Gangwon State
Korean transcription(s)
 • Hangul강원특별자치
 • Hanja江原特別自治
 • McCune‑ReischauerKangwŏn T'ŭkpyŏl Chach'ido
 • Revised RomanizationGangwon Teukbyeol Jachido
From the left: Gangneung, Wonju, Sokcho, Yeongwol, and Goseong
Flag of Gangwon State
Official logo of Gangwon State
Location of Gangwon State
Coordinates: 37°30′N 128°15′E / 37.500°N 128.250°E / 37.500; 128.250
Country South Korea
(Yeongseo: western Gangwon; Yeongdong: eastern Gangwon)
Largest cityWonju
Subdivisions7 cities; 11 counties
 • GovernorKim Jin-tae
(People Power)
 • Total16,875 km2 (6,515 sq mi)
 (October, 2022[2])
 • Total1,537,339[1]
 • Density91/km2 (240/sq mi)
Metropolitan Symbols
 • FlowerRoyal azalea
 • TreeKorean pine
 • BirdRed-crowned crane
 • TotalKR₩ 53 trillion
US$ 42 billion (2022)
ISO 3166 codeKR-42
(Yeongseo: western Gangwon dialect; Yeongdong: eastern Gangwon dialect)
WebsiteOfficial website (English)

Gangwon State (Korean: 강원특별자치도, lit. "Gangwon Special Self-Governing Province"), is a Special Self-Governing Province of South Korea. It is known as the largest and least densely populated subdivision of South Korea. Gangwon is one of the three provinces in South Korea with special self-governing status, the others being Jeju Province and Jeonbuk State. Gangwon is bordered on the east by the East Sea, it borders Gyeonggi Province to the west, North Gyeongsang Province and North Chungcheong Province to the south, and the Military Demarcation Line to the north, separating it from North Korea. In the 1945 division of Korea, the historical Gangwon Province was divided in half, and remains so to this day. The northern portion is administered by the DPRK and is called Kangwŏn Province (Note that "Kangwŏn" and "Gangwon" have the exact same spelling and pronunciation in Korean: 강원)

Pyeongchang County in Gangwon hosted the 2018 Winter Olympics and 2018 Winter Paralympics. Gangwon also hosted the 2024 Winter Youth Olympics.

Prior to 2023, it was officially called Gangwon-do (강원도), which means Gangwon Province, and it is still often colloquially referred to as such.


See also: Gangwon Province (historical)

Gangwon Province was one of the Eight Provinces of Korea during the Joseon Dynasty, formed in 1395, deriving its name from the names of the principal cities of Gangneung (강릉; 江陵) and the provincial capital Wonju (원주; 原州).

In 1895 Gangwon Province was replaced by the Districts of Chuncheon (Chuncheon-bu; 춘천부; 春川府) in the west and Gangneung (Gangneung-bu; 강릉부; 江陵府) in the east, with Wonju becoming a part of Chungju District.

In 1896 Korea was re-divided into thirteen provinces, and the two districts were merged to re-form Gangwondo Province. Although Wonju re-joined Gangwon-do, the provincial capital was moved to Chuncheon, where it remains. During the Japanese rule of Korea, it was known as Kōgen-dō.

In 1945 Gangwon Province, along with the rest of Korea, was divided by the 38th parallel north in 1945, to create American and Soviet zones of occupation in the south and north respectively, leading to Wonsan joining the northern half in 1946 to serve as its administrative center. In 1948, the southern half of the province became part of the new Republic of Korea. As a result of the Korean War Armistice Agreement of 1953, the boundary between the South and North Korean portions of the province was shifted north, to the Military Demarcation Line.

On June 11, 2023, Gangwon Province became a special self-governing province, and the official English name is Gangwon State.[4] Despite calling itself a state, Gangwon State is considered a self-governing province, not a self-governing state.


