George F. Edmunds
George F. Edmunds - Brady-Handy.jpg
Chairman of the Senate Republican Conference
In office
December 1885 – November 1, 1891
Preceded byJohn Sherman
Succeeded byJohn Sherman
President pro tempore of the United States Senate
In office
March 3, 1883 – March 3, 1885
Preceded byDavid Davis
Succeeded byJohn Sherman
United States Senator
from Vermont
In office
April 3, 1866 – November 1, 1891
Preceded bySolomon Foot
Succeeded byRedfield Proctor
President pro tempore of the Vermont State Senate
In office
1861–1862
Preceded byFrederick E. Woodbridge
Succeeded byHenry E. Stoughton
Member of the Vermont Senate from Chittenden County
In office
1861–1863
Serving with John H. Woodward, Elmer Beecher, Jed P. Clark, A. C. Welch
Preceded byJohn H. Woodward, Asahel Peck, Elmer Beecher
Succeeded byLeverett B. Englesby, Amos Hobart, A. J. Crane
Speaker of the Vermont House of Representatives
In office
1857–1860
Preceded byGeorge W. Grandey
Succeeded byAugustus P. Hunton
Member of the
Vermont House of Representatives
from Burlington
In office
1854–1860
Preceded byEdward C. Palmer
Succeeded byCarlous Noyes
Personal details
Born
George Franklin Edmunds

(1828-02-01)February 1, 1828
Richmond, Vermont, U.S.
DiedFebruary 27, 1919(1919-02-27) (aged 91)
Pasadena, California, U.S.
Resting placeGreen Mount Cemetery, Burlington, Vermont
Political partyRepublican
Spouse(s)Susan Marsh Edmunds
ProfessionLawyer
Signature

George Franklin Edmunds (February 1, 1828 – February 27, 1919) was a Republican U.S. Senator from Vermont. Before entering the U.S. Senate, he served in a number of high-profile positions, including Speaker of the Vermont House of Representatives, and President pro tempore of the Vermont State Senate.

Edmunds was born in Richmond, Vermont and began to study law while still a teenager; he proved an adept student, and was admitted to the bar as soon as he reached the minimum required age of 21. He practiced in Burlington and became active in local politics and government.

After terms in the Vermont House of Representatives and Vermont State Senate, Edmunds was appointed to the U.S. Senate in 1866, filling the vacancy caused by the death of Solomon Foot. He was subsequently elected by the Vermont General Assembly, and reelected in 1868, 1874, 1880, and 1886. Edmunds served from April 1866 until resigning in November 1891. As a longtime member of the U.S. Senate, he served in a variety of leadership posts, including chairman of the Committee on Pensions, the Committee on the Judiciary, the Committee on Private Land Claims, and the Committee on Foreign Relations. He was also the leader of the Senate's Republicans in his roles as President pro tempore of the Senate and chairman of the Republican Conference.

Edmunds was an unsuccessful candidate for president at the 1880 and 1884 Republican National Conventions.

After leaving the Senate he practiced law in Philadelphia. He later lived in retirement in Pasadena, California, where he died in 1919. He was buried at Green Mount Cemetery in Burlington, Vermont. Two years following his death, a published autobiography by Richard F. Pettigrew accused Edmunds of being a "senatorial bribe-taker" and "distinctly dishonest."[1]

Early life

George F. Edmunds was born in Richmond, Vermont on February 1, 1828, the son of Ebenezer Edmunds and Naomi (Briggs) Edmunds.[2] He attended the local schools and was privately tutored.[2] Edmunds began studying law as a teenager, spending time in both the office of his brother-in-law A. B. Maynard and the office of David A. Smalley and Edward J. Phelps.[2] He was admitted to the bar as soon as he was eligible in 1849.[2] He practiced in Burlington, and became active in politics by serving in local offices including Town Meeting Moderator.[3][4][5]

While practicing law, one of the students who studied under him was Russell S. Taft, who later served as Lieutenant Governor and as Chief Justice of the Vermont Supreme Court.[6]

