Francis Ledwidge
Ledwidge in uniform
Ledwidge in uniform
Born(1887-08-19)19 August 1887
Janeville, Slane, County Meath
Died31 July 1917(1917-07-31) (aged 29)
Pilckem Ridge, near Boezinge, Passchendaele salient, Belgium
OccupationLabourer, miner, writer and poet

Francis Edward Ledwidge (19 August 1887 – 31 July 1917) was an Irish poet from Slane, County Meath, sometimes known as the "poet of the blackbirds". He was later also known as a First World War war poet. He was killed in action in 1917.[1]

Born to a poor family in Slane, County Meath, Ledwidge started writing at an early age, and was first published in a local newspaper at the age of 14. Finding work as a labourer and miner, he was also a trade union activist, and a keen patriot and nationalist, associated with Sinn Féin. He became friendly with a local landowner, the writer Lord Dunsany, who gave him a workspace in the library of Dunsany Castle, and introduced him to literary figures including William Butler Yeats and Katherine Tynan, with whom he had a long-term correspondence. He was elected to a local government post and helped organise the local branch of the Irish Volunteers, while Dunsany edited a first volume of his poetry and helped him secure publication for it.

Despite having sided with the faction of the Irish Volunteers which opposed participation in the war, he enlisted in the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers in October 1914, and continued to write poetry on campaign, sending work to Lord Dunsany and to family and other friends. Having been posted to several theatres of the war, he was killed in action in July 1917 during the Battle of Passchendaele.

Dunsany arranged for the publication of more of his poems, and a collected edition of 122 poems in 1919. Some musical settings of his work were also composed. Further poems, from the archives at Dunsany Castle and some material held by families of relatives and friends, were published by Ledwidge's biographer, Alice Curtayne, in 1974, and by one of the two Ledwidge memorial groups, in 1997.

A museum of his life and work was opened in his birthplace cottage in 1982. Ledwidge was selected as one of twelve prominent war poets - and the only Irish one - for the exhibition Anthem for Doomed Youth at the Imperial War Museum in London in 2002, and memorialised at an event in Inchicore, Dublin, in 2017, with his work set to music by Anúna. Some of his manuscripts are held in the National Library of Ireland and more in the archives of Dunsany Castle.

Early life

Francis Ledwidge, known to his family as "Frank", was born at Janeville, Slane, in Ireland, the eighth of nine children in a poverty-stricken family. His parents, Patrick Ledwidge and wife Anne Lynch (1853–1926), believed in giving their children the best education they could afford; however, when Francis was only five, his father Patrick died, which forced his wife and the children out to work at an early age. Francis left the local national school aged thirteen, and while he continued to educate himself, he worked at what work he could find.

Employment included work as a farm hand, road surface mender and supervisor of roadwork, copper miner at Beaupark Mine near Slane (from which post he was sacked for organising a strike for better mining conditions, three years before the general 1913 strike,[2] and was a trade union activist since 1906) and, briefly, shop assistant.

Appointed secretary of the Slane branch of the Meath Labour Union (1913–14) he had aspirations towards permanent white-collar work. He was known for his connections with Sinn Féin.[2]

Early poetry and nationalism

Strongly built, with striking brown eyes and a sensuous face, Ledwidge was a keen poet, writing where ever he could – sometimes even on gates or fence posts.[3] From the age of fourteen his works were published in a local newspaper, the Drogheda Independent, and reflected his passion for the Boyne Valley. He was also published with some regularity in the Irish Weekly Independent and Sunday Independent from mid-1909. The poetry publications were largely unpaid.

