In mathematics, a Galois extension is an algebraic field extension E/F that is normal and separable;[1] or equivalently, E/F is algebraic, and the field fixed by the automorphism group Aut(E/F) is precisely the base field F. The significance of being a Galois extension is that the extension has a Galois group and obeys the fundamental theorem of Galois theory.[a]

A result of Emil Artin allows one to construct Galois extensions as follows: If E is a given field, and G is a finite group of automorphisms of E with fixed field F, then E/F is a Galois extension.[2]

The property of an extension being Galois behaves well with respect to field composition and intersection.[3]

Characterization of Galois extensions

An important theorem of Emil Artin states that for a finite extension each of the following statements is equivalent to the statement that is Galois:

Other equivalent statements are:

An infinite field extension is Galois if and only if is the union of finite Galois subextensions indexed by an (infinite) index set , i.e. and the Galois group is an inverse limit where the inverse system is ordered by field inclusion .[4]


There are two basic ways to construct examples of Galois extensions.

Adjoining to the rational number field the square root of 2 gives a Galois extension, while adjoining the cubic root of 2 gives a non-Galois extension. Both these extensions are separable, because they have characteristic zero. The first of them is the splitting field of ; the second has normal closure that includes the complex cubic roots of unity, and so is not a splitting field. In fact, it has no automorphism other than the identity, because it is contained in the real numbers and has just one real root. For more detailed examples, see the page on the fundamental theorem of Galois theory.

An algebraic closure of an arbitrary field is Galois over if and only if is a perfect field.


  1. ^ See the article Galois group for definitions of some of these terms and some examples.


  1. ^ Lang 2002, p. 262.
  2. ^ Lang 2002, p. 264, Theorem 1.8.
  3. ^ Milne 2022, p. 40f, ch. 3 and 7.
  4. ^ Milne 2022, p. 102, example 7.26.


  • Lang, Serge (2002), Algebra, Graduate Texts in Mathematics, vol. 211 (Revised third ed.), New York: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-0-387-95385-4, MR 1878556

Further reading