A Republican, he was elected to the Vermont House of Representatives in 1854. He served until 1860, and was Speaker from 1857 to 1860.[2] He moved to the Vermont State Senate in 1861, where he served until 1862.[2] While in the State Senate, Edmunds was chosen to serve as President pro tempore.[7][8]

United States Senate

GFEdmunds.jpg

After the death of U.S. Senator Solomon Foot in March 1866, Governor Paul Dillingham was expected to appoint someone from the west side of the Green Mountains, in keeping with the Republican Party's Mountain Rule.[9][10] He first considered former Governor J. Gregory Smith.[9] When Smith indicated that he would not accept, Dillingham turned to Edmunds, who had favorably impressed Dillingham during their service together in the State Senate, and whose residence in Burlington was on the west side of the state.[9] Edmunds subsequently won reelection in 1868, 1874, 1880 and 1886, and served from April 1866 until resigning in November 1891.[9]

In the Senate, Edmunds took an active part in the attempt to impeach President Andrew Johnson in 1868,[11] having helped pass the Tenure of Office Act to rebuke Johnson.[12]

Although considering himself devoted to the principles of the Republican Party,[12] like most congressional "Half-Breeds", Edmunds staunchly supported civil service reform[13] that would result in a racist bloated bureaucracy favored by many Democrats.[14] This was opposed by the conservative "Stalwart" faction, who supported maintaining the spoils system as a way to reward political supporters and punish political enemies.[15]

Edmunds was influential in providing for the electoral commission to decide the disputed presidential election of 1876 and served as one of the commissioners, voting for Republicans Rutherford B. Hayes and William A. Wheeler.[16]

He was the author of the Edmunds Act against polygamy in Utah and the Sherman Antitrust Act to limit monopolies.[17][18]

In 1882 President Chester A. Arthur nominated Senator Roscoe Conkling to replace the retiring Ward Hunt as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court.[19] When Conkling declined, Arthur chose Edmunds, who also declined.[19] The appointment ultimately went to Samuel Blatchford.[19]

Senate leadership positions

Edmunds served as chairman of the Committee on Pensions from 1869 to 1873, the Committee on the Judiciary from 1872 to 1879 and again from 1881 to 1891, the Committee on Private Land Claims from 1879 to 1881 and the Committee on Foreign Relations in 1881.[20] He was President pro tempore of the Senate from 1883 to 1885 and chairman of the Republican Conference from 1885 to 1891.[20]

Reputation in the Senate

While serving in Congress he continued to practice law, as did many other members of Congress at the time. He held retainers from railroads and other corporations, including those which could be affected by Senate action.[21][22]

An acerbic debater, he often favored the status quo or slow progress. He was known for making his colleagues feel the sting of his criticisms, and some thought him better at merely opposing than offering constructive alternatives. David Davis joked that he could make Edmunds vote against any measure by simply phrasing the request for votes in the New England town meeting way: "Contrary-minded will say no."[23] One friend trying to interest him in a presidential bid pleaded, "But, Edmunds, think how much fun you would have vetoing bills."[24]

Edmunds took special delight in goading southern senators into blurting out statements that would embarrass the Democratic Party. To those southerners opposed to any federal role in protecting blacks' right to vote, Edmunds seemed the epitome of Yankee evil. One southern correspondent in 1880 wrote, "When I look at that man sitting almost alone in the Senate, isolated in his gloom of hate and bitterness, stern, silent, watchful, suspicious and pitiless, I am reminded of the worst types of Puritan character... You see the impress of the purer persecuting spirit that burned witches, drove out Roger Williams, hounded Jonathan Edwards for doing his sacred duty, maligned Jefferson, and like a toad squatted at the ear of the Constitution it had failed to pervert."[25]