While working as a road labourer, he wrote to the Anglo-Irish landlord and fantasy writer Lord Dunsany, in 1912, enclosing copybooks of his early work. Dunsany, a man of letters already well known in Dublin and London literary and dramatic circles, and whose own start in publishing had been with a few poems, felt that his work had potential, and promoted him in Dublin, including at a salon of Æ. Dunsany and Æ introduced Ledwidge to a range of Irish literary figures, including W.B. Yeats and Mary Lavin, with whom Ledwidge became further acquainted.[citation needed]

Dunsany supported Ledwidge with money and literary advice for some years,[3] providing him with access to and a workspace in Dunsany Castle's library, where he met the Irish writer Katharine Tynan, corresponding with her regularly.[4] Dunsany later prepared his first collection of poetry Songs of the Fields, which successfully appealed to the expectations of the Irish Literary Revival and its social taste for rural poetry.[3] Despite Ledwidge's growing association with the aristocratic Lord Dunsany, he retained a keen interest in the conditions of working men. He was one of the founder members in 1906 of the Slane branch of the Meath Labour Union. He familiarised himself with the writings of James Connolly and, despite the Vatican's condemnations of Marxism, Ledwidge found no contradiction between Roman Catholicism and socialism. In 1913 he was temporary secretary of the union, the following year elected to the Navan district rural council and board of guardians.[1]

Home Rule

Francis Ledwidge c. 1914
Francis Ledwidge c. 1914

Ledwidge was a keen patriot and nationalist. His efforts to found a branch of the Gaelic League in Slane were thwarted by members of the local council. The area organiser encouraged him to continue his struggle, but Francis gave up. He did manage to act as a founding member with his brother Joseph of the Slane Branch of the Irish Volunteers (1914), a paramilitary force created in response to the founding of the Ulster Volunteers, who had sworn to resist Home Rule for Ireland even if it meant civil war. The Irish Volunteers were set up to fight the Unionists if necessary and to ensure that Home Rule would come to pass.

Military service

On the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, and on account of Ireland's involvement in the war, the Irish Volunteers split into two factions, the National Volunteers who supported John Redmond's appeal to join Irish regiments in support of the Allied cause and those who did not. Francis was originally of the latter party. Nevertheless, having defended this position strongly at a local council meeting, he soon after enlisted (24 October 1914) in Lord Dunsany's regiment, joining 5th battalion Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, part of the 10th (Irish) Division. This was against Lord Dunsany's wishes and he had offered Ledwidge a stipend to support him if he stayed out of the war. Some have speculated that he went to war because his sweetheart Ellie Vaughey had found a new lover, John O'Neill, whom she later married, but Ledwidge himself wrote, quite forcefully, that he could not stand aside while others sought to defend Ireland's freedom.[5]

Poetry and war

Ledwidge seems to have fitted into Army life well, and rapidly achieved promotion to lance corporal. In 1915, he saw action in the Landing at Suvla Bay during the Gallipoli Campaign, where he suffered severe rheumatism. Having survived huge losses sustained by his company, Ledwidge became ill after a back injury gained during the Battle of Kosturino in Serbia (December 1915), a locale which inspired a number of poems.

Ledwidge was dismayed by the news of the Easter Rising, and was court-martialled and demoted for overstaying his furlough and being drunk in uniform (May 1916). He gained and lost stripes over a period in Derry (he was a corporal when the introduction to his first book was written), and then, returned to the front, received back his lance corporal's stripe one last time in January 1917 when posted to the Western Front, joining 1st Battalion, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, part of 29th Division.

Bust of Ledwidge in Richmond Barracks.
Bust of Ledwidge in Richmond Barracks.

Ledwidge continued to write when feasible throughout the war years, though he lost many works, for example, in atrocious weather in Serbia. He sent much of his output to Lord Dunsany, himself moving on war assignments, as well as to readers among family, friends and literary contacts.

Death and aftermath

Memorial to Francis Ledwidge on the spot where he died
Memorial to Francis Ledwidge on the spot where he died

The poems Ledwidge wrote on active service reveal his pride at being a soldier, as he believed, in the service of Ireland. He often wondered whether he would find a soldier's death. On 31 July 1917, a group from Ledwidge's battalion of the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers were road-laying in preparation for an assault during the Third Battle of Ypres, near the village of Boezinge, northwest of Ypres.

