|The Broadway Musical|
Frozen is a musical with music and lyrics by Kristen Anderson-Lopez and Robert Lopez, and book by Jennifer Lee, based on the 2013 film of the same name. The story centers on the relationship between two sisters who are princesses, Elsa and Anna. Elsa has magical powers to freeze objects and people, which she does not know how to control. After inheriting the throne, Elsa flees, inadvertently causes the kingdom to become frozen in an eternal winter, and nearly kills her sister. She must sacrifice and show true love to save the day.
Produced by Disney Theatrical Productions, the musical had a tryout at the Buell Theatre in Denver, Colorado in August 2017 and premiered on Broadway in March 2018 at the St. James Theatre to mixed reviews. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Broadway production closed on March 11, 2020, after 26 previews and 825 regular performances. A U.S. tour began in November 2019 but was also suspended in March 2020. International productions followed, including a West End production, which opened in September 2021.
In January 2014, Bob Iger, CEO of The Walt Disney Company, stated that Disney Theatrical Productions was in early development of a stage adaptation of Frozen that it planned to bring to Broadway. No date was set for the adaptation. "We're not demanding speed," Iger said. "We're demanding excellence." One of the film's producers, Peter Del Vecho, later reiterated that "these things take time." In an October 2014 interview, Thomas Schumacher, the president of Disney Theatrical Group, disclosed that discussions about a musical had begun even before the film was released almost a year earlier. He stated: "I'm already talking to directors, and I have a design concept, and we have to begin to fashion this idea. It doesn't need to be fast. It needs to be great."
The first priority [for Disney Theatrical] ... is when you have a property that is as beloved and music-based as Frozen, that has to get an enormous amount of my attention. To say, "How do we take this and make a sophisticated, adult evening of theater out of it?"
In February 2015, Schumacher confirmed that the songwriters were working on the show and that Lee would be writing the book but that "no other staffing or dates have been announced". By early 2016, Disney announced that the musical was scheduled to open on Broadway in spring 2018, with Alex Timbers as director, Peter Darling as choreographer and Stephen Oremus as music supervisor, among other creative staff. Disney also scheduled the pre-Broadway tryout in August 2017 at the Denver Center for the Performing Arts. In April 2016, it was reported that Betsy Wolfe had been cast as Elsa, but Disney stated that no roles had been officially cast. Anderson-Lopez told an interviewer that while "the movie only has seven-and-a-half songs ... we’ve written about 23" for the musical". The musical's first developmental lab was held over two weeks during May 2016 in New York City, with Wolfe as Elsa, Patti Murin as Anna, Okieriete Onaodowan as Kristoff, and Greg Hildreth as Olaf.
In September 2016, Disney announced a new director, Michael Grandage. It confirmed that the musical was set to open on Broadway at the St. James Theatre in spring 2018. Rob Ashford joined the creative team as choreographer. The musical "cost a reported $30 million to produce [and] churned through three choreographers, two set designers, two Elsas and two directors."
A pre-Broadway tryout ran at the Buell Theatre in Denver, Colorado, from August 17 to October 1, 2017, directed and choreographed by Grandage and Ashford. Caissie Levy and Patti Murin starred as Elsa and Anna. The cast included Jelani Alladin as Kristoff, Greg Hildreth as Olaf and John Riddle as Prince Hans. Designers included Christopher Oram (sets and costumes), Natasha Katz (lighting) and Michael Curry (puppets). Stephen Oremus served as music supervisor.
Previews on Broadway at the St. James Theatre began on February 22, 2018, with an official opening on March 22, 2018. The cast and creative team was the same as in Denver. A reported 30% of the show was rewritten between the tryout and the Broadway opening, with the musical taking a "deeper dive into the princesses' psyches" and aiming at a more adult audience; Disney research shows that 70% of the audience for its musicals are adults without children. Anderson-Lopez noted that "examining how the ... princesses' psychological scars drive them to make certain decisions was the next logical storytelling step." The onstage technology included lighting effects for Elsa's magic, as well as such adaptations as a full-body costume to represent the reindeer Sven, with a ballet dancer inside holding stilts in his hands and walking on tiptoe; the role is so strenuous that a second ballet dancer was hired to play it at some performances to give each dancer some days of rest.