Friendship with Allen G. Thurman

In spite of contempt from many Democratic colleagues, Edmunds formed friendships from across the aisle. One Democrat with no reason to appreciate him wrote a colleague that among all the Republicans, "Edmunds made the most impression upon me. I couldn't help admiring his clear and incisive way of putting a question, although it appeared to me that his manner is occasionally very irritating. This manner of his is very much that of a lawyer employed as counsel in a case, who therefore makes ex parte statements, and thinks it fair to make all manner of allegations."[26] His closest friend in the chamber for many years was the ranking Democrat on the Judiciary Committee, Allen G. Thurman of Ohio.[27]

Edmunds and Thurman shared similar reformist attitudes. When Edmunds ran for president in 1884, the other candidates included the eventual nominee, James G. Blaine, a Half-Breed. During the campaign, Edmunds touted his alliance with Thurman, which in turn was cited as a positive quality by cartoonist Thomas Nast, an anti-Blaine Mugwump and illustrator for Harper's Weekly.[28] At Thurman's death in 1895, Edmunds spoke highly of the former Ohio senator as "brave in his convictions."[29]

Presidential candidacies

Edmunds was a candidate for president at the 1880 Republican National Convention. Nominated by Frederick H. Billings, he received 34 votes on the first ballot. His support remained at 31 or 32 votes through the 29th ballot, after which his supporters began to trend towards eventual nominee James A. Garfield.[30][31]

In 1884, Republicans who favored civil service reform, including Theodore Roosevelt, supported Edmunds for President over incumbent President Chester A. Arthur and former Senator James G. Blaine, hoping to build a groundswell for Edmunds if the two stronger candidates deadlocked. Revelations about Edmunds's legal work for railroads and corporations while sitting in the Senate prevented Edmunds from attaining wide support from reformers. On the first ballot he received 93 votes, but his support declined, and the nomination went to Blaine on the fourth ballot. Edmunds was among the Republicans who refused support for Blaine (some backed Cleveland outright), who ultimately lost the general election to Grover Cleveland.

Although Sen. Blaine came to become the leader of the Half-Breeds in the 1880 presidential election, he was viewed with suspicion and distrust by Edmunds, who believed that a true Half-Breed must support civil service reform.[13] Indeed, Blaine's inclinations in the late 1870s were closer to that of the Stalwarts, evident in his hostility towards civil service reform and the policies pursued by Half-Breed Rutherford B. Hayes.[32]

During the campaign, Edmunds stated:[12]

It is my deliberate opinion that Senator Blaine acts as the attorney of Jay Gould. Whenever [Allen G. Thurman] and I have settled upon legislation to bring the Pacific Railroad to terms of equity with the government, up has jumped Mr. James G. Blaine musket in hand, from behind the breastworks of Jay Gould’s lobby to fire in our faces.

Intraparty backlash, 1886

Edmunds' refusal to support Blaine consequentially led to immense opposition from Republicans who pushed to deny him re-election in the 1886 midterms. A supporter of Blaine said of the Vermont senator:[12]

Do you believe, [Edmunds] sulked during the campaign of 1884, and refused to assist the party that gave him all the eminence he ever had as a statesman, and thereby on account of his personal dislike to James G. Blaine refused to contribute his support. . . There are honest, intelligent Republicans who believe he is guilty.

— Blaine supporter Daniel Tarbell

When the election drew closer, newspapers covering the race became either increasingly supportive or opposing towards Edmunds.[12] The Vermont Watchman, which was noted for defending his stance on Blaine in 1884, turned the other direction and harshly attacked Edmunds. A number of smaller papers split, and the Burlington Free Press affirmed its support for the incumbent senator.[12]

Blaine himself held a strong contempt for Edmunds, and many of the former's supporters likely financed the movement to oust him.[12] Despite such a fierce effort, Edmunds ultimately retained his seat[33] when the state legislature soundly re-elected him.

At Arthur's funeral in 1886, Edmunds extended his hand to Blaine. His Maine colleague, recalling the 1884 campaign, refused to shake it.[34][35][36]

Senate resignation, retirement and death

Edmunds resigned from the Senate in 1891 in order to start a law practice in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.[37]

He later retired to Pasadena, California where he died on February 27, 1919.[38] He was buried at Green Mount Cemetery in Burlington.[39]

Family

In 1852 Edmunds married Susan Marsh Lyman (1831–1916), a niece of George Perkins Marsh.[40] They had two daughters.

