Fujimorism
Fujimorismo
LeaderKeiko Fujimori
Kenji Fujimori
FounderAlberto Fujimori
Founded1990; 32 years ago (1990)
IdeologyNational conservatism
Christian nationalism
Right-wing populism
Social conservatism
Neoliberalism
Anti-communism
Peruvian nationalism
Political positionRight-wing to far-right
Colours  Orange   Black
Seats in the Congress
24 / 130
Governorships
0 / 25
Party flag
Fujimori flag.svg

Fujimorism (Spanish: Fujimorismo) denotes the policies and the political ideology of former President of Peru Alberto Fujimori as well as the personality cult built around him, his policies and his family. The ideology is defined by authoritarianism, its support for neoliberal economics, opposition to communism, and socially and culturally conservative stances such as opposition to LGBT rights and school curriculums including gender equality or sex education.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8] Opponents of Fujimorism are known as anti-Fujimorists.

After Alberto's fall the movement was inactivated until 2011 when it was brought back to the forefront by his children, Keiko and Kenji, with Keiko's party Popular Force controlling much of the Congress of the Republic of Peru from 2016 until 2020 through a system that was constitutionally drafted by her father.[9]

History

1990s

The lack of a stable political-party system in Peru as well as in other countries of Latin America has led many times to the emergence in the political arena of strong personalities without overt ideological affiliations.[10] In Peru in the 1980s, the "surprise" 1990 election of Fujimori to the office of the President led to a constitutional crisis in 1992, followed by "extraordinary measures" ostensibly directed against domestic terrorists. Following the 1992 crisis, the Constitution of Peru was rewritten by Fujimori and his supporters and is currently used today. This constitution would later come to benefit Alberto Fujimori's children.[9]

2000s

Fujimori took refuge in Japan when faced with charges of corruption in 2000. On arriving in Japan he attempted to resign his presidency via fax, but his resignation was rejected by the Congress of the Republic, which preferred to remove him from office by the process of impeachment. Fujimori maintained a self-imposed exile until he was arrested while visiting Chile in November 2005.[11] He was extradited to face criminal charges in Peru in September 2007.[12] In December 2007, Fujimori was convicted of ordering an illegal search and seizure, and was sentenced to six years in prison.[13][14][15] The Supreme Court upheld the decision upon his appeal.[16] In April 2009 Fujimori was convicted of human rights violations and sentenced to 25 years in prison for his role in killings and kidnappings by the Grupo Colina death squad during his government's battle against leftist guerrillas in the 1990s.

2010s

Following Fujimori's fall from power, his self-exile to Japan, his extradition back to Peru and his subsequent trial and imprisonment, there emerged political parties that continued to proclaim to follow the legacy of Alberto Fujimori. The most prominent of these groups that formed in the aftermath of Alberto's downfall is Popular Force (Fuerza Popular), a political party that was created and is led by the former president's daughter Keiko Fujimori, a presidential candidate in 2011 and again in 2016.

In March 2017, Popular Force blocked an investigation into alleged sexual abuse within the Catholic church using the justification that it was only intended as an attack on religion.[7]

As a result of the 2016 Peruvian general election, Keiko Fujimori lost the presidential race, though her Popular Force party gained control of Peru's congress while economist Pedro Pablo Kuczynski won the presidency.[9] Shortly after the election, Fujimorist congress immediately began to politically attack President Kuczynski, beginning two impeachment proceedings against the president; a failed attempt in 2017 and another attempt in 2018.[9]

Shortly after the first impeachment vote failed, President Kuczynski pardoned Alberto Fujimori, with Kuczynski, citing Fujimori's health and age as the main reason for his pardoning.[17] Days before the second vote was to occur, Kenji Fujimori – who was then still part of his sister's party Popular Force – was involved in the Kenjivideos scandal where he was seen attempting to buy the votes in favor of President Kuczynski to avoid the president's impeachment.[18][19][20] As a result of the scandal, President Kuczynski resigned the presidency.