According to Alice Curtayne, "Ledwidge and his comrades had been toiling since the early morning at road-making. The army's first need was men; their second, guns; their third roads. These latter consisted mainly of heavy beech planks bolted together, which could be rapidly laid down. No advance could be supported in that sodden land without a sufficiency of these communications tracks, six or seven feet wide. Supplies were conveyed by pack mules over the wooden paths. Survivors concur in placing the road work done by B Company that day one mile north-east of Hell Fire Corner, so called because it was very exposed to German shelling. There was a violent rainstorm in the afternoon, shrouding the region in a gray monochrome. Sullenly, the enemy's long-range guns continued to fling their shells far behind the lines. Road-work could not be suspended, however, as the tracks were in use as fast as they were laid down. Tea was issued to the men and, drenched to the skin, they stopped to swallow it. A shell exploded beside Ledwidge and he was instantly killed."[6]

A Roman Catholic military chaplain, Father Devas, was the first on the scene. That night, Father Devas wrote in his diary, "Crowds at Holy Communion. Arranged for service but washed out by rain and fatigues. Walk in rain with dogs. Ledwidge killed, blown to bits; at Confession yesterday and Mass and Holy Communion this morning. R.I.P."[6]


Francis Ledwidge was first buried at Carrefour de Rose, and later re-interred in the nearby Artillery Wood Military Cemetery, at Boezinge, (where the Welsh poet Hedd Wyn, who was killed in action on the same day, also lies buried).[7]


According to a local folktale the ghostly apparition of Ledwidge appeared in Navan at the same time he died on the Western front. His ghost greeted a friend before fading away.[8]


A stone tablet commemorates Ledwidge in the Island of Ireland Peace Park, Messines, Belgium. His work as "peasant poet" and "soldier poet", once a standard part of the Irish school curriculum, faded from view for several decades of the 20th century. Its intensity, coupled with a revived interest in his period, has restored it to life.[citation needed]

The Ledwidge Cottage Museum, in Ledwidge's childhood home at Janeville, Slane, was opened by a local committee in June 1982,[9] and is now run by a dedicated non-profit company, Francis Ledwidge Museum and War Memorial Centre CLG; it contains displays on his life and work. It charges a small fee for admission.

The centenary of his birth was marked with events and a booklet published by a committee in 1987.[citation needed]

On the 81st anniversary of his death in 1998 a simple non-militaristic monument was unveiled by the poet's nephew, Joe Ledwidge, and the writer, Dermot Bolger, on the exact spot where he was killed - the location having been unearthed by Piet Chielens, the director of the In Flanders Fields Museum. The monument consists of a portrait of Ledwidge on glass over yellow Ieper brick, with the text of his poem "Soliloquy" printed in English and in Dutch.

In 2002, Ledwidge was selected as one of twelve representative World War I soldier poets by the Imperial War Museum, the only Irish poet chosen.[10] Personal and written material connected to him was included in their Anthem for Doomed Youth exhibition, which ran into 2003. His family and Dunsany Castle's archives lent original materials, and he and images of these were featured on the museum's website, and in a chapter in the exhibition book of the same title.

In a 2016 episode of the BBC Radio 3 series Minds at War Belfast academic Gerald Dawe contributed a commentary entitled "Francis Ledwidge's poem 'O'Connell Street'".

Centenary of death

The official national commemoration for Ledwidge was held at the birthplace cottage in Slane on 24 June 2017, with the State represented by Minister for European Affairs, Helen McEntee, joined by four members of Ledwidge's family, an Irish Army Brigadier General, a Garda Assistant Commissioner, various politicians, the Belgian ambassador, the UK defence attache, and many locals.[11] There were also events at Ieper (Ypres) in Belgium, where the Irish poet Dermot Bolger gave an oration at his grave, and in the former Richmond Barracks in Inchicore Dublin, where there was a musical memorial event featuring the musical group Anúna, including some of Ledwidge's poetry set to music.[citation needed]

Publications and reception


Ledwidge Cottage Museum, Slane, County Meath where Francis lived and grew up as a young poet.
Ledwidge Cottage Museum, Slane, County Meath where Francis lived and grew up as a young poet.

