Fortum Oyj
TypeJulkinen osakeyhtiö
Nasdaq HelsinkiFORTUM
PredecessorImatran Voima (IVO)
  • 1998; 25 years ago (1998)
Area served
Nordic countries, Poland, Russia, India
Key people
  • Veli-Matti Reinikkala (Chairman)
  • Markus Rauramo (President and CEO)
  • Bernhardt Günther (CFO)
ProductsElectric power
RevenueIncrease €49.015 billion (2020)[1]
Increase €1.855 billion (2020)[1]
Total assetsIncrease €57.810 billion (2020)[1]
Total equityIncrease €15.577 billion (2020)[1]
OwnerGovernment of Finland,
Finnish National Institutions (Kela, Keva, State Pension Fund, City Councils of Kurikka, Turku and Kauhajoki) (53.03%)
Number of employees
Increase 19,933 (2020)[1]
SubsidiariesUniper (56%)

Fortum Oyj is a Finnish state-owned energy company located in Espoo, Finland. It mainly focuses on the Nordic region.[1] Fortum operates power plants, including co-generation plants, and generates and sells electricity and heat. The company also sells waste services such as recycling, reutilisation, final disposal solutions and soil remediation and environmental constructions services, and other energy-related services and products e.g. consultancy services for power plants and electric vehicle charging. Fortum is listed on the NASDAQ OMX Helsinki stock exchange.

In 2020 Fortum was the biggest company in Finland by its revenue.[2] The majority of its income came from Uniper[3] that became Fortum's subsidiary in March 2020.[4] Uniper was nationalised by Germany on the 21 September 2022 for 8 billion euros. [5] Fortum is Europe's third-largest producer of carbon-free electricity, Europe's second-largest producer of nuclear power[6] and one of the largest gas suppliers.[7]


Imatran Voima (1932–1997)

The predecessor of Fortum was Imatran Voima (IVO), which was founded in 1932 to operate the Imatrankoski hydroelectric power plant in Imatra.[8]

The construction of the Imatra power plant began already in 1922 as well as the power lines from Imatra to Helsinki and the power plant was opened in May 1929.[8] Finnish Government made a decision to establish Imatran Voima Osakeyhtiö (IVO) in May 1932.[8]

Imatran Voima acquired and built a number of other power plants, such as the largest hydroelectric power plants along the Oulujoki river, Ingå and Naantali coal-fired powerplants and the Loviisa nuclear power plant.[citation needed]

In 1997, a merger agreement was made between Neste and IVO.[8]


Fortum Corporation was founded in 1998. It was created from the merging of Imatran Voima and Neste Oy, the Finnish national oil company.[9]

In 2003, Fortum bought parts of Fredrikstad Energi and Fredrikstad Energi Nett in a swap deal with E.ON.[10]

In 2005 most of Neste's assets were divested into a separate stock-listed company Neste Oil.[11]

In 2007, Fortum acquired 25.66% stake in TGK-1, operating in northwest Russia.[12] In 2008, Fortum privatized the natural gas, power and heat generation company TGK-10 (now: OAO Fortum), operating in central and northern Russia.[13]


In 2011, Fortum sold its 25% stake in the Finnish transmission system operator Fingrid.[14] In December 2013 Fortum announced the sale of its distribution network in Finland to Suomi Power Networks (later named Caruna), owned by First State Investments (40%), Borealis Infrastructure (40%), Keva (12,5%) and LähiTapiola (7,5%).[15]

In 2012, Fortum shared the number one position in the Carbon Disclosure Project's Nordic climate index.[16]

In 2013, Fortum opened two new CHP utilities using waste as a fuel in Klaipėda, Lithuania,[17] and Brista [sv], Sweden[18] as well as new biomass-fuelled CHP plants in Jelgava, Latvia,[19] and Järvenpää, Finland.[20] In June, Fortum acquired a 5 MW solar power plant in the state of Rajasthan in India.[21] In September Fortum signed an agreement with Rosatom and British Rolls-Royce Engines to develop nuclear power.[22]

