
 Bahamas 5 November 1974[158] See Bahamas–Turkey relations X
 Barbados 20 September 1972[160] See Barbados–Turkey relations X
 Cuba 23 November 1952[162] See Cuba–Turkey relations
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Havana.[163]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 54.7 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 42.9/11.8 million USD).[163]
  • The Ottoman Empire Embassy to Cuba opened in 1873.[164]
X
 Dominica 13 April 2006[165] See Dominica–Turkey relations X
 Dominican Republic 28 November 1951[167] See Dominican Republic–Turkey relations
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Santo Domingo.[168]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 132.7 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 118.6/14.1 million USD).[168]
X
 Grenada Feb. 25, 1975[169] See Grenada–Turkey relations X
 Haiti 1950[170] See Haiti–Turkey relations X
 Jamaica 30 March 1971[171] See Jamaica–Turkey relations
  • The Turkish ambassador in Havana to Cuba is also accredited to Jamaica.[172]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 90.5 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 90/0.5 million USD).[172]
X
 St. Kitts and Nevis Aug. 22, 1984[173] See Saint Kitts and Nevis–Turkey relations X
 St. Lucia 25 May 2005[174] See Saint Lucia–Turkey relations X
 St. Vincent and Grenadines 4 April 2002[176] See Saint Vincent and the Grenadines–Turkey relations X
 Trinidad and Tobago 22 May 1972[178] See Trinidad and Tobago–Turkey relations
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Port of Spain.[179]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 120.8 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 68.4/52.4 million USD).[179]
X

Central America

Country Relations began Notes Free trade agreement
 Belize 2 November 1989[180] See Belize–Turkey relations X
 Costa Rica 21 September 1950[181] See Costa Rica–Turkey relations
  • Costa Rica has an Embassy in Ankara.[182]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in San Jose.[182]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 100 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 58.9/41.8 million USD).[182]
X
 El Salvador 21 September 1950[183] See El Salvador–Turkey relations
  • El Salvador has an embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an embassy in San Salvador.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 17.1 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 14.8/2.3 million USD).[184]
X
 Guatemala 1952[185] See Guatemala–Turkey relations X
 Honduras 4 April 1950[187] See Honduras–Turkey relations
  • The Turkish ambassador in Guatemala City to Guatemala is also accredited to Honduras.[188]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 19.8 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 15/4.8 million USD).[188]
X
 Nicaragua 21 September 1950[183] See Nicaragua–Turkey relations
  • The Turkish ambassador in San José to Costa Rica is also accredited to Nicaragua.[189]
  • Nicaraguan Embassy in Berlin to Germany is also accredited to Turkey.[189]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 11.6 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 11.1/0.5 million USD).[189]
X
 Panama 14 April 1950[190] See Panama–Turkey relations
  • Panama has an Embassy in Ankara.[191]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Panama.[191]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 260.9 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 248.8/12.1 million USD).[191]
X

Latin America, rest of

Country Relations began Notes Free trade agreement
 Bolivia 26 July 1950[192] See Bolivia–Turkey relations
  • Turkey has an Embassy in La Paz.[193]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 130 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 22/108 million USD).[193]
  • 2,491 Bolivian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 Brazil 8 September 1927[194] See Brazil–Turkey relations
Prime Minister Erdoğan meets with President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva.
Prime Minister Erdoğan meets with President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva.
X
 Colombia 10 April 1959[196] See Colombia–Turkey relations
  • Colombia has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Bogotá.
  • Both countries are members of OECD and WTO.
  • Flights from Istanbul to Bogotá commenced in May 2016.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.7 billion USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 0.25/1.46 billion USD).[197]
  • 70,974 Colombian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 Ecuador 11 December 1959[198][199] See Ecuador–Turkey relations
  • Ecuador has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Quito and a Consulate General in Guayaquil.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 117 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 59/58 million USD).[200]
  • 8,416 Ecuadorian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 Guyana 2 May 1973[201] See Guyana–Turkey relations X
 Peru 1952[203] See Peru–Turkey relations
  • Peru has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.[204]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Lima.[204]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 250 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 177.4/72.6 million USD).[204]
  • 11,430 Peruvian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 Suriname 29 June 1976[205] See Suriname–Turkey relations X
 Venezuela 29 December 1950[207] See Turkey–Venezuela relations
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Caracas and an Honorary Consulate in Maracaibo.[208]
  • Venezuela has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 150 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 130/20 million USD).[208]
X