Gangwon Provincial Office in Chuncheon
Park in Gangwon Provincial Office


The State's landscape is dominated by the Taebaek Mountains (called Taebaek Sanmaek) which almost reach the sea. As a consequence, much of the coast is steep and rocky.[citation needed]


Gangwon State and its North Korean counterpart Kangwŏn are together referred to as the Gwandong region. The region west of the Taebaek Mountains is called Yeongseo, while the region east of the mountains is called Yeongdong. The term "Yeongdong" is frequently used in reference to transportation services from Seoul, meaning one might catch a bus or train on the Yeongdong Line, or drive to Gangneung on the Yeongdong Expressway.[citation needed]


Gangwon State's Köppen climate classification's climate class is occasionally humid subtropical, because in some of its areas, especially in most of Yeongdong, it is Cfa[clarification needed], otherwise, its climate class is Hot-summer humid continental climate, because it is Dwb in some mountain areas, Dfa in eastern areas, Dfb in eastern mountain areas, and Dwa otherwise.[clarification needed] The Taebaek Mountains create different climates in Yeongdong and Yeongseo.[2]

The climate of Gangwon State is influenced by its latitude. It has four seasons, with hot and humid summers, and cold, snowy winters. According to the Korea Meteorological Administration's data, average temperatures vary. In Yongdong, the average temperature is 11.0 °C (51.8 °F), and in Yeongseo, it is 10.8 °C (51.4 °F). All of the province's average temperatures range from 6.6 to 13.1 °C (43.9 to 55.6 °F). and the yearly amount of rainfall is 1,300–1,900 millimetres (51.2–74.8 in), concentrated on mountain areas, being one of the snowiest areas in South Korea.[5]


The area of Gangwon State in both North Korea and South Korea is 20,569 km2 (7,941.74 sq mi),[2] with South Korea's Gangwon-do covering 16,874.59 km2 (6,515.32 sq mi). The province is renowned for its agricultural produce, especially potatoes and fish, including cuttlefish and pollock. Mineral resources from the province include iron, coal, fluorite, limestone and tungsten. There are some hydroelectric, thermoelectric power plants in the region.[citation needed]


Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1980 1,790,954—    
1990 1,580,430−1.24%
2000 1,487,011−0.61%
2010 1,471,513−0.10%
2015 1,518,040+0.62%
2020 1,521,763+0.05%
Graphs are unavailable due to technical issues. There is more info on Phabricator and on
Source: Citypopulation[6]

Culture and Heritages

Ulsanbawi is one of the primary attractions of Seoraksan National Park.


It is not known exactly when human settlement in what is now Gangwon-do began, but Paleolithic sites have been excavated.[7]

Many historical artifacts are found in the region, like the Later Silla era's Bell of Sangwonsa, the North–South States Period era's Iron Seated Vairocana Buddha of Dopiansa Temple, the Goryeo era's Main Gate of Imyeonggwan Guesthouse, and the Joseon era's Documents of Sangwonsa Temple. Other popular historical areas, like Ojukheon are located in the region.[citation needed]

Because of Gangwon Province's landscape, a number of old Buddhist temples have survived, like Woljeongsa and Oseam.


Established in 2002, the Chuncheon National Museum is operated by the central government for the purpose of classification and reservation.[8] The local government also has museums, including the Park Su-geun Art Museum,[9] and the Taebaek Coal Museum. Purpose-built private museums, such as the ChamSori Gramophone Edison Museum[10] are also operated.


In Gangwon Province, almost all of the regions hold festivals. Gangneung Danoje was listed in UNESCO's Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.[11]

Geographically, Gangwon Province has several national parks as well as some natural monuments.


Gangwon Province is composed of mountains or basins, so locals mainly make food with potatoes or buckwheat.[12] All regions of the province have seasoned vegetable rice. For example, Jeongseon County is famous for Jeongseon thistle rice; Yeongwol County is famous for Yeongwol buckwheat rolls; Hwacheon County is famous for Hwacheon trout rice in a stone bowl and Hwacheon goatsbeard rice; and Yanggu County is famous for Yanggu dried green radish cuisine.[13][14] In coastal regions, fish and salted seafood is consumed. For example, Donghae City is famous for Donghae steamed fish; Sokcho is famous for Sokcho Squid Sausages; and Samcheok is famous for blowfish soup. These are normally very simple and easy to cook, like the province's traditional food.[12]


National Parks & Nature Monuments

Due to the Taebaek Mountains, Gangwon Province has 4 national parks & several natural monuments.

