U-38 with crew.jpg
U-38 and its crew
Nazi Germany
Ordered29 July 1936
BuilderDeSchiMAG AG Weser, Bremen
Yard number943
Laid down15 April 1937
Launched9 August 1938
Commissioned24 October 1938
FateScuttled 5 May 1945 west of Wesermünde and broken up in 1948.
General characteristics
Class and typeType IXA submarine
  • 1,032 t (1,016 long tons) surfaced
  • 1,153 t (1,135 long tons) submerged
  • 6.51 m (21 ft 4 in) o/a
  • 4.40 m (14 ft 5 in) pressure hull
Height9.40 m (30 ft 10 in)
Draught4.70 m (15 ft 5 in)
Installed power
  • 4,400 PS (3,200 kW; 4,300 bhp) (diesels)
  • 1,000 PS (740 kW; 990 shp) (electric)
  • 10,500 nmi (19,400 km; 12,100 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced
  • 65–78 nmi (120–144 km; 75–90 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) submerged
Test depth230 m (750 ft)
Complement4 officers, 44 enlisted
Service record
Part of:
Identification codes: M 20 675
  • Kptlt. Heinrich Liebe
  • 24 October 1938 – 22 July 1941
  • K.Kapt. Heinrich Schuch
  • 15 July 1941 – 6 January 1942
  • Oblt.z.S. Ludo Kregelin
  • 1943
  • Oblt.z.S. Helmut Laubert
  • 5 January – 22 August 1943
  • Oblt.z.S. Paul Sander
  • 23 August – 14 December 1943
  • Oblt.z.S. Goske von Möllendorff
  • 16 December – December 1943
  • Oblt.z.S. Herbert Kühn
  • January – 14 April 1944
  • K.Kapt. Georg Peters[1]
  • 15 April 1944 – 5 May 1945
  • 11 patrols:[1]
  • 1st patrol:
  • 19 August – 18 September 1939
  • 2nd patrol:
  • 14 November – 16 December 1939
  • 3rd patrol:
  • 26 February – 5 April 1940
  • 4th patrol:
  • 8 – 27 April 1940
  • 5th patrol:
  • 6 June – 2 July 1940
  • 6th patrol:
  • 1 August – 3 September 1940
  • 7th patrol:
  • 25 September – 24 October 1940
  • 8th patrol:
  • 18 December 1940 – 22 January 1941
  • 9th patrol:
  • 9 April – 29 June 1941
  • 10th patrol:
  • 6 August – 14 September 1941
  • 11th patrol:
  • a. 15 October – 21 November 1941
  • b. 23 – 29 November 1941
  • 35 merchant ships sunk
    (188,967 GRT)
  • 1 merchant ship damaged
    (3,670 GRT)[2]

German submarine U-38 was a Type IXA U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine that operated during World War II.[1]

Her keel was laid down on 15 April 1937, by DeSchiMAG AG Weser of Bremen as yard number 943. She was launched on 9 August 1938 and commissioned on 24 October with Kapitänleutnant Heinrich Liebe in command.[1]

U-38 conducted eleven patrols, as part of several flotillas. During her career, she sank over 30 enemy vessels and damaged a further one. U-38 ranks as one of the most successful U-boats in World War II.[3] She was scuttled west of Wesermünde (Modern Bremerhaven) on 5 May 1945. Throughout the war, the U-Boat suffered no losses among her crew.[1]


As one of the eight original German Type IX submarines,[4] later designated IXA, U-38 had a displacement of 1,032 tonnes (1,016 long tons) when at the surface and 1,153 tonnes (1,135 long tons) while submerged.[5] The U-boat had a total length of 76.50 m (251 ft), a pressure hull length of 58.75 m (192 ft 9 in), a beam of 6.51 m (21 ft 4 in), a height of 9.40 m (30 ft 10 in), and a draught of 4.70 m (15 ft 5 in). The submarine was powered by two MAN M 9 V 40/46 supercharged four-stroke, nine-cylinder diesel engines producing a total of 4,400 metric horsepower (3,240 kW; 4,340 shp) for use while surfaced, two Siemens-Schuckert 2 GU 345/34 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 1,000 metric horsepower (740 kW; 990 shp) for use while submerged. She had two shafts and two 1.92 m (6 ft) propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres (750 ft).[5]