Asia and Oceania

Turkic states

Country Relations began Notes Free trade agreement
 Azerbaijan Jan. 14, 1992[209] See Azerbaijan–Turkey relations X
 Kazakhstan March 2, 1992[211] See Kazakhstan–Turkey relations X
 Kyrgyzstan Jan. 29, 1992[213] See Kyrgyzstan–Turkey relations X
 Turkmenistan Feb. 29, 1992[216] See Turkey–Turkmenistan relations X
 Uzbekistan March 4, 1992[218] See Turkey–Uzbekistan relations X

Asia-Pacific

Country Relations began Notes Free trade agreement
 Afghanistan 1921[220] See Afghanistan–Turkey relations X
 Australia 1967[222] See Australia–Turkey relations X
 Bangladesh Feb. 22, 1974[224] See Bangladesh–Turkey relations
  • Bangladesh has an Embassy in Ankara.[224]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Dhaka.[224]
  • Both countries are members of OIC.[224]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 934 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 427/509 billion USD).[225]
X
 Bhutan 26 September 2012[226] See Bhutan–Turkey relations
  • Bhutan and Turkey cooperate through their respective embassies in New Delhi.[227]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.58 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 0.1/1.48 million USD).[228]
X
 Brunei Darussalam 27 June 1984[229] See Brunei–Turkey relations X
 Cambodia 1959[232] See Cambodia–Turkey relations
  • Cambodia has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Phnom Penh.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 108.4 million USD in 2015 (Turkish exports/imports: 13.7/94.7 million USD).[233]
X
 China 1971[234] See China–Turkey relations X
 Cook Islands Oct. 28, 2008[239] X
 East Timor 20 May 2002[240] See East Timor–Turkey relations X
 Fiji Dec. 17, 1975[241] See Fiji–Turkey relations X
 India Aug. 15, 1947[242] See India–Turkey relations
Prime Minister Erdoğan meets with Narendra Modi in India.
Prime Minister Erdoğan meets with Narendra Modi in India.
  • India has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in New Delhi and Consulates General in Hyderabad and Mumbai.[242]
  • Both countries are members of G20 and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 7.80 billion USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 1.17/6.64 billion USD).[243]
  • 230,131 Indian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 Indonesia 1950[244] See Indonesia–Turkey relations
  • Indonesia has an Embassy in Ankara.[245]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Jakarta.[245]
  • Both countries are members of D-8, G20, MIKTA, OIC and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.85 billion USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 0.21/1.64 billion USD).[246]
  • 127,149 Indonesian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
  • 2,400 Indonesian citizens reside in Turkey.[245]
X
 Japan 1890[247] See Japan–Turkey relations X
 Kiribati 2008[251] See Kiribati–Turkey relations X
 Laos 1958[252] See Laos–Turkey relations
  • The Embassy of Laos in Vienna is also accredited to Turkey.[252]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Vientiane.[252]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 2.92 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 1.44/1.48 billion USD).[253]
X
 Maldives 1979[254] See Maldives–Turkey relations
  • The Permanent Mission of the Republic of Maldives to the United Nations Office in Geneva is also accredited to Turkey.[254]
  • The Turkish ambassador in New Delhi to India is also accredited to the Maldives.[254]
  • Both countries are members of OIC.[254]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 46.5 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 28.2/18.3 million USD).[255]
  • There are direct flights from Istanbul to Malé since November 24, 2012.
X
 Malaysia 1964[256] See Malaysia–Turkey relations
 Marshall Islands April 9, 2008[258] See Marshall Islands–Turkey relations X
 Micronesia 6 August 2007[259] X
 Mongolia June 24, 1969[261] See Mongolia–Turkey relations X
 Myanmar 1958[263] See Myanmar–Turkey relations