Ledwidge was writing poetry from childhood, and from age 14, he would routinely send poetry to a number of newspapers in Ireland. Selected items were published, notably between 1909 and 1914; later some UK publication was added. The newspaper publications were largely unpaid, though the Irish Weekly Independent would pay a small reward to the first-printed poem each week.

The only work published in book form during Ledwidge's lifetime was the original volume Songs of the Fields (1915), containing fifty poems, which was very well received. The poems in this volume were reviewed by Lord Dunsany, and selected by Dunsany and Ledwidge working together. Dunsany helped Lediwdge secure a publisher, Herbert Jenkins. The critic Edward Marsh printed three of the poems in the Georgian Poetry series, and remained a correspondent for the remainder of Ledwidge's life.

A second volume, Songs of Peace, had its 39 poems selected and was fully drafted when Ledwidge died; patron and friend Lord Dunsany wrote the introduction while both were in Derry in September 1916, and arranged for its publication in September 1917, with an additional foreword. Following the war, Dunsany arranged for more of Ledwidge's work to be published, selecting 33 poems for a third and final new volume, Last Songs. The 122 poems from the three volumes were assembled into a collection, The Complete Poems of Francis Ledwidge, released in 1919, which went through at least three editions.[12]

Dunsany commented on the work with words such as:

"[I was] astonished by the brilliance of that eye and that had looked at the fields of Meath and seen there all the simple birds and flowers, with a vividness which made those pages like a magnifying glass, through which one looked at familiar things for the first time."

Posthumous publication

In 1974, Alice Curtayne assembled a new collection of Ledwidge's poems, Francis Ledwidge : Complete Poems, adding 44 pieces from various sources, many of the newly-collected items having had newspaper appearances. Curtayne organised the poems into thematic groups. The collection was reprinted. In mid-1997, Liam O'Meara and the Inchicore Ledwidge Society published a new collections, Francis Ledwidge : The Poems Complete, with 66 poems added to the Curtayne selection, many from the archives at Dunsany Castle. Around 20 of the poems had not previously been published.

A Ledwidge enthusiast, retired judge Hubert Dunn, who had spoken of Ledwidge at commemorative events, and had contact with the Ledwidge and Dunsany families, and interest groups, secured permission to review some materials at Dunsany Castle. Working with the literary curator at Dunsany, Dunn located some unpublished poems, and in 2006, he released a narrative of Ledwidge's life and influences, with dozens of poems incorporated, including a small number of previously unpublished works.

Prose and drama

The Original staves of Legends and Stories of the Boyne Side
The Original staves of Legends and Stories of the Boyne Side

Ledwidge's submissions to the Drogheda Independent in 1913 were done with the eventual aim of publishing a book: Legends and Stories of the Boyne Side. The book was unfinished,[13] having reached the entry for Slane, but some material was drafted, typeset, and some copies of this partial work printed, but it was then "shelved", and the early print material was dumped in the 1970s, except for one set, which was recovered, and published as Legends and Stories of the Boyne Side.[14] A further edition, expanded to include some short stories, a war record, and the full text of an autobiographical letter to Lewis Chase, was released in 2006: Legends of the Boyne and Selected Prose.[15] Researched and edited by Liam O'Meara, it was launched by Senator David Norris at Liberty Hall in 2006.[16]

Ledwidge also wrote of working on a play, The Crock of Gold, but no Ledwidge drama has yet been published or performed. There are also references to other writing, but none has been published.[citation needed]


Later collections gathering more of the poetry:

A study of the poet and his literary milieu, with a few previously unpublished works:

Selections from the body of Ledwidge's work:

