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Uzbekistan joined the Commonwealth of Independent States in December 1991. However, it is opposed to reintegration and withdrew from the CIS collective security arrangement in 1999. Since that time, Uzbekistan has participated in the CIS peacekeeping force in Tajikistan and in United Nations-organized groups to help resolve the Tajik and Afghan conflicts, both of which it sees as posing threats to its own stability. Uzbekistan is an active supporter of U.S. efforts against worldwide terrorism and joined the coalitions which have dealt with both Afghanistan and Iraq (although, in 2005, relations with the U.S. were strained after the May 2005 unrest and Uzbekistan demanded that the U.S. leave Karshi-Khanabad). It is a member of the United Nations, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, Partnership for Peace, and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). It belongs to the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) and the Economic Cooperation Organization, which comprises 7 Central Asian countries: Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. It is a founding member of and remains involved in the Central Asian Union, formed with Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, joined in March 1998 by Tajikistan.

In 1999, Uzbekistan joined the GUAM alliance (Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan and Moldova), which was formed in 1997 (temporarily making it GUUAM until Uzbekistan withdrew in 2005). Uzbekistan is also a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) and hosts the SCO's Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS) in Tashkent. Uzbekistan also joined the new Central Asian Cooperation Organization (CACO) in 2002. The CACO consists of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. It is a founding member of and remains involved in the Central Asian Union, formed with Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, joined in March 1998 by Tajikistan.

Turunen visit to Uzbekistan

Antti Turunen, the head of the Finnish Foreign Ministry's Eastern European and Central Asian department, led a European Union fact-finding mission to Tashkent, Uzbekistan on August 29, 2006. The Uzbek deputy foreign minister indicated that the Uzbek government was interested in talks with the EU during a visit to Helsinki, Finland in June 2006, just before Finland assumed the EU presidency. Radio Free Europe journalists spoke to Turunen on September 1. Turunen said the visit was inconclusive, but promising enough for the EU to "analyze" to see if the sanctions imposed on Uzbekistan could be lifted. Turunen's visit to Uzbekistan was the first EU visit since October, when sanctions were imposed after the Uzbek government refused to allow an international investigation into the Andijan massacre.[1]

The diplomatic sanctions consisted of a ban on political contacts, aid cuts, and visa bans on officials held responsible for the events in Andijan and their cover-up. Turunen said, "There are many, many open cases on human rights, and we have to now carefully look into what has really been done and what recommendations of [the] international community have been implemented. They indicated [then] that there would be possibilities to again resume ministerial level dialogue, that they might be willing to again discuss all aspects of EU-Uzbek relations, including the events in Andijan. That will be part of the assessment of the sanctions regime and on the basis of that assessment a decision on the fate of the sanctions will be made by mid-November."[1]

Embassy of Uzbekistan in Washington, D.C.

Turunen said that the visit went "smoothly" and that Uzbek Foreign Minister Vladimir Norov offered a "warm reception." The EU delegation met with officials from the Justice Ministry, the Attorney General's office, and Uzbek parliament members in a "rather good" atmosphere. He stressed that "the real issue" for the EU is the Uzbek government's response to the Andijan massacre and human rights abuses. "Well, it seems that at the moment the issue with the international inquiry is not on the agenda as such. They are to a certain extent open to discuss on expert level the events that took place in Andijan and we have to now see what this amounts to, what concrete steps towards that direction could be taken. The other issue is they are now willing to engage on human rights, to establish some kind of human rights dialogue or regular meetings on human rights issues which, in itself, is a positive signal."[1]

Although he was unsure what prompted the invitation to EU officials, he said Uzbekistan is trying to overcome its isolation. He said Russia-Uzbek relations and possible EU development of Uzbek energy reserves were not "directly" discussed but that "one might assume in the longer run they look forward to EU investment in this area." If the sanctions are lifted, a "Cooperation Council" meeting with Foreign Minister Norov will take place in Brussels later this autumn.[1]

Legal agreements with the Gulf states

On 31 March 2009, Uzbekistan and the Sultanate of Oman agreed upon a legal framework that protects Omani investments in central Asia and guarantees trade from both nations is free from double taxation. The Sultanate's government has been pursuing economic diversification and privatisation policies for nearly a decade, having signed similar agreement with thirty of its other trading partners.[2]