  • The Burmese Embassy in Cairo to Egypt is also accredited to Turkey.[263]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Yangon.[263]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 38.7 million USD in 2015 (Turkish exports/imports: 30.7/8 million USD).[264]
X
 Nauru 27 April 1976[265] See Nauru–Turkey relations X
 New Zealand 1915[267] See New Zealand–Turkey relations
  • New Zealand has an Embassy in Ankara.[267]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Wellington.[267]
  • Both countries are members of OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 152.8 million USD in 2015 (Turkish exports/imports: 90.1/62.7 million USD).[268]
  • 20,912 New Zealanders visited Turkey in 2019.
  • 1,700 Turkish citizens reside in New Zealand.[267]
X
 Niue June 7, 2014[269]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was negligible in 2018.
X
 North Korea Jan. 15, 2001[270] See North Korea–Turkey relations X
 Pakistan 1947[271] See Pakistan–Turkey relations X
 Palau May 10, 2007[276] See Palau–Turkey relations
  • Turkish ambassador in Tokyo to Japan is also accredited to Palau.[276]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 3.7 million USD in 2014.[276]
X
 Papua New Guinea May 30, 1979[277] X
 Philippines June 13, 1949[278] See Philippines–Turkey relations
  • Philippines has an Embassy in Ankara.[278]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Manila.[278]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 219.7 million USD in 2015 (Turkish exports/imports: 104/115.7 million USD).[279]
  • 139,126 Filipino tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
  • 2,200 Philippine nationals are residing in Turkey.[278]
  • There are direct flights from Istanbul to Manila since March 2015.[278]
X
 Samoa April 12, 1979[280] See Samoa–Turkey relations X
 Singapore Feb. 12, 1969[281] See Singapore–Turkey relations
 Solomon Islands Mar. 8, 1979[283] See Solomon Islands–Turkey relations X
 South Korea Aug. 11, 1949[284] See South Korea–Turkey relations
  • South Korea has an Embassy in Ankara.[284]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Seoul.[284]
  • Both countries are members of G20, MIKTA, OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 6.53 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 0.88/5.64 billion USD).[285]
  • 212,970 South Korean tourists visited Turkey in 2019.[285]
  • Free Trade Agreement between the two countries entered into force on May 1, 2013 and was updated on August 1, 2018 to include an Investment Agreement.[285]
  • Turkey ranks third in number of martyrs among the 16 countries that participated in the Korean War. United Nations Memorial Cemetery in Busan honors 462 of the 966 Turkish soldiers who died during the war.
  • Yunus Emre Institute has a local branch in Seoul.
 Sri Lanka Feb. 4, 1948[286] See Sri Lanka–Turkey relations
  • Sri Lanka has an Embassy in Ankara.[286]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Colombo.[286]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 185.7 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 84.3/101.4 million USD).[287]
X
 Taiwan 1971 Diplomatic recognition withdrawn in 1971 by the establishment of diplomatic relations between Turkey and China but both countries still maintain informal relations. X
 Tajikistan Jan. 29, 1992[288] See Tajikistan–Turkey relations X
 Thailand 1958[290] See Thailand–Turkey relations
  • Thailand has an Embassy in Ankara.[290]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Bangkok.[290]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.34 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 0.26/1.09 billion USD).[291]
  • 62,192 Thai tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
  • Negotiations on a bilateral Free Trade Agreement (FTA) began in 2017.[290]
  • There are direct flights from Istanbul to Bangkok and Phuket.[290]
X
 Tonga Jan. 26, 1976[292] See Tonga–Turkey relations X
 Tuvalu July 19, 1979[293] See Turkey–Tuvalu relations X
 Vanuatu April 10, 1987[294] See Turkey–Vanuatu relations X
 Vietnam 1978[295] See Turkey–Vietnam relations X