Settings and adaptations

Some of Ledwidge's poetry was set to music by the British composer and songwriter Michael Head, most notably in the song cycle published in 1920, "Over the rim of the moon". This includes the song, "The Ships of Arcady".[19] There were also further musical settings, and compact discs and audiobooks of readings of his work, sometimes to music, have also been released.[citation needed]

Studies of Ledwidge and his work

A substantial biography was written by Alice Curtayne, and published in 1972. In 2020, a short book, Soldier's Heart: Francis Ledwidge at war ISBN 978-1-913425-29-6, a biographical account of his military service years, was published by his grand-nephew, Frank Ledwidge.[20]

Liam O'Meara, chairman of the Inchicore Ledwidge Society, published To One Dead, a play based on the life & writings of Francis Ledwidge (ISBN 9781901596199), and Francis Ledwidge Poet Activist & Soldier (Riposte Books/Inchicore Ledwidge Society, ISBN 9781901596137).

In 2012, Miriam O'Gara-Kilmurry was awarded a Masters in Literature from the Open University with a thesis on Ledwidge titled, "A defence of Francis Ledwidge as a War Poet through an exploration of War Imagery, Nationalism and Canonical Revisions." She asserted that until 2011, Ledwidge had no 'WWI War Poet' presence online, and that no searches containing the specific words 'Irish WWI war poets' turned up any results, and that Ledwidge's poems written from the front-lines received little if no attention as examples of unique nationalist 'hybrid' war poems. On the eve of All-Ireland Poetry Day', 2 October 2013, O'Gara-Kilmurry was invited by the National Library of Ireland to deliver a lecture on "Francis Ledwidge: WWI Irish Nationalist War Poet." In 2016, the thesis was published as a book, Eire's WWI War Poet: F. E. Ledwidge.[21] According to O'Gara-Kilmurry:

Ledwidge qualifies as a 'war poet' on the grounds that he actually fought in theatres of war. Secondly, he wrote on war themes peculiar to soldiers fighting on front-lines, and finally, he belonged to a category of poets singled out by the celebrated literary sponsor of his day, Edward Howard Marsh, Private Secretary to Winston Churchill. Central to the literal argument is our theory that Francis Ledwidge meets criteria set out for War Poets and identified by Marsh's friend and fellow academic Robert H. Ross, who in 1965 published a study attempting to explore the Georgians (Robert H. Ross, Georgian Summer (London: Faber and Faber, 1965))." ... "My final thought as I leave you, is that there is nothing worse than indifference. Ignoring the War Poetry of F. E. is another way of declaring war on Ledwidge and should not be allowed to continue into the 21 Century."

— Miriam O'Gara Kilmurry, Eire's WWI War Poet: F.E. Ledwidge[21]


His politics are described by the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography as nationalist as well as left-wing.[3] However far from simply being an Irish Nationalist, his poems "O’Connell Street" and "Lament for the Poets of 1916" clearly describe his sense of loss and an expression of holding the same "dreams"[22] as the Easter Rising's Irish Republicans who fought and died for the Irish Republic in and around O'Connell Street in 1916.


Memorial to Francis Ledwidge on the spot where he died
Memorial to Francis Ledwidge on the spot where he died

Oh what a pleasant world 'twould be,
How easy we'd step thro' it,
If all the fools who meant no harm,
Could manage not to do it!

– From a personal letter.

He shall not hear the bittern cry
in the wild sky, where he is lain,
Nor voices of the sweeter birds
Above the wailing of the rain
Nor shall he know when the loud March blows
Thro' slanting snows her fanfare shrill,
Blowing to flame the golden cup
Of many an upset daffodil.
But when the dark cow leaves the moor
And pastures poor with greedy weeds
Perhaps he'll hear her low at morn
Lifting her horn in pleasant meads.