In 2014 Fortum sold its Norwegian electricity distribution network and also its stakes in Fredrikstad Energi and Fredrikstad Energi Nett to the Hafslund Group. The heat business was sold to iCON Infrastructure Partners II, L.P. fund.[23] Since 2015 the electrical distribution network in Sweden is owned by Ellevio.[citation needed]

In 2015 Fortum connected its first greenfield solar park, under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) Phase II initiative, in Madhya Pradesh.[24][25]

In 2015, Fortum completed the divestment of its electricity distribution network in Sweden, thus completing the divestment of electricity distribution business.[citation needed] In 2016, Fortum acquired Grupa DUON S.A, an electricity and gas sales company in Poland, and Ekokem Corporation, a leading Nordic circular economy company specialised in material and waste recycling, final disposal solutions, soil remediation and environmental construction.[citation needed]

In 2017, the 100 MW plant in Pavagada solar park was connected to the grid. It was the first of a series of planned gigawatt-scale plants facilitated by reverse auctions in India.[26] In September, Fortum announced it would buy E.ON's 47% stake in German power company Uniper.[27] Fortum increased its stake to 75% in spring 2020.[28] Uniper mainly uses oil, natural gas and coal to supply electricity.[29]

In 2020 Fortum and Kværner informed that they would cooperate on a Carbon capture and storage project for waste incineration at Klemetsrud energigjenvinningsanlegg.[30]

In 2021 Fortum sold its business in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania to Partners Group.[31]



Imatrankoski hydroelectric power plant.
Imatrankoski hydroelectric power plant.

Hydropower is one of the most significant renewable electricity production form for Fortum.[28] In 2021 Fortum owned or co-owned over 150 hydropower plants in Finland and Sweden, including power plants on the Dalälven, Indalsälven and Ljusnan rivers in central Sweden and on the Oulujoki, Kemijoki and Vuoksi rivers in Finland.[32]

Nuclear power

In 2021 Fortum owned the nuclear power plant in Loviisa, Finland. Its nuclear assets also cover Sweden with a 43% share ownership in the Oskarshamn Nuclear Power Plant and 22% of three Forsmark Nuclear Power Plants. Furthermore, Fortum owns a 27% stake in the Teollisuuden Voima, which operates two nuclear power plants at Olkiluoto.[33]

Combined production of heat and electric power (cogeneration or CHP)

Fortum produces and sells heat in Nordic countries, Russia and Poland, with 26 plants combining production of heat (district heating) and electric power. Fortum is the 5th largest heat producer globally.[citation needed]

Electricity and heat sales

Fortum sells electricity, electricity products and services to 1.3 million customers in Sweden, Finland, Norway and Poland. In 2014, Fortum closed its 1,000 MW coal power plant at Ingå (Finland) and demolished it in 2020.[34] The company also owns and operates about 1,200 km (750 mi) of district heat network in Finland, 2,400 km (1,500 mi) in Sweden, 860 km (530 mi) in Poland and 480 km (300 mi) in Russia.[citation needed]

Solar power

The company has stated that its ambition is to build a small photo-voltaic solar portfolio to gain experience in different solar technologies and in operating in the Indian power market.[35] Fortum also sells solar power kits in the Nordic countries.[citation needed]

Recycling and waste solutions

Fortum provides environmental management and material efficiency services in the Nordics. Services include recycling, reutilisation, and final disposal solutions, as well as soil remediation and environmental construction services.[citation needed]

Environmental record

In 2014 Fortum had the biggest market share of ecolabeled electricity in Finland.[36] With three hydropower plants, seven biomass plants and four wind parks the company had also more EKOenergy certified power stations than any other company in Finland.[37]

After acquiring a majority stake in Uniper in 2020,[4] Fortum will become one of the EU's worst emitters of greenhouse gas emissions, asserted a report backed by major European environmental groups in 2019.[38] Extinction Rebellion Finland accused Fortum for greenwashing for continuing and scaling up its fossil fuel business, for example opening (through Uniper) Dateln4 coal-fired power plant in Germany in 2020 and suing the Netherlands on the basis of the Energy Charter Treaty for banning coal.[citation needed]