Western Asia

Country Relations began Notes Free trade agreement
 Armenia See Armenia–Turkey relations X
 Bahrain Dec. 4, 1973 See Bahrain–Turkey relations X
 Cyprus
 Northern Cyprus 1983[298] Free Trade
 Georgia May 21, 1992[300] See Georgia–Turkey relations [35]
 Iran Aug. 23, 1514[302] See Iran–Turkey relations X
 Iraq 1932[305] See Iraq–Turkey relations
  • Iraq has an Embassy in Ankara and Consulates General in Gaziantep and Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Baghdad and a Consulate General in Erbil.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 9.77 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 8.35/1.42 billion USD).[306]
  • 1,374,896 Iraqi tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 Israel May 11, 1949[307] See Israel–Turkey relations [35]
 Jordan Jan. 11, 1947[310] See Jordan–Turkey relations X
 Kuwait 1964[312] See Kuwait–Turkey relations
  • Kuwait has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Kuwait City.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 678 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 534/144 million USD).[313]
  • 374,191 Kuwaiti tourists visited Turkey in 2018.
X
 Lebanon Oct. 3, 1952[314] See Lebanon–Turkey relations Pending Ratification[35]
 Oman 18 June 1973[316] See Oman–Turkey relations
  • Oman has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Muscat.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 489 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 422/67 million USD).[317]
X
 Palestine Nov. 15, 1988[318] See Palestine–Turkey relations [35]
 Qatar 6 June 1972[320] See Qatar–Turkey relations X
 Saudi Arabia 1932[323] See Saudi Arabia–Turkey relations
  • Saudi Arabia has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.[324]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Riyadh and a Consulate General in Jeddah.[325][326]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 4.96 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 2.64/2.32 billion USD).[327]
  • 564,816 Saudi tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 Syria Nov. 17, 1944[328] See Syria–Turkey relations
  • Diplomatic relations suspended since 2011.
[35]
 United Arab Emirates 1971[329] See Turkey–United Arab Emirates relations
  • United Arab Emirates has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Abu Dhabi and a Consulate General in Dubai.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 6.92 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 3.14/3.78 million USD).[330]
X
 Yemen March 4, 1946[331] See Turkey–Yemen relations X