Lament for Thomas MacDonagh

Media and popular culture

Memorial plaque on Slane bridge
Memorial plaque on Slane bridge

Ledwidge was the subject of an RTÉ documentary entitled Behind the Closed Eye, first broadcast on 18 January 1973. It won awards for Best Story and Best Implementation Documentary at the Golden Prague International Television Festival.[23]


  1. ^ a b Lowry, Donal in: McGuire, James and Quinn, James (eds): Dictionary of Irish Biography From the Earliest Times to the Year 2002;
    Royal Irish Academy Vol. 5, Ledwidge, Francis Edward pp. 394-97; Cambridge University Press (2009) ISBN 978-0-521-19979-7
  2. ^ a b "Francis Ledwidge Poet & Soldier". Archived from the original on 19 December 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d Longley, E. "Ledwidge, Francis Edward (1887–1917)" : Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, (2004), vol. 33, pp. 45–46
  4. ^ Hickey, D.J. & Doherty , J.E., A new Dictionary of Irish History from 1800, p.303, Gill & MacMillan (2003) ISBN 0-7171-2520-3
  5. ^ Letter Ledwidge to Chase p. 698
  6. ^ a b Alice Curtayne (1998), Francis Ledwidge: A Life of the Poet, page 188.
  7. ^ Casualty details—Ledwidge, Francis Edward, Commonwealth War Graves Commission: the cemetery reports show Hedd Wyn is also buried there, listed under his birth name, Ellis Humphrey Evans. Retrieved on 19 February 2010
  8. ^ Marsh, Richard (2013). Meath Folk Tales. The History Press Ireland. p. 166. ISBN 978-1-84588-788-9.
  9. ^ "About us". Francis Ledwidge Museum. Retrieved 19 May 2021. The museum is the cottage birthplace of World War I poet, Francis Ledwidge. ... purchased and restored by the Francis Ledwidge Museum Committee in 1981. Dr Benedict Kiely opened it ... in June 1982.
  10. ^ "Anthem for Doomer Youth - Twelve Soldier Poets of the First World War [Exhibition]". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 19 May 2021.
  11. ^ Becton, Gavan; Murphy, Paul (27 June 2017). "Everything you ever wanted to know about Slane poet and patriot Francis Ledwidge". The Meath Chronicle. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  12. ^ "The Complete Poems (Francis Ledwidge), with introduction by Lord Dunsany - 1955 (3rd ed.)". Worldcat. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
  13. ^ Dunn, Hubert (2006). The Minstrel Boy : Francis Ledwidge, and the Literature of his Time. Holywood, Co. Down, Northern Ireland: Booklink. ISBN 978-0955409707. Including unpublished poems and release insert
  14. ^ "History". Legends and Stories of the Boyne Side. Excel Printing Ltd.
  15. ^ Riposte Books in association with the Inchicore Ledwidge Society, Dublin; 79 pp.
  16. ^ Meath Chronicle, 9 December 2006
  17. ^ Ledwidge, Francis E.; Matthews (compiler / publisher), Eamonn (2017). Legends and Stories of the Boyne Side (1st ed.). Navan, Co. Meath: Excel Printing. ISBN 978-1-9997676-0-0.
  18. ^ Ledwidge, Francis; Dunn (editor), Hubert (2006). The Minstrel Boy: Francis Ledwidge, and the Literature of His Time / Including Six Previously Unpublished Poems (1st ed.). Ireland. ISBN 9780955409707. ((cite book)): |last2= has generic name (help)
  19. ^ Head, M. D., and Ledwidge, F, 1920, Over the rim of the moon, Boosey, UK.
  20. ^ Murphy, Paul (7 November 2020). "Ledwidge was a true poet". The Drogheda Independent. Independent News and Media. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  21. ^ a b O'Gara Kilmurry, Miriam: Eire's WWI War Poet: F.E. Ledwidge, Amazon (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform), 23 February 2016), ISBN 978-1523482979.
  22. ^ "Ledwidge, Francis, Life works Criticism Commentary Quotations References Notes".
  23. ^ Bruce, Jim, Faithful Servant: A Memoir of Brian Cleeve Lulu, 2007, ISBN 978-1-84753-064-6, (p.185)

Further reading