The submarine had a maximum surface speed of 18.2 knots (33.7 km/h; 20.9 mph) and a maximum submerged speed of 7.7 knots (14.3 km/h; 8.9 mph).[5] When submerged, the boat could operate for 65–78 nautical miles (120–144 km; 75–90 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph); when surfaced, she could travel 10,500 nautical miles (19,400 km; 12,100 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). U-38 was fitted with six 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four fitted at the bow and two at the stern), 22 torpedoes, one 10.5 cm (4.13 in) SK C/32 naval gun, 180 rounds, and a 3.7 cm (1.5 in) SK C/30 as well as a 2 cm (0.79 in) C/30 anti-aircraft gun. The boat had a complement of forty-eight.[5]

Service history

First patrol

U-38 left the port of Wilhelmshaven on 19 August 1939. The boat operated off the coast of Lisbon, returning to port on 18 September. During this four-week period, she sank two ships.

On 5 September 1939 U-38 stopped the French ship Pluvoise, examined her papers and released her. Pluvoise broadcast the event, warning others of the U-boat. For this, Liebe was reprimanded. The already strict rules restricting submarine warfare were further tightened to prevent a recurrence of the event and all U-boats were instructed to avoid contact with any French merchant vessels.[6]

The British steam freighter SS Manaar was sunk on 6 September 1939. U-38 opened fire on the freighter, intending to stop her, but she returned fire. This was the first time that a merchantman fired at a U-boat. Stunned by this unexpected response, U-38 dived and sank Manaar with torpedoes. Citing the fact that Manaar had fired at him, Liebe did not assist the survivors, reasoning that the vessel was exempted from protection by the Submarine Protocol. Berlin would release to the media the narrative that the Manaar had fired on U-38 on sight. While Karl Dönitz did not believe that his submarines should have to maintain adherence to the Submarine Protocol in the face of armed merchantmen, due to the political situation, restrictions remained in force after this incident and he was merely able to issue instruction to all submarines to exercise caution.[7] Radio Officer James Turner remained at his post until the last moment. As he was leaving he found two Lascars, one badly injured. Turner rescued both men while under continuous fire from U-38, for this he was awarded the Empire Gallantry Medal.[8]

On 11 September 1939, while flying the Irish tricolour, Inverliffey was shelled and sunk.[9] In spite of Captain William Trowsdale's protestation that they were Irish, Liebe said that they "were sorry" but they would sink Inverliffey as she was carrying contraband petrol to England. The crew took to the lifeboats. Inverliffey burned fiercely, endangering the lifeboats. At risk to herself, the German submarine approached, threw lines to the lifeboats and towed them to safety.[10] As Captain Trowsdale's lifeboat was damaged, the occupants were allowed to board the U-boat. The captain did not have a lifebelt, so he was given one. U-38 stopped the American tanker R.G. Stewart and put Inverliffey's crew on board. Just two days earlier, Inver tankers transferred its ships from the Irish to the British registry.[11][12]

Second patrol

After nearly two months in port, U-38 left Wilhelmshaven, again with Heinrich Liebe in command, on 12 November 1939. This second patrol was to see the boat operate in the waters northwest of Norway.[13]

On 17 November 1939, Naval High Command (SKL) issued orders for U-38 and U-36 to scout the location for Basis Nord, a secret German naval base to be used for raids on allied shipping which was located off the Kola Peninsula and provided by the Soviet Union.[14] The mission required coded messages to be flashed to Soviet naval vessels patrolling the area preceding a Soviet escort to the prospective base location.[15]

U-36 never left the Norwegian Sea and was sunk by the British submarine HMS Salmon.[15] U-38 rounded the North Cape uneventfully and arrived in Teriberka Bay by mid-afternoon on 26 November.[16] Running silently into the bay, U-38 had to avoid being spotted by merchant vessels in order to help maintain the Soviet Union's attempted appearance of neutrality at that time.[16] U-38's captain commented that, while in the area of the North Cape and the Kola Peninsula, he had observed thirty to forty targets and regrettably had been "harmless to [all] of them."[16]