Diplomatic relations

Countries which Uzbekistan maintains diplomatic relations
Countries which Uzbekistan maintains diplomatic relations
# Country[3] Date
1  Australia 26 December 1991
2  China 2 January 1992
3  Vietnam 17 January 1992
4  Egypt 23 January 1992
5  Mongolia 25 January 1992
6  Denmark 25 January 1992
7  Japan 26 January 1992
8  South Korea 29 January 1992
9  North Korea 7 February 1992
10  United Kingdom 18 February 1992
11  United States 19 February 1992
12  Saudi Arabia 20 February 1992
13  Malaysia 21 February 1992
14  Israel 21 February 1992
15  Finland 26 February 1992
16  France 1 March 1992
17  Hungary 3 March 1992
18  Turkey 4 March 1992
19  Germany 6 March 1992
20  Belgium 10 March 1992
21  New Zealand 11 March 1992
22  Greece 16 March 1992
23  Mexico 16 March 1992
24  Spain 17 March 1992
25  India 18 March 1992
26  Poland 19 March 1992
27  Russia 20 March 1992
28  Italy 24 March 1992
29  Austria 25 March 1992
30  Canada 7 April 1992
31  Sweden 8 April 1992
32  Philippines 13 April 1992
33  Oman 22 April 1992
34  Syria 24 April 1992
35  Thailand 6 May 1992
36   Switzerland 7 May 1992
37  Iran 10 May 1992
38  Pakistan 10 May 1992
39  Yemen 25 May 1992
40  Bahrain 29 May 1992
41  Luxembourg 10 June 1992
42  Norway 10 June 1992
43  Indonesia 23 June 1992
44  Algeria 30 June 1992
45  Lithuania 5 August 1992
46  Portugal 12 August 1992
47  South Africa 12 August 1992
48  Ukraine 25 August 1992
49  Nigeria 28 August 1992
50  Laos 10 September 1992
51  Bulgaria 12 September 1992[4]
52  Afghanistan 13 October 1992
53  Bangladesh 15 October 1992
  Holy See 17 October 1992
54  Tajikistan 20 October 1992
55  Kazakhstan 23 October 1992
56  United Arab Emirates 25 October 1992
57  Latvia 3 November 1992
58  Netherlands 24 November 1992
59  Tunisia 26 November 1992
60  Czech Republic 1 January 1993
61  Slovakia 1 January 1993
62  Turkmenistan 8 January 1993
63  Belarus 21 January 1993
64  Jordan 15 February 1993
65  Kyrgyzstan 16 February 1993
66  Malta 25 February 1993
67  Brazil 30 April 1993
68  Iraq 19 June 1993
69  Guinea 24 June 1993
70  Argentina 9 September 1993
71  Morocco 11 October 1993
72  Ghana 28 October 1993
73  Albania 23 November 1993
74  Zambia 1 February 1994
75  Kuwait 8 July 1994
76  Georgia 19 August 1994
77  Moldova 23 August 1994
78  Chile 15 September 1994
79  Chad 16 August 1994
 State of Palestine 25 September 1994
80  Estonia 25 November 1994
81  Maldives 7 December 1994
82  North Macedonia 31 December 1994
83  Slovenia 16 January 1995
84  Serbia 18 January 1995
85  Croatia 6 February 1995
86  Cambodia 7 September 1995
87  Azerbaijan 2 October 1995
88  Romania 6 October 1995
89  Senegal 6 October 1995
90  Armenia 27 October 1995
91  Venezuela 26 April 1996
92  Bosnia and Herzegovina 14 May 1996
93  Brunei 20 June 1996
94  Ethiopia 15 July 1996
95  Jamaica 8 August 1996
96  Mali 13 February 1997
97  Singapore 8 April 1997
98  Cyprus 30 May 1997
99  Iceland 25 September 1997
100  Ireland 7 November 1997
101  Qatar 27 November 1997
102  Uruguay 25 May 1998
103  Lebanon 22 October 1998
104  Mauritius 4 August 1999
105  Namibia 30 August 1999
106  Sri Lanka 11 October 1999
107  Peru 22 December 1999
108  Myanmar 8 February 2001
109  Costa Rica 7 June 2001
110  Paraguay 27 August 2001
111  Angola 31 May 2002
112  Sudan 6 January 2005
113  Comoros 21 May 2005
114  Benin 17 August 2005
115  Cuba 13 March 2006
116  Montenegro 19 December 2006
117  Guatemala 9 February 2007
118  Nicaragua 23 February 2007
119  Honduras 26 April 2007
120  Dominican Republic 28 September 2007
121  Zimbabwe 18 January 2008
122  Mauritania 2 July 2008
123  Andorra 1 December 2009
124  Fiji 16 June 2010
125  Libya 27 October 2010
126  Ecuador 17 July 2011
127  Colombia 2 October 2012
128  Bolivia 28 November 2012
129  Monaco 29 November 2013
130  El Salvador 3 December 2014
131    Nepal 26 January 2018
132  Grenada 12 October 2019[5]
133  San Marino 6 February 2021[6]
134  Dominica 14 May 2021[7]
135  Panama 29 November 2021[8]
136  Saint Kitts and Nevis 9 March 2022[9]
137  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 20 May 2022[8]
138  Antigua and Barbuda 14 June 2022[10]

Relations by country

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Afghanistan

See Afghanistan–Uzbekistan relations

 Albania 1993

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 November 1993.[3]