Europe

Country Relations began Notes Free trade agreement
 Albania 1958[333] See Albania–Turkey relations [35]
 Andorra Oct. 8, 1998[335] See Andorra–Turkey relations
  • The Turkish ambassador in Madrid to Spain is also accredited to Andorra.[335]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 478 thousand USD in 2010 (Turkish exports/imports: 476/1.4 thousand USD).[335]
[35]
 Austria 1526[336] See Austria–Turkey relations [35]
 Belarus Mar. 25, 1992[342] See Belarus–Turkey relations
  • Belarus has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.[343]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Minsk.[343]
  • Both countries are members of OSCE.[344]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 691 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 531/160 million USD).[342]
  • 258,419 Belarusian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 Belgium 1838[345] See Belgium–Turkey relations [35]
 Bulgaria 1908[348] See Bulgaria–Turkey relations [35]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Aug. 29, 1992[353] See Bosnia and Herzegovina–Turkey relations [35]
 Croatia Aug. 6, 1992[355] See Croatia–Turkey relations [35]
 Czech Republic 1924[357] See Czech Republic–Turkey relations
  • Czech Republic has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Prague.[358]
  • Both countries are members of NATO, OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 3.65 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 1/2.65 billion USD).[357]
  • 4,500 Turkish citizens reside in the Czech Republic.[357]
  • 311,359 Czech tourists visited Turkey in 2019.[357]
[35]
 Denmark 1756[359] See Denmark–Turkey relations
  • Denmark has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Copenhagen.[360]
  • Both countries are members of NATO, OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.88 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 1.1/0.81 billion USD).[361]
  • 70 thousand Turkish citizens reside in Denmark.[361] See Turks in Denmark
  • 335,877 Danish tourists visited Turkey in 2018.[361]
[35]
 Estonia 1924[362] See Estonia–Turkey relations
  • Estonia has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Tallinn.[363]
  • Both countries are members of OECD, NATO and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 312 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 92/220 million USD).[362]
  • 77,041 Estonian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.[362]
  • 575 Turkish citizens live in Estonia.[362]
[35]
 Finland 1924[364] See Finland–Turkey relations
  • Finland has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Helsinki.[365]
  • Both countries are members of OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.32 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 0.34/0.98 billion USD).[364]
  • 13 thousand Turkish citizens reside in Finland.[364] See Turks in Finland
  • 135,192 Finnish tourists visited Turkey in 2018.[364]
[35]
 France 1483[366] See France–Turkey relations [35]
 Germany 1790[374] See Germany–Turkey relations [35]
 Greece 1830[389] See Greece-Turkey relations
Greek Prime Minister George Papandreou and Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan in Ankara, November 2009
Greek Prime Minister George Papandreou and Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan in Ankara, November 2009
  • Greece has an Embassy in Ankara and Consulates General in Edirne, Istanbul and İzmir.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Athens[390] and Consulates General in Komotini,[391] Piraeus,[392] Rhodes[393] and Thessaloniki.[394]
  • Both countries are members of BSEC, OECD, NATO and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 4.18 billion USD in 2018.[395]
  • 150 thousand ethnic Turks reside in Western Thrace, Greece.[396]
  • 836,882 Greek tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
  • Turkey and Greece have clashed for decades over the status of Aegean islands and over the extent of territorial waters and airspace. In February 1999, the discovery that Greek authorities had been aiding and abetting Abdullah Öcalan, Turkey's most wanted criminal, caused a diplomatic crisis. When Abdullah Öcalan was captured by Turkish authorities, he was found holding Greek and Cypriot passports and he later revealed that he had been hiding in the Greek Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya. Relations have since improved, particularly following the earthquakes that struck both countries in 1999.
[35]
  Holy See 1960[397] See Holy See–Turkey relations X
 Hungary 1521[398] See Hungary–Turkey relations [35]
 Iceland June 17, 1944[401] See Iceland–Turkey relations
  • Bilateral relations between Turkey and Iceland are being coordinated by the Embassy of the Republic of Turkey in Oslo and the Embassy of Iceland in Copenhagen.[402]
  • Both countries are members of NATO, OECD and WTO.[402]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 51 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 24/27 million USD).[402]
  • 100 Turkish citizens reside in Iceland.[402]
[35]
 Ireland 1972[403] See Ireland–Turkey relations [35]
 Italy 1381[407] See Italy–Turkey relations [35]
 Kosovo Feb. 18, 2008[411] See Kosovo–Turkey relations [35]
 Latvia 1925[413] See Latvia–Turkey relations
  • Latvia has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Riga.[414]
  • Both countries are members of OECD, NATO and WTO.
  • 200 Turkish citizens reside in Latvia.[413]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 291 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 126/165 million USD).[413]
  • 86,051 Latvian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
[35]
 Liechtenstein 2 October 1992[415] See Liechtenstein–Turkey relations
  • Bilateral relations between Turkey and Liechtenstein are being coordinated by the Embassies of the Republic of Turkey and Liechtenstein in Bern.[416]
  • Both countries are members of WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 7 million USD in 2017.[417]
[35]
 Lithuania 1930[418] See Lithuania–Turkey relations
  • Lithuania has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Vilnius.[419]
  • Both countries are members of OECD, NATO and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 687 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 277/410 million USD).[418]
  • 229,704 Lithuanian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
  • 350 Turkish citizens reside in Lithuania.[418]
[35]
 Luxembourg 10 July 1946[420] See Luxembourg–Turkey relations
  • Luxembourg has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Luxembourg.[421]
  • Both countries are members of NATO, OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 160 million USD in 2017 (Turkish exports/imports: 36/124 million USD).[422]
  • 900 Turkish citizens reside in Luxembourg.[422]
[35]
 Malta 10 October 1967[423] See Malta–Turkey relations
  • Malta has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Valletta.[424]
  • Both countries are members of WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 593 million USD in 2017 (Turkish exports/imports: 541/52 million USD).[425]
[35]
 Moldova Feb. 3, 1992[426] See Moldova–Turkey relations [35]
 Monaco 1954[428] See Monaco–Turkey relations
  • Bilateral relations between Turkey and Monaco are being coordinated by the Consulates General of Turkey and Monaco in Marseille.[428]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 15.1 million USD in 2017.[428]
[35]
 Montenegro July 3, 2006[429] See Montenegro–Turkey relations [35]
 Netherlands 1612[431] See Netherlands–Turkey relations [35]
 North Macedonia Aug. 26, 1992.[437] See North Macedonia–Turkey relations
  • North Macedonia has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Skopje and a Consulate General in Bitola.
  • Both countries are members of NATO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 503 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 396/107 million USD).[438]
  • 209,519 Macedonian tourists visited Turkey in 2018.[438]
  • Yunus Emre Institute has a local branch in Skopje.
[35]
 Norway 1926[439]
  • Norway has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Both countries are members of NATO, OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.28 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 513/765 million USD).[439]
  • 20 thousand Turkish citizens reside in Norway .[439]
  • 208,330 Norwegian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.[439]
[35]
 Poland 1414[440] See Poland–Turkey relations
  • Poland has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Warsaw.[441]
  • Both countries are members of NATO, OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 6.45 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 3.34/3.34 billion USD).[442]
  • 880,839 Polish tourists visited Turkey in 2018.[442]
[35]