The production played 825 performances and 26 previews at the St. James Theatre, ending on March 11, 2020, when performances were suspended due to the COVID-19 pandemic. On May 14, 2020, Disney Theatrical Productions announced that Frozen would not reopen on Broadway following the pandemic. The production cost about $35 million to mount, attracted attendance of over 1.3 million and grossed over $150 million, often grossing 80% to 90% of box office potential. It did not perform as well, however, as Disney's The Lion King or Aladdin. Therefore, Disney chose to close Frozen, judging that after the pandemic running three of their shows on Broadway simultaneously "would become untenable".
A U.S. tour of the Broadway production began on November 10, 2019, at Proctor's Theatre in Schenectady, New York, starring Caroline Bowman as Elsa. It was also suspended due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The tour reopened at Shea's Performing Arts Center in Buffalo, New York, on September 9, 2021.
A production began previews on December 1, 2020, at Sydney Australia's Capitol Theatre, with Jemma Rix as Elsa, Courtney Monsma as Anna and Matt Lee as Olaf. Following an outbreak of COVID-19 in New South Wales, performances of the production were suspended from 21 December 2020 but resumed on 26 December. The show closed on May 23, 2021.
The production moved to Melbourne's Her Majesty’s Theatre in previews on June 25, 2021, with the same cast, opening on July 14, 2021, and closing on January 26, 2022 after some performances were cancelled due to the pandemic. It transferred to Brisbane's Queensland Performing Arts Centre on February 10, 2022 and is scheduled to close there on May 8 before travelling to the Adelaide Festival Centre.
Shiki Theatre Company is producing the musical at the Haru (en: Spring) theater in Tokyo owned by Shiki. After a postponement due to COVID-19, it opened on June 24, 2021.
After delays due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the show began previews on August 27, 2021, at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, in London's West End, and opened officially on September 8. The production is again directed by Grandage, with choreography by Ashford, and stars Samantha Barks as Elsa and Stephanie McKeon as Anna; set and costume design is by Christopher Oram, with lighting design by Neil Austin. The production was nominated for 4 Laurence Olivier Awards in 2022, including Best New Musical and Best Actress in a Musical for McKeon.
A German production opened in November 2021 at the Stage Theater an der Elbe in Hamburg with Sabrina Weckerlin as Elsa and Celena Pieper as Anna.
A Greek chorus introduces Princess Elsa of Arendelle and her playful younger sister, Princess Anna ("Vuelie", "Let the Sun Shine On"). While the family knows about Elsa's magic, it is kept a secret from the people of Arendelle. One night at bedtime, Elsa and Anna build a magical snowman and name it Olaf ("A Little Bit of You"); Elsa creates snow in their room. In their excitement, Elsa accidentally injures Anna with her icy magic. Their parents, King Agnarr and Queen Iduna, call for the aid of the colony of hidden folk, led by Grand Pabbie. He heals Anna and removes her memories of Elsa's magic. Elsa asks Grand Pabbie to remove her magic, but he says that it is a part of her. He gives her a vision of her future, frightening Elsa, who believes that her magic will cause death. The King isolates the sisters within the castle. Elsa shuts Anna out when Anna seeks to play ("Do You Want to Build a Snowman?"), and Elsa's fear of her powers grows. While the princesses are still young, the Queen and King sail to seek a solution to help Elsa control her powers, and they die at sea during a storm.