Following this series of events, First Vice President Martín Vizcarra was sworn into the presidency by the Fujimorist-led congress. During this ceremony, some Peruvians took to the streets to protest against the government, calling for the removal of all politicians.[21] Others have stated that the attacks against President Kuczynski was a conspiracy of the Fujimorists to gain control of Peru's political system once more. Soon after taking office, President Vizcarra made attempts to remove corruption within Peru, proposing a national referendum effort surrounding the country's legislative branch and election funding 28 July 2018.[22][23] On 3 October 2018, Alberto Fujimori's pardon was overturned by a Peruvian court[24] and a week later on 10 October 2018, Keiko Fujimori was detained by police as part of an investigation surrounding the Odebrecht scandal and money laundering allegations that involved her 2011 presidential campaign.[25] On 23 January 2019, Alberto Fujimori was sent back to prison to complete his sentence[26] with his pardon formally being annulled three weeks later on 13 February 2019.[27]

During their majority in congress, Fujimorists "earned a reputation as hardline obstructionists for blocking initiatives popular with Peruvians aimed at curbing the nation’s rampant corruption" according to the Associated Press.[28]

Characteristics

Ideology

Fujimorism is characterized by its social conservatism and has been described as having traits of authoritarianism[1] and fascism.[29][30] It is also known for strong opposition to left-wing and far-left groups.[31][32] Fujimorists have signed the Madrid Charter, an anti-leftist manifesto promoted by the far-right Spanish party Vox.[33] The principal foundations of the regime were staunch anti-communism, forceful anti-terrorist actions, pro-free market policies and disregard for political institutions.[34] In terms of the decision-making process, a logic of closed and isolated decision-making at the top became the major characteristic of Fujimori governance.[35] Fujimorism is considered neoliberal economically as it minimized the role of the state functions through privatizations of public companies and by signing contracts with transnational companies to support foreign investment in large sectors.[36]

Parties

Self-proclaimed Fujimorist parties and electoral coalitions include Cambio 90, New Majority, Sí Cumple, Peru 2000, Alliance for the Future (2006–2010) and Popular Force (since 2010).