The Hantaan River penetrates Cheorwon County's volcanic terrain, having several natural monuments. This area was a place of a fierce battle during the Korean War and is now a common rafting route.[citation needed] Around this river, the first Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome virus, the Hantaan River virus, was found. The virus was named after the river.[19] The Civilian Control Zone is near the Military Demarcation Line, providing areas to stay for migratory birds, especially red-crowned cranes.[20] In the township of Haean, Yanggu, the Haean Basin is nicknamed Punchbowl, which was initially named by a war correspondent for the Korea War.[21]

DMZ Museum

The museum has a large amount of English in its narration of the history of the DMZ, as well as exhibits such as United States POW letters and extensive amounts of photos. It is inside the Tongil Security Park.

Gangneung-si (강릉시)

Gangneung contains beaches connecting each other from north to south along the coast. These beaches are covered with pine tree forests, planted to block the sea breeze.

Cheorwon-gun (철원군)

The Second Tunnel

"Found in the DMZ"[clarification needed] was found by Korean guards listening to the sound of explosions under the ground during their shift. After determined excavation on March 19, 1975, "The Second Tunnel" was discovered. It was for a sudden raid by the North Korean Army into South Korea. The second tunnel is composed of a firm granitic layer, is 3.5 km in length, and various in depth from 50m-160m. About 1 km of it is nowadays open to visitors.[citation needed]

Woljeong-ri Station

Woljeong-ri station is a historical building in the DMZ at Cheorwon.  The tourist attraction, which can only be visited on escorted security tours of the DMZ, is an abandoned train station on the northernmost end of Korail's Gyeongwon Line. Near the station there was a small yard where rail stock was stored or shunted before leaving for Wonsan, now in North Korea, along the former Gyeongwon Line. Behind the station building there is the wreck of a train, bombed during the Korean War, used by the North Korean army and bombed by U.N. forces. In 2012, it became a place where artists can meet and exhibit their works.[citation needed]

Sokcho-si (속초시)

Goseong Unification Observatory Building

When the area was part of North Korea from 1945 to 1953, the building is now the closest most South Koreans can get to North Korea. There are binoculars installed on the viewing deck, and inside the observatory is a large map labelled with mountain names and the locations of military installations. Kiosks here sell liquor, cash, postage stamps and other souvenirs from North Korea.[original research?] On a clear day, you can get a good view of Kumgang-san, about 20 km to the west. Despite the solemnity of the place, the parking lot is cluttered with souvenir shops and restaurants.[original research?] On the other side of the lot is the Korean War Exhibition Hall.


Gangwon Province has many tourist attractions, as well as natural monuments, including Namiseom, Tong-il Observatory (similar the Dora Observatory), Soyang Dam and Jeongdongjin. A memorial centre of the novelist Lee Hyo-seok is in Pyeongchang County. Along the coast of the East Sea, many seaside resorts are located, including Gyongpo Seaside Resort.

The only domestic casino in Gangwon is Kangwon Land, located in Jeongseon County.[citation needed]

The province also houses the largest ski resort in South Korea, Yongpyong Resort.[citation needed]


Religion in Gangwon Province (2015)[22]

  Not religious (58.7%)
  Protestantism (17.5%)
  Buddhism (16.4%)
  Catholicism (6.6%)
  Other (0.8%)

According to the 2015 census, 16.4% of the population follow Buddhism and 24.1% follow Christianity (17.5% Protestantism and 6.6% Catholicism). 58.7% of the population is not religious and 0.8% of the population follow other religions.[22]



Gangwon Province's railways were originally built to transport mining resources to harbours.[23][24]

Jungang Line Northern Direction with Jungang Expressway Wonju Bridge

In Gangwon-Province, some main lines are operated. Jungang Line is connected to the Seoul Metropolitan Subway System, the Yeongdong Line and the Taebaek Line are derived from the Jungang Line, and the Gyeonggang Line was constructed, but currently[when?] it is not perfectly connected to the Seoul Metropolitan Subway System. KTX trains launched from Seoul to Gangneung on 22 December 2017 via the Gyeonggang Line, but they still run a part of the Jungang Line.[25] In 2016, a plan was passed to extend the KTX line from Gangneung to Sokcho.[26]

The Gyeongwon Line and the North Dong-hae Line are blocked by the Military Demarcation Line.


