Mission typeCommunication
COSPAR ID2013-044B
SATCAT no.39234
Mission durationPlanned: 7 years
Elapsed: 8 years, 9 months, 1 day
Spacecraft properties
ManufacturerISRO Satellite Centre
Space Applications Centre
Launch mass2,650 kilograms (5,840 lb)
Power3 kilowatts
Start of mission
Launch date29 August 2013, 20:30 (2013-08-29UTC20:30Z) UTC
RocketAriane 5ECA
Launch siteKourou ELA-3
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric
Longitude74° East
Perigee altitude35,779 kilometres (22,232 mi)
Apogee altitude35,806 kilometres (22,249 mi)
Inclination0.06 degrees
Period23.93 hours
Epoch7 November 2013, 23:12:49 UTC[1]
← GSAT-10
GSAT-14 →

GSAT-7 or INSAT-4F is a multi-band military communications satellite developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation. The Indian Navy is the user of the multi-band communication spacecraft, which has been operational since September 2013. According to defense experts, the satellite will enable the navy to extend its blue water capabilities and stop relying on foreign satellites like Inmarsat, which provide communication services to its ships.[2][3]


GSAT-7, the multi-band communication satellite named Rukmini[4] carries the payloads in UHF, C band and Ku band. It is the first dedicated military communication satellite (unlike earlier dual use satellites) built by ISRO that will provide services to the Indian Armed Forces[5] with the main user being the Indian Navy.[6] Its procured launch cost has been put at 480 crore, with the satellite costing ₹185 crore.[7] Cost of whole project per Memorandum of Understanding with ISRO was 950 crores.[8]

The multiple-band spacecraft will be used exclusively by the Navy to shore up secure, real-time communications among its warships, submarines, aircraft and land systems. GSAT-7/ INSAT-4F is said to significantly improve the country's naval operations around the world.

GSAT 7 satellite carrying payloads operating in UHF, S, C and Ku bands, had a lift-off mass of 2,650 kilograms (5,840 lb) and is based on ISRO's 2,000 kilograms (4,400 lb) class satellite bus I-2K with some new technological elements, including the antennae.[9] After a flight of almost 34 minutes, the satellite was injected into a geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO) of 249-kilometre (155 mi) perigee, 35,929-kilometre (22,325 mi) apogee and an inclination of 3.5 degree with respect to the equator.[10]

ISRO launched a second satellite, GSAT-7A for Indian Air Force on 19 December 2018 on its Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV-F11).[11][12]


The satellite was launched early on 30 August 2013 atop an Ariane 5 ECA rocket from Kourou, French Guiana.[13]

India's first dedicated military satellite was put into a geosynchronous orbit, about 36,000 kilometres (22,000 mi) above Earth, five days after it was launched after three orbit-raising manoeuvres from ISRO's Master Control Facility at Hassan in Karnataka.[14] The 2.5-tonne spacecraft's antennae, including the ultra high frequency Helix antenna were deployed before it was stabilised on its three-axis in the orbit.[15] All of the on-board transponders were switched on successfully on September 18, 2013[16]


Rukmini will provide networking capabilities to various Indian Naval assets. During Theater-level Readiness and Operational Exercise (Tropex) in the Bay of Bengal in 2014, Rukmini was able to network about 60 ships and 75 aircraft seamlessly. Rukmini has a nearly 2,000 nautical mile 'footprint' over the Indian Ocean Region.[17]


The Indian Navy placed an order for GSAT-7R on June 11, 2019. GSAT-7R is expected to eventually replace GSAT-7.[18]

See also


  1. ^ Peat, Chris (7 November 2013). "GSAT 7 - Orbit". Heavens Above. Retrieved 9 November 2013.
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-09-04. Retrieved 2013-09-04.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Archived 2013-09-01 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ "INSAT-4 series satellite launches". Retrieved 2012-04-12.
  4. ^ "GSAT-7 to boost India's military capabilities". The Times of India. 30 August 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
  5. ^ "First naval satellite may be launched this year". Deccan Herald. March 1, 2013. Retrieved March 13, 2013.
  6. ^ "GSAT-7 [INSAT-4F] - India's military communication satellite [Indian Navy]". July 23, 2012. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
  7. ^ "What is GSAT-7 Rukmini?". The Indian Express. 2017-07-05. Retrieved 2021-11-13.
  8. ^ "Ministry of Defence, Demands for Grants (2010-2011)" (PDF). The cost of the Project as per Memorandum of Understanding signed with ISRO is Rs. 950 crores.
  9. ^ "SALIENT FEATURES OF GSAT-7". 2017-08-20. Archived from the original on 2017-08-20. Retrieved 2021-11-13.
  10. ^ "India's first defence satellite GSAT-7 launched successfully | India News - Times of India". The Times of India.
  11. ^ "GSLV-F11 successfully launches GSAT-7A". Retrieved 2021-11-13.
  12. ^ "12 Missions, 12 Months - ISRO's Mega Plan For 2018 Revealed. Details Here". NDTV. April 16, 2018. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
  13. ^ "India's Advanced Communication Satellite GSAT-7 Launched Successfully". ISRO. 2013-08-30. Archived from the original on 2013-12-17. Retrieved 2013-08-30.
  14. ^ "India's first 'military' satellite GSAT-7 put into earth's orbit". NDTV. 4 September 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
  15. ^ "Indian 'military' satellite put into earth's orbit – Indistan News – National, Political and States News". Archived from the original on 2013-09-21. Retrieved 2013-09-04.
  16. ^ "GSAT-7 Transponders Successfully Switched ON". Indian Space Research Organisation. September 18, 2013. Archived from the original on October 17, 2013. Retrieved October 15, 2013.
  17. ^ "Straits of Malacca: Indian Navy joins search for missing Malaysian plane in the Malacca Straits | India News - Times of India". The Times of India.
  18. ^ Pubby, Manu (2019-07-18). "Navy to buy Rs 1,589 crore satellite from ISRO". The Economic Times. Retrieved 2019-07-19.