Years pass. The day before Elsa's coronation as Queen of Arendelle, Anna asks if there is anything she can do for her sister. Elsa, her room coated in ice, refuses to open her door out of fear of hurting Anna again. Anna is excited for the castle's gates to open ("For the First Time in Forever") and meets the handsome Prince Hans ("Hans of the Southern Isles"). Elsa is terrified that the kingdom's citizens might find out about her powers and fear her, while wishing to be able to reconnect with Anna ("Dangerous to Dream"). Elsa's coronation goes smoothly, and she initiates her first contact with Anna in years. They enjoy the coronation together, with Anna talking the Duke of Weselton out of dancing with the newly crowned Queen. However, Elsa leaves after Anna asks about keeping the gates open. Anna falls in love with Hans ("Love Is an Open Door"), who quickly proposes marriage to her, and the two share a kiss after she accepts. The couple asks for Elsa's blessing, who objects because the two have only known each other for a day. After intense questioning from Anna about shutting her out of her life, Elsa accidentally unleashes her powers before the court. The Duke brands her a monster. Elsa flees to the North Mountain without realizing that her suppressed magic has engulfed Arendelle in an eternal winter.
Anna goes in search of Elsa, leaving Hans in charge of the kingdom during her absence. Up in the mountains, ice harvester Kristoff and his reindeer Sven ("Reindeer(s) Are Better Than People") are found by the ill-equipped Anna, still in her coronation dress. She orders Kristoff to take her to the North Mountain, the source of the storm. Kristoff gives her a set of winter clothes, and she leaves her dress behind. In view of her sudden engagement, Kristoff and Anna disagree about love as they cross a bridge ("What Do You Know About Love"), and Anna saves Kristoff from falling off the bridge. Anna and Kristoff then encounter a newly created Olaf, who offers to guide them to Elsa and sings about his love for summer ("In Summer"). A soldier arrives in Arendelle with Anna's dress, and Hans fears for Anna's safety. He assembles a search party ("Hans of the Southern Isles" (reprise)), including the Duke and two of his men, who intend to put her in her place. Meanwhile, on the North Mountain, Elsa builds an ice castle with her powers and transforms her coronation dress into a sparkly ice gown ("Let It Go").
Anna, Kristoff, and Olaf arrive at Wandering Oaken's Trading Post & Sauna to meet the owner, Oaken ("Hygge"). Anna enjoys the sauna together with its many other patrons. Kristoff convinces Oaken and his patrons to aid their journey; Oaken gives them provisions and a winter dress for Anna.
Reaching the ice palace, Anna meets Elsa, but when she reveals what has become of Arendelle, Elsa becomes angry and frustrated, saying that she cannot fix it, and she accidentally freezes Anna's heart ("I Can't Lose You"). Out of fear of hurting Anna further, Elsa forces her, Kristoff, Sven, and Olaf out of the palace. Anna's hair begins turning white, so Kristoff takes her to meet the hidden folk, his adoptive family, who recognize Anna as the princess and attempt to match her with Kristoff, despite him mentioning her betrothal to Hans ("Fixer Upper"). Grand Pabbie attempts to remove the magic freezing Anna's heart but fails; Kristoff realizes that he is falling in love with her ("Kristoff Lullaby"). Grand Pabbie reveals that Anna will freeze solid unless "an act of true love" reverses the spell. Kristoff selflessly races Anna back home so Hans can give her true love's kiss.
In the ice castle, Elsa considers whether she is a monster and wonders how can she end the storm, unsure whether the storm would end or grow worse if she were to die ("Monster"). She resolves to stay alive to end the storm and lowers the defenses around the castle, allowing Hans and his men to capture her. Home, Anna is delivered to Hans, but rather than kissing her, he reveals that he has been plotting to seize the throne of Arendelle by allowing Anna to freeze to death and accusing Elsa of her murder ("Hans of the Southern Isles" (reprise 2)). Hans locks Anna in a room to die, as Anna reflects on her mistakes while still holding on to the idea of love ("True Love"). Olaf frees Anna, and they venture into the blizzard outside to meet Kristoff, whom Olaf reveals is in love with her.