Gangwon Province has several military airbases, while civil passengers can use only two airports, Wonju Airport and Yangyang International Airport. Wonju Airport is shared with the Republic of Korea Air Force, like Daegu International Airport and Gimhae International Airport.[27]

Currently Wonju and Yangyang Airport are now operated as domestic airports.[28][29]


Gangwon Province's road length totals to 9,800 km (6,100 mi), and 75.1% is paved.[30] Some historical and traditional ridges have survived, like Daegwallyeong. It has many routes, like Route 7, which is included in AH6.

It also has Controlled-access highways. Yeongdong Expressway is the first express way in the region, and Gwangju–Wonju Expressway, Jungang Expressway, Donghae Expressway, Seoul–Yangyang Expressway were built, afterwards. Seoul–Yangyang Expressway has the longest road tunnel in South Korea.


Like the railways, Gangwon Province is connected by intercity bus networks in South Korea. All cities and counties have intercity terminals, which connect other cities or counties in the region or connect outer cities, districts, and Incheon International Airport.


Gangwon Province has many harbours. Some harbours are fishing ports, but other harbours are used for special purposes. For example, Mukpo Harbour functions as an exporting hub for cement & coal from the Taebaek Mountains.[31] Sokcho Harbour functions as a fishing port, a passenger harbour and as an exporting hub for iron ore.[31] Also recently[when?], Korea Gas Corporation built the LNG Platform Center at Hosan Harbour.[32]

Gangwon province also has ferry lines. Sokcho Harbour has a pier for cruise ships,[33] but until 2018, no cruise route existed.


Sport teams


See also: Gangwon FC

Gangwon FC bases itself in the region, owned by Gangwon Province. Jin-seon Kim, the Governor of Gangwon Province announced it on April 28, 2008[37] and was established on December 18, 2008.[38]

Ice Hockey

See also: High1

See also: Daemyung Killer Whales

High1 is Kangwon Land's ice hockey team, established in September 2009. South Korea has only 3 professional ice hockey clubs, including High1.[39]

The Daeyung Killer Whales was established in 2016, originally based in the region.[40]


See also: Wonju DB Promy

Wonju DB Promy is a professional basketball team, based in Wonju, Gangwon Province. It was established is 1996. It donated coal in collaboration with a local government-owned company, Korea Coal Corporation.[41]

List of Gangwon Province sport clubs

Gangneung Stadium, the home ground of Gangwon FC
Leagues Team Name Est.
K League 1 Gangwon FC 2008
K3 League Gangneung Citizen FC 1999
K3 League Chuncheon Citizen FC 2010
K4 League Pyeongchang United FC 2008
WK League Hwacheon KSPO WFC 2011
KBL Wonju DB Promy 1996
Asia League Ice Hockey High1 2004
Asia League Ice Hockey Daemyung Killer Whales 2016

Sport Events

The 1999 Asian Winter Games were held in Gangwon Province between January 30 and February 6, 1999. South Korea, the host nation ranked 2nd in these games.

The 2018 Winter Olympics was held from February 9–25, 2018, and the 2018 Winter Paralympics was held from March 9–18, 2018. Almost all of the events were held in Pyeongchang County. Alpine skiing events were held in Jeongseon County, while some indoor events were held in Gangneung.

The 2024 Winter Youth Olympics was also held in Gangwon Province.[42]


The main cities of the province are Chuncheon (the provincial capital), Gangneung, Sokcho, Wonju, and Donghae. Currently Gangwon Province, has 7 cities, and 11 counties[43]