Awards

Among Edmunds's honors were an honorary Master of Arts from the University of Vermont and honorary LL.D. degrees from Middlebury College, Dartmouth College and the University of Vermont.[41][42]

Legacy

Edmunds Elementary and Middle Schools in Burlington, which share a complex, opened as the city's high school in 1900 on land donated by Edmunds, and became a middle and elementary grades facility in 1964.[43][44]

Mount Rainier's Edmunds Glacier[45] and the town of Edmonds, Washington (despite the spelling) are named for him.[46]

The Vermont Historical Society maintains the George F. Edmunds Fund, which awards an annual prize for student research and writing on Vermont history.[47]

His birthplace in Richmond, Vermont is a privately owned residence and farm, and marked by a Vermont Historic Sites Commission sign.[48]

See also

References

  1. ^ Pettigrew, Richard Franklin (1921). Triumphant Plutocracy: The Story of American Public Life from 1870 to 1920, pp. 125–26. Google Books. Retrieved March 3, 2022.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Hiram Carleton, Genealogical and Family History of the State of Vermont, Volume 1, page 711
  3. ^ Henry Wilson Scott, Distinguished American Lawyers, 1891, page 333
  4. ^ Walter Hill Crockett, George Franklin Edmunds, 1919, page 1855
  5. ^ Jacob G. Ullery, Men of Vermont Illustrated, 1894, page 118
  6. ^ The Vermonter magazine, Obituary: Russell Smith Taft, April 1902, page 160
  7. ^ Vermont Secretary of State, Vermont Legislative Directory, 1969, page 320
  8. ^ Marcus Davis Gilman, The Bibliography of Vermont, 1897, page 81
  9. ^ a b c d Duffy, John J.; Hand, Samuel B.; Orth, Ralph H., eds. (2003). The Vermont Encyclopedia. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England. pp. 112–113. ISBN 978-1-5846-5086-7 – via Google Books.
  10. ^ "The Senatorial Appointment". The Burlington Free Press. Burlington, VT. April 3, 1866. p. 2 – via Newspapers.com.
  11. ^ John Niven, Salmon P. Chase: A Biography, 1995, Chapter 31
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Ward, Benjamin. The Downfall of Senator George F. Edmunds: The Election of 1884. Vermont History. Retrieved February 23, 2022.
  13. ^ a b Welch, Richard E., Jr. George Edmunds of Vermont: Republican Half-Breed. Vermont History. Retrieved February 23, 2022.
  14. ^ Matthews, Dylan (July 20, 2016). Donald Trump and Chris Christie are reportedly planning to purge the civil service. Vox. Retrieved February 23, 2022.
  15. ^ Arrington, Todd (November 2012). "Stalwarts, Half Breeds, and Political Assassination". National Park Service: James A Garfield National Historic Site. Washington, DC: United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved February 24, 2022.
  16. ^ Elbert William Robinson Ewing, History and Law of the Hayes-Tilden Contest Before the Electoral Commission: The Florida Case, 1877, page 40
  17. ^ Trade and Transportation: A Monthly Journal of American Trade, Senator Edmunds on the Anti-Trust Law, December 1911, page 334
  18. ^ Paul Finkelman, editor, Religion and American Law: An Encyclopedia, 1999, page 318
  19. ^ a b c Jost, Kenneth (1998). The Supreme Court A-Z. Chicago, IL: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-5795-8124-4.
  20. ^ a b U.S. Senate Historical Office (2008). Pro Tem: Presidents Pro Tempore of the United States Senate Since 1789. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-1607-9984-6 – via Google Books.
  21. ^ Vermont General Assembly, Report of the Joint Special Committee to Investigate the Vt. Central Railroad, 1873, page 374
  22. ^ Edward Chase Kirkland, Charles Francis Adams, Jr., 1835-1915: The Patrician at Bay, 1965, page 109