See also Polonezköy

 Portugal 1843[443] See Portugal–Turkey relations [35]
 Romania Oct. 22, 1879[446] See Romania–Turkey relations [35]
 Russia 1699[450] See Russia–Turkey relations
Vladimir Putin, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and Silvio Berlusconi in Turkey in November 2005
Vladimir Putin, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and Silvio Berlusconi in Turkey in November 2005
X
 Serbia 1879[456] See Serbia–Turkey relations [35]
 Slovakia 1993[459] See Slovakia–Turkey relations
  • Slovakia has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Bratislava.[460]
  • Both countries are members of OECD, NATO and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.29 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 532/767 million USD).[459]
  • 207,108 Slovak tourists visited Turkey in 2019.[459]
[35]
 Slovenia Feb. 6, 1992[461] See Slovenia–Turkey relations [35]
 Spain 1782[463] See Spain–Turkey relations [35]
 Sweden 1603[467] See Sweden–Turkey relations
  • Sweden has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Stockholm.[468]
  • Both countries are members of OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 3.2 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 1.5/1.7 billion USD).[467]
  • 115 thousand people of Turkish origin reside in Sweden.[467] See also Turks in Sweden
  • 444,285 Swedish tourists visited Turkey in 2019.[467]
[35]
  Switzerland 1899[469] See Switzerland–Turkey relations [35]
 Ukraine Feb. 3, 1992[474] See Turkey–Ukraine relations Pending Ratification[477]
 United Kingdom 1583[478] See Turkey–United Kingdom relations [35]

International organizations

Main article: Turkey and International Organizations

Turkey is a founding member of the UN (1945),[481] the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (1961),[482] the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (1969),[483] the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) (1973),[484] and the G20 industrial nations (1999). Turkey is a member state of the Council of Europe (1949) and NATO (1952) as well as being in full accession negotiations with the European Union since 2005, having been an associate member since 1963. Turkey was also an associate member of the Western European Union from 1992 to 2011, and signed the E.U. Customs Union agreement in 1995.

Turkey entered NATO in 1952 and serves as the organization's vital eastern anchor, controlling the Turkish Straits which lead from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean and sharing a border with Syria, Iraq, and Iran. A NATO headquarters is located in İzmir, and the United States has maintained air forces at the Incirlik Air Base in the province of Adana.

Turkey is also a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) since 1995. It has signed free trade agreements with the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), Israel, and many other countries. In 1992, Turkey and 10 other regional nations formed the BSEC to expand regional trade and economic cooperation. In 2017, ASEAN-Turkey Sectoral Dialogue Partnership[485] was recognized by the 50th ASEAN Foreign Ministers' Meeting in Manila, Philippines.[486]