Map # Name Hangul Hanja Population (2016)[44] Subdivisions
1 Wonju 원주시 原州市 341,130 1 eup, 8 myeon, 16 haengjeong-dong
2 Chuncheon (Capital city) 춘천시 春川市 283,951 1 eup, 9 myeon, 15 haengjeong-dong
3 Gangneung 강릉시 江陵市 215,721 1 eup, 7 myeon, 13 haengjeong-dong
4 Donghae 동해시 東海市 93,958 10 haengjeong-dong
5 Sokcho 속초시 束草市 82,670 8 haengjeong-dong
6 Samcheok 삼척시 三陟市 70,371 2 eup, 6 myeon, 4 haengjeong-dong
7 Taebaek 태백시 太白市 47,333 8 haengjeong-dong
8 Hongcheon County 홍천군 洪川郡 70,961 1 eup, 9 myeon
9 Cheorwon County 철원군 鐵原郡 48,699 4 eup, 7 myeon
10 Hoengseong County 횡성군 橫城郡 46,662 1 eup, 8 myeon
11 Pyeongchang County 평창군 平昌郡 43,782 1 eup, 7 myeon
12 Jeongseon County 정선군 旌善郡 38,993 4 eup, 5 myeon
13 Yeongwol County 영월군 寧越郡 40,330 2 eup, 7 myeon
14 Inje County 인제군 麟蹄郡 33,061 1 eup, 5 myeon
15 Goseong County 고성군 高城郡 30,749 2 eup, 4 myeon
16 Yangyang County 양양군 襄陽郡 27,515 1 eup, 5 myeon
17 Hwacheon County 화천군 華川郡 26,489 1 eup, 4 myeon
18 Yanggu County 양구군 楊口郡 24,264 1 eup, 4 myeon