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Asensio, Raúl; Camacho, Gabriela; González, Natalia; Grompone, Romeo; Pajuelo Teves, Ramón; Peña Jimenez, Omayra; Moscoso, Macarena; Vásquez, Yerel; Sosa Villagarcia, Paolo (August 2021). El Profe: Cómo Pedro Castillo se convirtió en presidente del Perú y qué pasará a continuación (in Spanish) (1 ed.). Lima, Peru: Institute of Peruvian Studies. pp. 13–24. ISBN 978-612-326-084-2. Retrieved 17 November 2021. Fujimorism was an unprecedented authoritarian political regime
  2. ^ "'Con mis hijos no te metas' asegura tener apoyo de bancada fujimorista en el Congreso". Exitosa. March 8, 2017. Archived from the original on March 10, 2017. Retrieved April 23, 2021.
  3. ^ "Fujimorismo respaldó polémica movilización en contra del nuevo currículo escolar". La República. March 4, 2017. Archived from the original on March 5, 2017. Retrieved April 23, 2021.
  4. ^ Tiburcio, Graciela (March 2, 2018). "Julio Rosas condecoró al colectivo Con Mis Hijos No Te Metas en el Congreso". Wayka.pe. Retrieved April 23, 2021.
  5. ^ ""¿Puede surgir un liderazgo conservador a la derecha de Keiko?"". El Comercio. March 11, 2017. Retrieved April 23, 2021.
  6. ^ Fonseca, Juan (May 4, 2016). "Esta es la verdadera historia de la reunión de Keiko Fujimori con los líderes evangélicos ultraconservadores". Utero.pe. Retrieved April 23, 2021.
  7. ^ a b "Caso Sodalicio: Congreso, con votos del fujimorismo, evita investigar abusos". La República. March 6, 2017. Archived from the original on January 13, 2021. Retrieved April 23, 2021.
  8. ^ "Fujimorismo insiste en no investigar al Sodalicio". La República. Archived from the original on April 18, 2018. Retrieved April 23, 2021.
  9. ^ a b c d Rochabrún, Marcelo; Zarate, Andrea (2018-03-22). "A Low-Profile Engineer Is Set to Take Power in Peru". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-03-25.
  10. ^ Mainwaring (2006).
  11. ^ Conditional release for Fujimori, BBC News, 18 May 2006. Retrieved 26 September 2006.
  12. ^ Extradited Fujimori back in Peru 22 September 2007.
  13. ^ Fujimori jailed for abusing power, BBC News, 12 December 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2007.
  14. ^ Corte Suprema de la República. 10 December 2008. Resolution 17-2008 Archived 25 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ Peru's Ex-President Gets 6 Years for Illicit Search, New York Times, 12 December 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2007.
  16. ^ Emery, Alex (15 April 2008). "Peru Supreme Court Upholds Former President's Prison Sentence". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 7 April 2009.
  17. ^ "UPDATE 6-Peru president pardons ex-leader Fujimori; foes take to streets". Msn.com. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  18. ^ "'Kenjivideos' y compra de votos: Funcionario explica cuál es el "negocio" de los congresistas (VIDEO)" (in Spanish). Diario Correo. 20 March 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  19. ^ Rochabrún, Marcelo; Casey, Nicholas (21 March 2018). "Peru's President Offers Resignation Over Vote-Buying Scandal". The New York Times. Lima, Peru. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  20. ^ Collyns, Dan (23 March 2018). "Martín Vizcarra sworn in as Peru's new president as embattled Kuczynski exits". The Guardian. Lima. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  21. ^ "Martin Vizcarra Sworn In As Peru's New President". NPR. 23 March 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  22. ^ Tegel, Simeon (12 August 2018). "Corruption scandals have ensnared 3 Peruvian presidents. Now the whole political system could change". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2018-08-17.
  23. ^ Taj, Mitra. "Peru president proposes referendum on political, judicial reform". Reuters. Retrieved 2018-08-17.
  24. ^ "Peru court reverses ex-leader's pardon". BBC News. 2018-10-03. Retrieved 2018-10-04.
  25. ^ Collyns, Dan (2018-10-10). "Peru opposition leader Keiko Fujimori detained over 'money laundering'". The Guardian. Retrieved 2018-10-10.
  26. ^ "Peru's Fujimori, pardon annulled, forced back to prison". Reuters. 24 January 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  27. ^ "Peru Supreme Court keeps Fujimori in jail". The West Australian. 13 February 2019. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  28. ^ "Dark days for Peru's political dynasty after congress closes". Associated Press. 2019-10-04. Retrieved 2019-10-07.
  29. ^ Quijano, Aníbal (1995). "Fujimorism and Peru". Socialism and Democracy. 9 (2): 45–63. doi:10.1080/08854309508428165.
  30. ^ Martínez, José Honorio (15 June 2009). "Neoliberalismo y genocidio en el régimen fujimorista". Historia Actual Online. 9.
  31. ^ "Santiago Fujimori: "izquierda caviar" manipula juicios contra mi familia - Panamericana TV". Archived from the original on 2012-09-08.
  32. ^ Ghersi, Enrique (August 2007). "El gobierno de Fujimori fue liberal". Perú Económico. Archived from the original on 8 December 2009.
  33. ^ "Vox estrecha lazos con derecha peruana y suma firmas a su pacto anticomunista". EFE (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-12-07.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  34. ^ Lawson (2010), pp. 185–190.
  35. ^ Lawson (2010), p. 186.
  36. ^ Diez Canseco, Javier (2002). Balance de la inversión privada y privatización, 1990-2001 : objetivos/resultados. Lima, Peru: Congreso del Perú. ISBN 978-9972890086. OCLC 52895332.

References