See also

References

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  372. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Strazburg Başkonsolosluğu". strazburg.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  373. ^ a b c "Relations between Turkey and France".
  374. ^ a b "Relations between Turkey and Germany".
  375. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Berlin Büyükelçiliği". berlin.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  376. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Köln Başkonsolosluğu". koln.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  377. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Düsseldorf Başkonsolosluğu". dusseldorf.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  378. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Essen Başkonsolosluğu". essen.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  379. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Frankfurt Başkonsolosluğu". frankfurt.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  380. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Hamburg Başkonsolosluğu". hamburg.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  381. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Hannover Başkonsolosluğu". hannover.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  382. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı T.C. Karlsruhe Başkonsolosluğu". karlsruhe.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  383. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Mainz Başkonsolosluğu". mainz.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  384. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Münih Başkonsolosluğu". munih.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  385. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Münster Başkonsolosluğu". munster.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  386. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Nürnberg Başkonsolosluğu". nurnberg.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  387. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Stuttgart Başkonsolosluğu". stuttgart.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  388. ^ a b "Commercial and Economic Relations between Turkey and the Federal Republic of Germany".
  389. ^ Richard Clogg (1992). A Concise History of Greece. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-52-100479-4.
  390. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Turkish Embassy In Athens". atina.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  391. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Gümülcine Başkonsolosluğu". gumulcine.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  392. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Turkish Consulate General In Athens". atinapire.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  393. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Rodos Başkonsolosluğu". rodos.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  394. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Selanik Başkonsolosluğu". selanik.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  395. ^ "Relations between Turkey and Greece".
  396. ^ "Turkish Minority of Western Thrace".
  397. ^ "Relations between Turkey and the Holy See".
  398. ^ Miklós Molnár (2001). A Concise History of Hungary. Cambridge University Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-521-66736-4.
  399. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Turkish Embassy in Budapest". budapeste.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  400. ^ a b "Relations between Turkey and Hungary".
  401. ^ "İzlanda'nın Siyasi Görünümü".
  402. ^ a b c d "Relations between Turkey and Iceland".
  403. ^ "Ireland-Turkey Relations".
  404. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Embassy of the Republic of Turkey". dublin.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  405. ^ "Commercial and Economic Relations between Turkey and Ireland".
  406. ^ a b "Relations between Turkey and Ireland".
  407. ^ "Relations between Turkey and Italy".
  408. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Ambasciata della Repubblica di Turchia a Roma". roma.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  409. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Milano Başkonsolosluğu". milano.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  410. ^ "Commercial and Economic Relations between Turkey and Italy".
  411. ^ "Türkiye – Kosova İlişkileri".
  412. ^ "Relations between Turkey and Kosovo".
  413. ^ a b c "Relations between Turkey and Latvia".
  414. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Turkish Embassy In Riga". riga.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  415. ^ "Relations between Turkey and Liechtenstein (MFA of Turkey)".
  416. ^ "Relations between Turkey and Liechtenstein".
  417. ^ "Commercial and Economic Relations between Turkey and Liechtenstein".
  418. ^ a b c "Relations between Turkey and Lithuania".
  419. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Turkish Embassy In Vilnius". vilnius.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  420. ^ "Relations between Turkey and Luxembourg (MFA of Turkey)".
  421. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Lüksemburg Büyükelçiliği". luksemburg.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  422. ^ a b "Relations between Turkey and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg".
  423. ^ "Congratulations to friendly Republic of Malta on the 57th Anniversary of the Independence Day".
  424. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Turkish Embassy in Malta". valetta.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  425. ^ "Commercial and Economic Relations between Turkey and Malta".
  426. ^ a b "Relations between Turkey and Moldova".
  427. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Kişinev Büyükelçiliği". kisinev.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  428. ^ a b c "Relations between Turkey and the Principality of Monaco".
  429. ^ a b "Relations between Turkey and Montenegro".