Fortum intends to be carbon neutral by 2050 at the latest, and by 2035 for its European production. The work began in Espoo, where the use of coal was reduced. In Germany, the Hayden power plant was closed at the end of 2020. By the end of 2025, 75% of Germany's coal capacity will be closed. The Dutch coal-fired power plant will be closed by the end of 2029. Datteln 4 from Germany will be the last plant to be closed, by 2038. According to Finnish Greenpeace, the changes are made too slowly as it would like all the plants to be closed already by 2030. Fortum is planning to replace the coal capacity by new wind and solar power. Hydropower and nuclear power operations are also being developed and in Russia renewable energy is taken into use.[7]

Social responsibility

In February 2014, Fortum equipped three schools with solar-powered infrastructure in Bhilwara, India, where they had a solar plant.[39]

Uniper divestment

On 21st September 2022, Fortum announced that Uniper is to be fully divested to the German state.[40] Under the agreement, Uniper plans to issue 4.7 billion new ordinary registered shares, which the German State plans to subscribe at a nominal value of EUR 1.70 per share. The German state-owned KfW bank will provide Uniper with additional liquidity support as required until this EUR 8 billion capital increase is completed.

At completion of the capital increase, the German State plans to buy all of Fortum‘s approximately 293 million shares in Uniper for EUR 1.70 per share, i.e. for a total of EUR 0.5 billion. At that point, change of control clause in the financing agreement will be triggered and the German State will provide the financing for the redemption of Fortum’s EUR 4 billion shareholder loan granted to Uniper and the release of the EUR 4 billion parent company guarantee.

The parties have also agreed that Fortum will have a right of first offer in case Uniper intends to divest all or parts of its Swedish hydro and nuclear assets until the end of 2026.