After completing the clandestine reconnaissance mission, U-38 returned to raiding duties and sank three ships, two British and one Greek. The British steam freighter SS Thomas Walton was sunk on 7 December. The Greek steam freighter SS Garoufalia was destroyed on 11 December, as was the British steam freighter Deptford on 13 December. After an operational period of four and a half weeks, U-38 returned to Wilhelmshaven on 16 December.[13]

Third patrol

ST Leukos, a neutral fishing trawler that was sunk with all hands. Painting by Kenneth King from the National Maritime Museum
ST Leukos, a neutral fishing trawler that was sunk with all hands. Painting by Kenneth King from the National Maritime Museum

Once again, U-38 would spend considerable time in port, prior to sailing on 26 February 1940, for operations in the Western Approaches.[17]

U-38 sank six ships. First sent to the bottom was the neutral Irish steam trawler ST Leukos on 9 March, with a single shell at point-blank range off Tory Island, all 11 crew were lost.[18] The Leukos was fishing in the company of British trawlers; it has been speculated that she positioned herself between the surfacing U-boat and the fleeing British in the belief that her neutral markings would protect her.[19] This event was followed by the sinking of the Danish motor freighters SS Argentina on 17 March and SS Algier and SS Christiansborg on 21 March. The Norwegian motor freighter MV Cometa was sunk on 26 March. The sixth and final ship sunk during this third patrol was the Finnish steam freighter SS Signe on 2 April. After nearly six weeks on the high seas, U-38 returned to Wilhelmshaven on 5 April 1940.[17]

Fourth patrol

U-38 left her home port of Wilhelmshaven with Heinrich Liebe in command on 8 April 1940. She would sweep the waters off Norway, supporting the occupation of that country by Nazi troops. During this patrol, U-38 reported problems with her torpedoes, after HMS Effingham was fired upon with no result. U-38 would return to port on 27 April.[20]

There were two naval battles of Narvik on 10 and 13 April 1940. U-38 and U-65 were positioned at the entrance to the fjord. When the Royal Navy arrived, U-38 fired at HMS Valiant and at HMS Southampton missing both.[21] In the second battle, U-38 fired at Effingham, but the torpedoes malfunctioned,[22] (exploding prematurely).

Fifth patrol

For her fifth patrol, U-38 would again depart from Wilhelmshaven with Heinrich Liebe in command on 6 June 1940. She was to patrol the waters off southern Ireland. During this operation, Liebe would hit six ships, two of which were sailing in convoy at the time. On 14 June, U-38 sank the Greek steam freighter SS Mount Myrto. The next day, U-38 sank two ships, both sailing as part of Convoy HX 47, sailing from Halifax to England. First sunk was the Canadian steam freighter SS Erik Boye, followed by the Norwegian motor tanker MV Italia. Five days later, on 20 June, the Swedish steam freighter SS Tilia Gorthon was torpedoed and sunk. The Belgian steam freighter SS Luxembourg was destroyed on 21 June, followed by the Greek steam freighter SS Neion the following day. After three weeks at sea, U-38 returned to Wilhelmshaven on 2 July.[23]

During this patrol, U-38 was able to land Walter Simon, a Nazi agent, at Dingle Bay in Ireland on 12 June. Not realising that the passenger services of the Tralee and Dingle Light Railway had been closed fourteen months earlier, he asked when the next train to Dublin was. He was arrested and interned in the Curragh Camp for the duration of the war.[24]

Sixth patrol

U-38 would depart Wilhelmshaven for the last time on 1 August 1940, again with Heinrich Liebe in command. On this month-long patrol off the western coast of Ireland, U-38 would hit and sink three ships, all of which were in convoy at the time of attack. On 7 August the Egyptian liner SS Mohamed Ali El-Kebir was sunk while traveling with HX 61, from Halifax to Gibraltar, 320 died.[25] The British steam freighter SS Llanfair was hit and sunk, travelling as part of SL-41 from Sierra Leone to England. The third and final ship hit on the sixth patrol of U-38 was the British steam freighter SS Har Zion, while travelling with the Convoy OB 225, from Liverpool to the United States. After four weeks at sea Liebe returned U-38 to her new home port of Lorient in France on 3 September 1940.[26]