  430. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Turkish Embassy in Podgorica". podgorica.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  431. ^ "Relations between Turkey and the Netherlands". Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  432. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Turkish Embassy in The Hague". lahey.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  433. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Turkish Consulate General in Amsterdam". amsterdam.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  434. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Consulate General of Deventer". deventer.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  435. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Turkish Consulate General In Rotterdam". rotterdam.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  436. ^ a b c "Commercial and Economic Relations between Turkey and the Netherlands".
  437. ^ "Министерство за надворешни работи". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 30 September 2011.
  438. ^ a b "Kuzey Makedonya Cumhuriyeti'nin Ekonomisi".
  439. ^ a b c d "Relations between Turkey and Norway".
  440. ^ "Relations between Turkey and Poland".
  441. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Turkish Embassy In Warsaw". varsova.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  442. ^ a b "Commercial and Economic Relations between Turkey and Poland".
  443. ^ "Relations between Turkey and Portugal".
  444. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Lisboa". lizbon.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  445. ^ "Commercial and Economic Relations between Turkey and Portugal".
  446. ^ "Republic of Turkey: Bilateral Relations".
  447. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Turkish Embassy In Bucharest". bukres.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  448. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Köstence Başkonsolosluğu". kostence.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  449. ^ a b "Relations between Turkey and Romania".
  450. ^ Edward J. Phillips (1995). The Founding of Russia's Navy: Peter the Great and the Azov Fleet, 1688–1714. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-313-29520-1.
  451. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Moskova Büyükelçiliği". moskova.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  452. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Kazan Başkonsolosluğu". kazan.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  453. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Novorossisk Başkonsolosluğu". novorossisk.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  454. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı St. Petersburg Başkonsolosluğu". stpetersburg.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  455. ^ "Relations between Turkey and the Russian Federation".
  456. ^ "Turkey". mfa.gov.rs.
  457. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Turkish Embassy In Belgrade". belgrad.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  458. ^ "Relations between Turkey and Serbia".
  459. ^ a b c "Relations between Turkey and Slovakia".
  460. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Turkish Embassy In Bratislava". bratislava.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  461. ^ a b "Relations between Turkey and Slovenia".
  462. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Turkish Embassy In Ljubljana". ljubljana.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  463. ^ "Relations between Turkey and Spain".
  464. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Madrid Büyükelçiliği". madrid.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  465. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Barselona Başkonsolosluğu". barselona.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  466. ^ a b "Commercial and Economic Relations between Turkey and Spain".
  467. ^ a b c d "Relations between Turkey and Sweden".
  468. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Embassy of the Republic of Turkey in Stockholm". stokholm.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  469. ^ a b "Relations between Turkey and Switzerland".
  470. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Turkish Embassy In Bern". bern.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  471. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Cenevre Başkonsolosluğu". cenevre.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  472. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Zürih Başkonsolosluğu". zurih.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  473. ^ a b "Commercial and Economic Relations between Turkey and Switzerland".
  474. ^ a b c "Relations between Turkey and Ukraine".
  475. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Turkish Embassy In Kyiv". kiev.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  476. ^ "Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Odessa Başkonsolosluğu".
  477. ^ "Türkiye-Ukrayna Serbest Ticaret Anlaşması iş insanlarına yeni iş birliği kapıları açacak". Aa.com.tr. 13 November 2019. Retrieved 29 June 2022.
  478. ^ a b c d "Relations between Turkey and the United Kingdom".
  479. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Turkish Embassy In London". londra.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  480. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Turkish Consulate General in Edinburgh". edinburg.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  481. ^ "Member States of the United Nations". United Nations. Archived from the original on 17 January 2016. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  482. ^ "Organisation for European Economic Co-operation". Oecd.org. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  483. ^ "The organization of Islamic Confernce". Archived from the original on 9 November 2006. Retrieved 30 October 2006.
  484. ^ "About – Participating States". OSCE. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  485. ^ (PDF) https://asean.org/storage/2018/07/Overview-of-ASEAN-Turkey-Sectoral-Dialogue-Relations-as-of-18-Sept-2020-fn.pdf. ((cite web)): Missing or empty |title= (help)
  486. ^ "Turkey's Relations with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) / Rep. of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs". www.mfa.gov.tr. Archived from the original on 9 March 2012.

Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/.

Further reading

European Union–Turkey relations

Greece–Turkey relations

Middle East–Turkey relations

Russia–Turkey relations and the Turkish Straits

Turkey–Turkic world relations

Turkey–United States relations

Foreign relations (1923–1945)

Foreign relations (1945–2002)