Hans publicly charges Elsa with treason and sentences her to death. Elsa escapes her chains and flees outside as a blizzard grows ("Colder by the Minute"). Kristoff and Anna struggle to find each other. Hans confronts Elsa, claiming that she killed Anna, causing Elsa to break down and the storm to pause. Anna finally finds Kristoff but spots Hans about to kill Elsa; she leaps in the way and freezes solid, stopping Hans. Devastated, Elsa mourns her sister, who thaws out, her sacrifice constituting "an act of true love". Realizing that her magic is controlled by love, Elsa ends the winter ("Vuelie (Love Thaws)"). Anna punches Hans, and she and Kristoff become a couple, with Elsa's blessing. Elsa and Anna reunite without fear for the first time, as their parents, young Elsa and young Anna appear in the background, signaling the healing of the sisters' painful past (Finale).
All songs by Kristen Anderson-Lopez and Robert Lopez unless otherwise noted.
† Featured in the 2013 film.
‡ "Vuelie" written by Frode Fjellheim and Christophe Beck
∞ Song added February 2020, replacing a reprise of "For the First Time in Forever"
|Anna||Patti Murin||Caroline Innerbichler||Stephanie McKeon|
|Elsa||Caissie Levy||Caroline Bowman||Samantha Barks|
|Kristoff||Jelani Alladin||Mason Reeves||Obioma Ugoala|
|Hans||John Riddle||Austin Colby||Oliver Ormson|
|Olaf||Greg Hildreth||F. Michael Haynie||Craig Gallivan|
|Pabbie||Timothy Hughes||Tyler Jimenez||Joshua St. Clair|
|Weselton||Robert Creighton||Jeremy Morse||Richard Frame|
|Oaken||Kevin Del Aguila||Michael Milkanen||Jak Skelly|
|Young Anna||Audrey Bennett
Asanda Abbie Masike
|Young Elsa||Brooklyn Nelson
|Queen Iduna||Ann Sanders||Marina Kondo||Jacqui Sanchez|
|King Agnarr||James Brown III||Kyle Lamar Mitchell||Gabriel Mokake|
|Bulda||Olivia Phillip||Brit West||Emily Mae|
Prior to the official opening of the musical on Broadway, four singles were released digitally: "Monster" in February 2018, and "What Do You Know About Love", "Dangerous to Dream" and "True Love", all in March 2018. The Original Broadway Cast Album was released digitally on May 11, 2018, with a physical (CD) release following on June 8, 2018. For the recording, the orchestra was expanded from 21 members to 44, including 22 strings. The album includes a song cut from the Broadway production as a bonus track, "When Everything Falls Apart".
Reviews of the Denver tryout were mixed but found the show promising; "fun but not transporting", said The Denver Post. Mark Shenton wrote in The Stage: "Kristen Anderson-Lopez and Robert Lopez have augmented their score for the original film – which featured just eight songs – to 20 songs in all now. There are occasional moments that feel padded ... but the surging power ballads that are the score's signature are stunningly delivered by [Levy and Murin]."
The Broadway premiere received mixed reviews. Jesse Green of The New York Times called the show "rousing, often dull, alternately dopey". He praised Levy's and Murin's performances as well as the set and lighting design but criticized the new musical numbers. The 2021 West End production received mostly favorable reviews; Arifa Akbar in The Guardian wrote that "What is more surprising than the uniformly storming singing voices and the theatrical razzmatazz is the sense of a real, beating heart in the relationship between the two tortured sisters".
|2018||Drama Desk Award||Outstanding Actor in a Musical||Jelani Alladin||Nominated|
|Outstanding Puppet Design||Michael Curry||Won|
|Tony Awards||Best Musical||Nominated|
|Best Book of a Musical||Jennifer Lee||Nominated|
|Best Original Score (Music and/or Lyrics) Written for the Theatre||Robert Lopez and Kristen Anderson-Lopez||Nominated|
|2022||Laurence Olivier Awards||Best New Musical||Nominated|
|Best Actress in a Musical||Stephanie McKeon||Nominated|
|Best Costume Design||Christopher Oram||Nominated|
|Best Lighting Design||Neil Austin||Nominated|
Disney has already announced plans to bring a musical version to Broadway, and theme-park incarnations have been hinted at.
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