Seventh patrol

For her first patrol from Lorient and her seventh overall, U-38 would again be under the command of Heinrich Liebe. She departed on 25 September, for the Northwest Approaches. She would attack five ships on this patrol, sinking four of them. On 1 October, the British motor freighter MV Highland Patriot was torpedoed. After two weeks of no victories, U-38 was successful against the Greek steam freighter SS Aenos on 17 October, sailing as part of Convoy SC 7, from Sydney, Nova Scotia to England. The following day, the British steam freighter SS Carsbreck was damaged, but not sunk, while traveling with the SC 7 convoy from Sydney to Grimsby, England. On 19 October, two ships were hit, both sailing as part of the HX 79 convoy: the Dutch SS Bilderdijk and the British steam freighter SS Matheran. Following these victories, U-38 returned to Lorient on 24 October 1940.[27]

Eighth patrol

U-38 would depart Lorient with Liebe in command once again on 18 December 1940. The eighth war patrol of her career would involve operations again in the Northwest Approaches. During this patrol, the submarine would hit and sink two ships. On 27 December, U-38 destroyed the British ship SS Waiotira, and on 31 December, she sank the Swedish motor freighter SS Valparaiso, sailing as part of the HX 97 convoy from Halifax to Glasgow. U-38 returned to port on 22 January 1941.[28]

Ninth patrol

U-38 would spend two and a half months in port, before leaving for operations off the west coast of Africa on 9 April 1941. This would prove to be her most successful patrol, with the sinking of eight ships. On 4 May, the Swedish steam freighter SS Japan was torpedoed while traveling with Convoy OB 310 from England to the United States. The following day, the British motor freighter MV Queen Maud was hit and sunk. On 23 May, the Dutch motor freighter SS Berhala was sunk while traveling with the Convoy OB 318, from England to America. The British steam freighter SS Vulcain was torpedoed and sunk on 24 May. Six days later, on 29 May, the British steam freighter SS Tabaristan was another victim. The following day the destruction continued, the British steam freighter SS Empire Protector was sent to the bottom, as was the Norwegian steam freighter SS Rinda on the 31st. The eighth and final ship sunk during U-38's ninth patrol was the British cargo steamship SS Kingston Hill on 8 June. The boat then returned to Lorient on 29 June 1941, after spending eleven and a half weeks at sea.[29]

Tenth patrol

For the first time in her career, U-38 would head to sea with a new commander, Korvettenkapitän Heinrich Schuch. She left on 6 August, for a five-week patrol in the North Atlantic. During this time one ship was hit, the Panamanian steam freighter SS Longtanker on 18 August. U-38 returned to Lorient on 14 September 1941.[30]

11th and 12th Patrols

U-38 would depart from Lorient for the last time on 15 October, again with Heinrich Schuch in command. Her eleventh patrol was to take place in the North Atlantic. However, during a period of five weeks, not a single ship was hit. U-38 traveled to the U-boat base in Bergen, Norway on 21 November. She would later depart Bergen on the 23rd and arrive in Stettin on 29 November.[31]

Life after active duty

From December 1941 until November 1943, U-38 was used as a training boat in the 24th and 21st U-boat Flotillas. She was then used as a testing boat, until she was scuttled by her crew on 5 May 1945.[1]


U-38 took part in five wolfpacks, namely.