Further information: The Committee for the Five Northern Korean Provinces

Friendship partners

See also


  1. ^ 자연환경 (in Korean). 강원도청. 2016-04-27. Archived from the original on 2018-02-09. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  2. ^ a b c Gangwon Province (2016-04-27). 자연환경. Gangwon Province (in Korean). Archived from the original on 2018-02-09. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  3. ^ "2022년 지역소득(잠정)".
  4. ^ "Gangwon State's Grand Debut". Gangwon State. Gangwon State. 20 June 2023. Retrieved 22 June 2023.
  5. ^ 국내기후자료 – 강원도 (in Korean). Korea Meteorological Administratione. Archived from the original on 2018-02-09. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  6. ^ "South Korea: Provinces". Archived from the original on 2022-03-21. Retrieved 2022-03-12.
  7. ^ 노형석 (2016-08-12). 구석기・신석기 선조들 먹고살던 동굴 정선서 발견 (in Korean). 한겨례. Archived from the original on 2018-02-10. Retrieved 2018-02-10.
  8. ^ 김경석 (2017-10-30). "춘천박물관, 개관 15주년 기념 전시관 재개관 개막" (in Korean). 뉴스1. Archived from the original on 2018-02-10. Retrieved 2018-02-10.
  9. ^ 정성원 (2018-01-29). "'박수근 고향' 양구, 박수근을 입었다" (in Korean). The Chosun Ilbo. Archived from the original on 2018-01-30. Retrieved 2018-02-10.
  10. ^ 최보식 (2010-12-20). "[최보식이 만난 사람] 강릉 '참소리 축음기·에디슨 박물관' 손성목 관장" (in Korean). The Chosun Ilbo. Archived from the original on 2018-02-10. Retrieved 2018-02-10.
  11. ^ "강릉단오제" (in Korean). Korea National Commission for UNESCO. Archived from the original on 2018-02-10. Retrieved 2018-02-10.
  12. ^ a b "강원도 전통음식의 특징" (in Korean). 한식아카이브. Archived from the original on 2018-02-10. Retrieved 2018-02-10.
  13. ^ "강원도 대표음식 30선" (in Korean). 강원도청. Archived from the original on 2018-02-14. Retrieved 2018-02-13.
  14. ^ 신효재 (2016-12-30). "[영상]"강원도 대표 먹거리 30선"" (in Korean). 뉴스1 강원. Archived from the original on 2018-02-14. Retrieved 2018-02-10.
  15. ^ "Mount Sorak" (in Korean). UNESCO & Man and the Biosphere Programme. Archived from the original on 2015-10-27. Retrieved 2018-02-10.
  16. ^ "오대산국립공원 지정 43주년을 맞이하여" (in Korean). 강원도민일보. 2018-02-05. Archived from the original on 2018-02-10. Retrieved 2018-02-10.
  17. ^ "치악산국립공원 지역에 68km 둘레길 생긴다" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. 2014-11-19. Archived from the original on 2014-11-22. Retrieved 2018-02-10.
  18. ^ 김정수 (2016-04-15). "'민족의 영산' 태백산 스물두번째 국립공원 되다" (in Korean). 한겨례. Archived from the original on 2018-02-10. Retrieved 2018-02-10.
  19. ^ 유기현 (2010-10-25). "유행성출혈열 백신을 찾아낸 의학자, 이호왕" (in Korean). 한겨례. Archived from the original on 2018-02-10. Retrieved 2018-02-10.
  20. ^ 천권필 (2018-01-28). "철원 평야...전세계 두루미 30% 찾는 '철새 낙원'된 이유는" (in Korean). JoongAng Ilbo. Archived from the original on 2018-02-10. Retrieved 2018-02-10.
  21. ^ 이진욱 (2015-12-11). "<걷고 싶은 길> 최북단 숲길 양구 펀치볼 둘레길" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. Archived from the original on 2018-02-10. Retrieved 2018-02-10.
  22. ^ a b "2015 Census – Religion Results". Archived from the original on 2021-02-26. Retrieved 2021-03-28.
  23. ^ "태백선" (in Korean). Encyclopedia of Korean Culture. Archived from the original on 2022-04-08. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  24. ^ "영동선" (in Korean). Encyclopedia of Korean Culture. Archived from the original on 2020-06-10. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  25. ^ 이은정 (2017-12-22). 경강선 KTX 개통...서울-강릉 반나절 생활권 열렸다. The Dong-a Ilbo (in Korean). Archived from the original on 2018-02-09. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  26. ^ 춘천~속초 동서고속화철도 예비타당성 통과...사업 확정(종합) (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. 2016-07-08. Archived from the original on 2017-05-11. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  27. ^ 김귀근 (2018-01-01). "공군 FA-50 편대, '확고한 영공방위 결의' 초계비행". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Archived from the original on 2017-12-31. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  28. ^ "원주공항 – 운영스케쥴" (in Korean). 한국공항공사. Archived from the original on 2018-02-09. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  29. ^ "양양국제공항 – 운영스케쥴" (in Korean). 한국공항공사. Archived from the original on 2018-02-09. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  30. ^ 총도로연장 (in Korean). 연강원도청. Archived from the original on 2018-02-09. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  31. ^ a b "동해중부 사고다발지역안내". 대한민국 해양경찰청. Archived from the original on 2018-02-09. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  32. ^ 유형재 (2014-02-03). "삼척 호산항 6월 개항...LNG 선박 입·출항". Yonhap News Agency. Archived from the original on 2018-02-09. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  33. ^ "속초에 국제 크루즈 터미널 준공" (in Korean). 한겨례. 2017-09-21. Archived from the original on 2018-02-10. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  34. ^ "운항정보" (in Korean). 씨스포빌. Archived from the original on 2018-01-29. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  35. ^ "노선정보" (in Korean). 씨스포빌. Archived from the original on 2018-02-09. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  36. ^ "schedule". DBS Cruise Ferry. Archived from the original on 2018-02-06. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  37. ^ 이동칠 (2008-11-05). "프로축구연맹, 11일 이사회서 강원FC 창단 승인" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  38. ^ 허정윤 (2008-12-18). "K-리그 '신상' 강원FC, 공식명칭 및 엠블럼 발표" (in Korean). 스포탈코리아. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  39. ^ 김지섭 (2018-01-17). "[어바웃, 이 종목] 퍽 쟁탈전, 퍽! 주먹도 꽂힌다" (in Korean). Hankook Ilbo. Archived from the original on 2018-02-09. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  40. ^ 김창금 (2016-05-23). "아이스하키 제 3구단 '대명 킬러웨일즈' 출범" (in Korean). The Hankyoreh. Archived from the original on 2018-02-10. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  41. ^ 김용 (2017-11-20). 김주성, 원주시에 연탄 1만1000장 기증...직접 배달도 (in Korean). 연스포츠조선. Archived from the original on 2018-02-10. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  42. ^ "Gangwon 2024: legacy of PyeongChang 2018 lives on in first Winter Youth Olympic Games awarded to Asia - Olympic News". International Olympic Committee. 2021-07-15. Archived from the original on 2021-12-21. Retrieved 2021-12-21.
  43. ^ 행정지역 (in Korean). Gangwon Province. Archived from the original on 2018-02-09. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  44. ^ 인구수 (주민등록) (in Korean). Gangwon Province. Archived from the original on 2018-02-09. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  45. ^ 자매결연지역 (in Korean). 연강원도 국제교류과. Archived from the original on 2018-02-09. Retrieved 2018-02-09.