  23. ^ George F. Hoar, Scribner's magazine, Four National Conventions, February 1899, page 159
  24. ^ George F. Hoar, "Autobiography of Seventy Years" (New York: Scribner's Sons, 1903), 1:388.
  25. ^ Selig Alder, "The Senatorial Career of George Franklin Edmunds, 1866-1891," Ph. D. dissertation, University of Illinois, 1934, p. 202.
  26. ^ Perry Belmont to Thomas F. Bayard, January 11, 1875, Thomas F. Bayard Papers, Library of Congress.
  27. ^ George Harold Walker, The Chautauquan, Moral and Social Reforms in Congress, October 1891 to March 1892, page 314
  28. ^ Nast, Thomas (September 20, 1884). The Issue of Protection to American Labor.’—Blaine. HarpWeek. Retrieved February 23, 2022.
  29. ^ November 17, 1895. Edmunds on Thurman. The New York Times. Retrieved February 23, 2022.
  30. ^ The University Magazine, University Biographies: The Hon. Frederick Billings, LL.D., November 1891, page 1077
  31. ^ Republican National Committee, History of the Republican Party Together with the Proceedings of the Republican National Convention, 1896, page 48
  32. ^ Weisberger, Bernard A. James A. Garfield and Chester A. Arthur. Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved February 23, 2022.
  33. ^ VT US Senate Race - Sep 07, 1886. Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 23, 2022.
  34. ^ Republican National Committee, Official Proceedings of the Republican National Convention, 1884, pages 141, 162
  35. ^ America: A Journal for Americans, From Washington, February 4, 1889, page 11
  36. ^ William Roscoe Thayer, Theodore Roosevelt: An Intimate Biography, 1919, page 49
  37. ^ Review of Reviews and World's Work, Ex-Senator George F. Edmunds, Author of the Anti-Trust Law, January 1912, page 2
  38. ^ New York Times, George F. Edmunds Dead at 91 Years, February 27, 1919
  39. ^ Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
  40. ^ John J. Duffy, Samuel B. Hand, Ralph H. Orth, editors, The Vermont Encyclopedia, 2003, page 113
  41. ^ Middlebury College, Catalogue of the Officers and Alumni of Middlebury College, 1890, page 168
  42. ^ University of Vermont, General Catalogue, 1901, page 225
  43. ^ Vermont Secretary of State, Legislative Directory, 1969, pages 593, 684
  44. ^ Charles Edwin Allen, About Burlington Vermont, 1905, page 62
  45. ^ Majors, Harry M. (1975). Exploring Washington. Van Winkle Publishing Co. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-918664-00-6.
  46. ^ Historic Edmonds, The Founding and Beginning of Edmonds, Washington, 1876-1906 Archived 2012-06-01 at the Wayback Machine, 2000, page 47
  47. ^ Vermont Historical Society, Special prizes, retrieved March 11, 2014
  48. ^ Historic Sites, State of Vermont, Roadside Historic Markers List Archived April 14, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, retrieved March 11, 2014
Political offices Preceded byGeorge W. Grandey Speaker of the Vermont House of Representatives 1857–1860 Succeeded byAugustus P. Hunton Preceded byFrederick E. Woodbridge President pro tempore of the Vermont State Senate 1861–1862 Succeeded byHenry E. Stoughton U.S. Senate Preceded bySolomon Foot U.S. senator (Class 1) from Vermont April 3, 1866 – November 1, 1891 Served alongside: Luke P. Poland and Justin S. Morrill Succeeded byRedfield Proctor Political offices Preceded byDavid Davis President pro tempore of the United States Senate March 4, 1883 – March 3, 1885 Succeeded byJohn Sherman Preceded byJohn Sherman Chairman of the Republican Conference of the United States Senate 1885–1891 Honorary titles Preceded byWilliam Sprague Most senior living U.S. senator (Sitting or former) September 11, 1915 – February 27, 1919 Succeeded byCornelius Cole