Georgian cuisine (Georgian: ქართული სამზარეულო, romanized: kartuli samzareulo) is a traditional cuisine of Georgia. Georgian cuisine has similarities with Caucasus cuisine. Every region of Georgia has its own distinct style of food preparation. Eating and drinking are important parts of Georgian culture.

Georgia was one of the countries on the Silk Road, which resulted in travelers influencing Georgian cuisine. The Georgian love of family and friends is one of the reasons why the supra (tablecloth) is so important in Georgia. Supra is offered spontaneously to relatives, friends or guests. Every supra has its tamada (toastmaster), who gives the toast and entertains the guests.

Regional traditional cuisines

Abkhazia

Abkhazian cuisine uses many spices and walnuts.

Adjara

Adjarian cuisine is considered a very diversified cuisine, which has been influenced by its geography (seaside, mountainous part) and by its history.

Guria

The cuisine of Guria is based mostly on poultry (especially chicken meat), corn-bread (Mchadi) and on walnuts, like the cuisine of Imereti.

Imereti

The cuisine of Imereti shares many affinities with the neighbouring region of Guria and is known for its plentiful use of walnuts.

Kakheti

Kakhetian cuisine is considered to be a more meat-based cuisine and the region itself is called the "Region of Wine".[by whom?] It is also known as the birth-place of one type of Georgian bread, Tonis Puri.

Kartli

Kartli is known as a very rich region in terms of fruits (especially apples, apricots, figs, and peaches) and vegetables (especially cucumbers, tomatoes, and onions).

Lazeti

Though most of the historical part of Lazeti is located in Turkey, Lazes in Georgia, especially in Sarpi, still continue to carry their traditional dishes, some of them being :

Samegrelo

The regional cuisine of Samegrelo can be considered the most famous in Georgia. It uses many spices and walnuts.

Mtianeti, Khevi, Khevsureti, Pshavi and Tusheti

These cuisines are often considered as one due to their similarities.

Racha-Lekhchumi

The cuisines of Racha and of Lechkhumi share most of their dishes and are often grouped into one cuisine as a consequence.

Samtskhe-Javakheti

The Cuisine of Samtskhe-Javakheti consists of two regional cuisines: Meskhetian and Javakhetian. Due to their similarities, they are often considered one regional cuisine. This cuisine differs significantly from other regional cuisine of Georgia, partly because of its heavy use of goose meat and historical Turkish rule of the region.

Svaneti

Appetizers

Breads

Traditional Georgian breads are varied, and include Tonis Puri, Shotis Puri, Mesxuri Puri, Nazuki and Mchadi.

Georgian breads are traditionally baked in a large, round, well-shaped oven called a tone.

Khachapuri

Khachapuri
Adjarian khachapuri in an oven.png
TypePie
Courseappetizer/street food
Place of originGeorgia
Region or stateCaucasus
Serving temperaturehot
Main ingredientsCheese, eggs, bread
Variationsopen, closed

Khachapuri, also spelled as Hachapuri, is a traditional Georgian dish of cheese (fresh or aged, most commonly sulguni), eggs and other ingredients.[4]

There are several distinctive types of khachapuri in Georgian food from different regions of Georgia:

Cheeses

Dambalkhacho cheese.
Dambalkhacho cheese.

Salads

Soups and stews

Kharcho
Chakapuli

Fish

Though Georgian cuisine is not very fish-oriented, there are still some dishes mainly made of trout, catfish and carp:

Meat

A plate of Khinkali
A plate of Khinkali
Chashushuli with bread and salad
Chashushuli with bread and salad

The most popular Georgian meat dishes include:

Sauces and spices

Sauces and spices common in Georgian cuisine include:

Vegetarian dishes

Lobio

Desserts

Churchkhela
Churchkhela
muraba made from walnut
muraba made from walnut

Wine

Main article: Georgian wine

Georgia is one of the oldest wine-producing regions in the world. The fertile valleys and protective slopes of the Transcaucasia were home to grapevine cultivation and neolithic wine production (Georgian: ღვინო, ɣvino) for at least 8000 years.[7][8][9][10] Due to the many millennia of wine in Georgian history and its prominent economic role, the traditions of wine are considered entwined with and inseparable from the national identity.[7]

Among the best-known Georgian wine regions are Kakheti (further divided into the micro-regions of Telavi and Kvareli), Kartli, Imereti, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, Adjara and Abkhazia.

UNESCO added the ancient traditional Georgian winemaking method using the Kvevri clay jars to the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists.[11][12]

Alcoholic drinks from Georgia include chacha and wine (especially Georgian wine). Some of the most well-known Georgian wines include Pirosmani, Alazani, Akhasheni, Saperavi, and Kindzmarauli. Wine culture in Georgia dates back thousands of years, and many Georgian wines are made from traditional Georgian grape varieties that are little known in the West, such as Saperavi and Rkatsiteli. Georgian wine is well known throughout Eastern Europe, and is a significant national export, with exports of over 10 million bottles of wine per year. Georgia is also home to many beer brands, including Natakhtari, Kazbegi, Argo, Kasri, and Karva.

Lagidze water is a Georgian flavored soda drink, made with a variety of natural syrups, sold bottled or mixed directly in a glass from a soda fountain. Common types of mineral water from Georgia include Borjomi, Nabeghlavi, Likani, and Sairme.

See also

References

  1. ^ T. Burford (2008). Georgia, Bradt Travel Guide. p. 69.
  2. ^ Галина Григорьевна Копешавидзе (1989). Абхазская кухня. Сухуми: Алашара. pp. 77–78. [Galina Kopeshavidze (1989). Abkhazian cuisine (in Russian). Sukhumi: Alashara. pp. 77–78.]
  3. ^ FAO, Atlas of Origin linked food Products in Georgia, Rome, 2020, pp. 83
  4. ^ Goldstein, Darra (1999). The Georgian feast: the vibrant culture and savory food of the Republic of Georgia. University of California Press. pp. 136–139. ISBN 0-520-21929-5.
  5. ^ "About Food – Imeruli (Imeretian Khachapuri)". July 27, 2012.
  6. ^ "IPCG". www.sakpatenti.gov.ge.
  7. ^ a b Miquel Hudin & Daria Kholodolina (2017), Georgia: A guide to the cradle of wine, Vinologue, p. 300, ISBN 978-1941598054
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-04-15. Retrieved 2015-04-15.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ Watson, Ivan. "Unearthing Georgia's wine heritage". CNN. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  10. ^ Spilling, Michael; Wong, Winnie (2008). Cultures of The World Georgia. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-7614-3033-9.
  11. ^ Gilby MW, Caroline (2013-12-06). "Georgian winemaking method joins UNESCO heritage list". Decanter. Retrieved 2020-11-26.
  12. ^ "Ancient Georgian traditional Qvevri wine-making method". UNESCO. Retrieved 2020-11-26.