 Armenia 1995
 Azerbaijan 1995
  • The countries established diplomatic relations on 2 October 1995 by protocol.[13]
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Tashkent.[13]
  • Uzbekistan has an embassy in Baku.[13]
 Belarus 1992
 Bulgaria 1992-09-12 See Bulgaria–Uzbekistan relations
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Tashkent.[15]
  • Uzbekistan is represented in Bulgaria through a non resident ambassador based in Tashkent (in the Foreign Ministry.)[16]
 Burkina Faso 1992

Burkina Faso recognized the independence of Uzbekistan on January 25, 1992.[17]

 China 3 January 1992[18] See China–Uzbekistan relations
 Comoros 2005
 Cuba 2006
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on March 13, 2006.[20]
  • Uzbekistan is accredited to Cuba from its embassy in the United States.
  • Cuba is accredited to Uzbekistan from its embassy in Azerbaijan.
  • In May 1963, Fidel Castro visited the Uzbek SSR on an official visit, being bosted by the Uzbek Communist First Secretary Sharof Rashidov.[21]
  • In 2016, Cuba became the only country in the world (other than Uzbekistan itself) that declared an official period of mourning in connection with the death of President Islam Karimov, with many speculating that this was because of Castro's reported liking towards the late Uzbek leader.[22][23][24]
 Djibouti 1992

Djibouti recognized the independence of Uzbekistan on January 6, 1992. However both countries have not yet established diplomatic relations.[19]

 India 18 March 1992 See India–Uzbekistan relations
  • India has an embassy in Tashkent.
  • Uzbekistan has an embassy in New Delhi.
 Indonesia 23 June 1992 See Indonesia–Uzbekistan relations
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Tashkent that is also accredited to Tajikistan.
  • Uzbekistan has an embassy in Jakarta.
 Iran 1991
  • The two countries have deep cultural and historical ties, and Uzbekistan is considered as a part of Greater Iran. Iran has been especially active in pursuing economic projects and social, cultural, and diplomatic initiatives in Uzbekistan. The two nations have also worked on overland links and other joint ventures. The countries' conflicting political set-ups (Iran's Islamic theocracy versus Uzbekistan's secular republic) does not appear to have deterred efforts to improve relations.[25]
 Japan 26 January 1992[26]
  • Japan opened an embassy in Tashkent in January 1993.
  • Uzbekistan opened an embassy in Tokyo in February 1996
  • Ministerial level visits are frequent between the two countries.
 Kyrgyzstan See Kyrgyzstan–Uzbekistan relations
  • Uzbekistan dominates southern Kyrgyzstan both economically and politically, based on the large Uzbek population in that region of Kyrgyzstan and on economic and geographic conditions.[27]
 Malaysia 1992[28] See Malaysia–Uzbekistan relations
 Mexico 14 January 1992
 Mauritania 2 July 2008
 Pakistan See Pakistan–Uzbekistan relations
  • Relations between the two states were established when the republic of Uzbekistan became independent following the collapse of the USSR, the relations between the two countries were initially strained by the situation in Afghanistan which both countries border as they supported different Afghan factions.[31]
  • However relations improved after the fall of the Taliban, both countries seeking to improve relations for the sake of trade, Pakistan wishing to gain access to Central Asian markets and landlocked Uzbekistan to access ports on the Indian Ocean.[31]
 Romania 1995-10-06 See Romania–Uzbekistan relations
  • Romania recognized Uzbekistan's independence on December 20, 1991.
  • Romania has an embassy in Tashkent, although Uzbekistan does not have any representation in Romania.
  • Romania sees Uzbekistan as a potentially important partner in Central Asia, where it is trying to increase its standing, while Uzbekistan hopes to receive increased access to technology and European markets via Romania.[32]
 Russia 1992
 South Korea 29 January 1992[33] See South Korea–Uzbekistan relations
  • Number of Ethnic Koreans living in Uzbekistan: About 180,000 (Largest number among the CIS nations).[33]
 Spain See Spain–Uzbekistan relations
 Tajikistan
 Turkey March 4, 1992[35] See Turkey–Uzbekistan relations
 Turkmenistan
 Ukraine 1992 Inter-parliamentary cooperation with the Republic of Uzbekistan is currently in the making. The deputy group of friendship with the Republic of Uzbekistan was established in the Verkhovna Rada. Uzbekistan has clearly expressed its position on the events in Ukraine: the rejection of force options and the use of political efforts to resolve the problems that have arisen, through negotiations, based on the fundamental norms of international law and the UN Charter.

The development of cultural and humanitarian cooperation remains one of the important areas of bilateral relations between Ukraine and the Republic of Uzbekistan. The legal framework in this sphere consists of ten bilateral agreements, the most important of which is the "Agreement between Ukraine and the Republic of Uzbekistan in the field of culture."

Cooperation between Ukraine and the Republic of Uzbekistan in the field of science and education is carried out taking into account the ancient traditions of interaction between scientific and educational institutions, the presence of a large Ukrainian diaspora and the established legal framework.

 United States 1992 See United States–Uzbekistan relations
  • The United States recognized the independence of Uzbekistan on December 25, 1991, and opened an embassy in Tashkent in March 1992.

See also

References

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