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f "Fortum Financials 2020". Fortum. Retrieved 2021-07-29.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  2. ^ Talouselämä. "TE500". Talouselämä (in Finnish). Retrieved 2021-07-29.
  3. ^ "Osavuosikatsaukset | Uniper veti Fortumin tuloksen yli miljardiin euroon alkuvuonna". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). 2021-05-12. Retrieved 2021-07-29.
  4. ^ a b "Fortum paransi tulostaan loppuvuonna, taustalla tytäryhtiö Uniperin vahva suoritus". Ilkka-Pohjalainen (in Finnish). Retrieved 2021-07-29.
  5. ^
  6. ^ "Yritykset koronakriisissä: Fortum selvisi sähkön hintaromahduksesta kuivin jaloin – tytäryhtiö tahraa mainetta, mutta tuo hurjasti hilloa". Yle Uutiset (in Finnish). 15 May 2020. Retrieved 2021-08-03.
  7. ^ a b "Fortum aloitti Uniperin hiilivoimaloiden alasajon Saksassa – "EU voisi kiristää päästörajoituksia ja laajentaa päästökauppaa", sanoo toimitusjohtaja Rauramo". Yle Uutiset (in Finnish). 12 March 2021. Retrieved 2021-08-03.
  8. ^ a b c d Vuorinen, Asko (2015). Imatran Voimasta Fortumiksi 1932-2013. ISBN 9789526705774.
  9. ^ "IVO-Neste Yhtymästä Fortum". (in Finnish). 1998-06-17. Retrieved 2021-07-29.
  10. ^ "Fortum i mål i Fredrikstad Energi" (in Norwegian). 2003.
  11. ^ "Fortumin omistajat saavat kevään jakautumisessa Neste Oilin osakkeita". (in Finnish). 2005-03-11. Retrieved 2021-07-29.
  12. ^ "Russia seen blocking Fortum from TGK-1 control". Reuters. 2007-02-16. Retrieved 2014-08-29.
  13. ^ Humber, Yuriy (2008-02-28). "Fortum Buys Russia Utility TGK-10, May Pay $3 Billion". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 2014-09-03. Retrieved 2014-08-29.
  14. ^ Rosendahl, Jussi (2011-01-26). "Utilities Fortum, PVO to sell stakes in Fingrid". Reuters. Retrieved 2014-08-29.
  15. ^ Fortum myy sähköverkot 2,55 miljardilla. 12.12.2013 yle, viitattu 21.12.2013 (in Finnish)
  16. ^ "CDP Nordic 260 Climate Change Report 2012" (PDF). Carbon Disclosure Project. Retrieved 2014-03-18.
  17. ^ "Fortum openes combined heat and power plant in Klaipeda, Lithuania". Climate Action. 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2014-05-13.
  18. ^ "Fortum opens new waste-to-energy CHP plant in Stockholm, Sweden". Oil & Gas Observer. 2013-12-06. Archived from the original on 2014-05-14. Retrieved 2014-05-13.
  19. ^ "Fortum starts up biomass plant". The Baltic Times. 2013-09-19. Retrieved 2014-05-13.
  20. ^ "Fortum's biofuel-fired CHP plant inaugurated in Järvenpää". Fortum Corporation. 2013-06-14. Archived from the original on 2014-05-14. Retrieved 2014-05-13.
  21. ^ "Fortum Buys India Solar Plant, Plans More Investment". Bloomberg. 2013-06-11. Retrieved 2014-04-17.
  22. ^ "Fortum inks nuclear, wind power deals with UK firms". Yle Uutiset. 5 September 2013. Retrieved 2021-07-29.
  23. ^ "Fortum sells Norwegian electricity distribution business to Hafslund". Reuters. 2014-04-09. Retrieved 2014-08-29.
  24. ^ "Fortum launches its first greenfield solar project in India - Times of India".
  25. ^ "Fortum connects 10MW solar power plant in Madhya Pradesh to grid - Times of India".
  26. ^ "Fortum connects 100-MW solar plant to grid in India". Retrieved 2018-04-20.
  27. ^ "Fortum Plans $9.7 Billion Bid for EON Fossil-Fuel Arm Uniper". Bloomberg. 2017-09-20. Retrieved 2017-10-22.
  28. ^ a b Lähteenmäki, Pekka. "Fortum lataa miljardipanokset tuuleen ja aurinkoon ja hyökkää sitten vetybuumiin – "Olemme saman murroksen äärellä, jossa olimme kymmenen vuotta sitten uusiutuvissa"". Talouselämä (in Finnish). Retrieved 2021-07-29.
  29. ^ "Sustainability at Uniper - Data Overview". 2018. Archived from the original on 24 July 2018.
  30. ^ "Kværner og Fortum vil samarbeide om CO2-fangst". 2020.
  31. ^ "Fortum has sold its heating business in the Baltic States".
  32. ^ "Vesivoimalaitokset". (in Finnish). Retrieved 2021-07-29.
  33. ^ "Ydinvoimalaitokset". (in Finnish). Retrieved 2021-07-29.
  34. ^ Andersen, Ina (27 March 2020). "Her rives Nordens største kullkraftverk". Teknisk Ukeblad (in Norwegian).
  35. ^ "Fortum launches solar power production in India by acquiring a 5-MW photo-voltaic solar power plant". Fortum Oyj. 2013-06-11. Retrieved 2014-04-17.
  36. ^ "EKOenergy | The European ecolabel for electricity". 2014-02-03. Retrieved 2014-03-07.
  37. ^ "EKOenergy | The European ecolabel for electricity". 2014-02-03. Retrieved 2014-03-07.
  38. ^ Fortum/Uniper among Europe's worst polluters, say NGOs'YLE. 2019-04-08. Retrieved 2020-04-05.'
  39. ^ "Finland Ex President Halonen visits Fortum plant in Bhilwara".
  40. ^ "Fortum to fully divest Uniper to the German State".

Media related to Fortum at Wikimedia Commons