Summary of raiding history

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap  Download coordinates as: KML

During her service in the Kriegsmarine, U-38 sank 35 merchant ships for 188,967 gross register tons (GRT), and damaged another of 3,670 GRT.[2]

Date[2] Ship[2] Nationality[2] Tonnage[2] Fate and location[2]
6 September 1939 Manaar  United Kingdom 7,242 Sunk at 38°28′N 10°50′W / 38.467°N 10.833°W / 38.467; -10.833 (Manaar (ship))
11 September 1939 Inverliffey Republic of Ireland[notes 1][9]  United Kingdom 9,456 Sunk at 48°14′N 11°48′W / 48.233°N 11.800°W / 48.233; -11.800 (Inverliffey (ship))
7 December 1939 Thomas Walton  United Kingdom 4,460 Sunk at 67°52′N 14°28′E / 67.867°N 14.467°E / 67.867; 14.467 (Thomas Walton (ship))
11 December 1939 Garoufalia  Greece 4,708 Sunk at 64°36′N 10°42′E / 64.600°N 10.700°E / 64.600; 10.700 (Garoufalia (ship))
13 December 1939 Deptford  United Kingdom 4,101 Sunk at 62°15′N 05°08′E / 62.250°N 5.133°E / 62.250; 5.133 (Deptford (ship))
9 March 1940 Leukos  Ireland 216 Sunk at 55°20′N 08°45′W / 55.333°N 8.750°W / 55.333; -8.750 (Leukos (ship))
17 March 1940 Argentina  Denmark 5,375 Sunk at 60°47′N 00°30′W / 60.783°N 0.500°W / 60.783; -0.500 (Argentina (ship))
21 March 1940 Algier  Denmark 1,654 Sunk at 60°17′N 02°49′W / 60.283°N 2.817°W / 60.283; -2.817 (Algier (ship))
21 March 1940 Christiansborg  Denmark 3,270 Sunk at 60°17′N 02°49′W / 60.283°N 2.817°W / 60.283; -2.817 (Christiansborg (ship))
26 March 1940 Cometa  Norway 3,794 Sunk at 60°06′N 04°36′W / 60.100°N 4.600°W / 60.100; -4.600 (Cometa (ship))
2 April 1940 Signe  Finland 1,540 Sunk at 58°52′N 01°31′W / 58.867°N 1.517°W / 58.867; -1.517 (Signe (ship))
14 June 1940 Mount Myrto  Greece 5,403 Sunk at 50°03′N 10°05′W / 50.050°N 10.083°W / 50.050; -10.083 (Mount Myrto (ship))
15 June 1940 Erik Boye  Canada 2,238 Sunk at 50°37′N 08°44′W / 50.617°N 8.733°W / 50.617; -8.733 (Erik Boye (ship))
15 June 1940 Italia  Norway 9,973 Sunk at 50°37′N 08°44′W / 50.617°N 8.733°W / 50.617; -8.733 (Italia (ship))
20 June 1940 Tilia Gorthon  Sweden 1,776 Sunk at 48°32′N 06°20′W / 48.533°N 6.333°W / 48.533; -6.333 (Tilia Gorthon (ship))
21 June 1940 Luxembourg  Belgium 5,809 Sunk at 47°25′N 04°55′W / 47.417°N 4.917°W / 47.417; -4.917 (Luxembourg (ship))
22 June 1940 Neion  Greece 5,154 Sunk at 47°09′N 04°17′W / 47.150°N 4.283°W / 47.150; -4.283 (Neion (ship))
7 August 1940 Mohamed Ali El-Kebir  United Kingdom 7,527 Sunk at 55°22′N 13°18′W / 55.367°N 13.300°W / 55.367; -13.300 (Mohamed Ali El-Kebir (ship))
11 August 1940 Llanfair  United Kingdom 4,966 Sunk at 54°48′N 13°46′W / 54.800°N 13.767°W / 54.800; -13.767 (Llanfair (ship))
31 August 1940 Har Zion  United Kingdom 2,508 Sunk at 56°20′N 10°00′W / 56.333°N 10.000°W / 56.333; -10.000 (Har Zion (ship))
1 October 1940 Highland Patriot  United Kingdom 14,172 Sunk at 52°20′N 19°04′W / 52.333°N 19.067°W / 52.333; -19.067 (Highland Patriot (ship))
17 October 1940 Aenos  Greece 3,554 Sunk at 59°00′N 13°00′W / 59.000°N 13.000°W / 59.000; -13.000 (Aenos (ship))
18 October 1940 Carsbreck  United Kingdom 3,670 Damaged at 36°20′N 10°50′W / 36.333°N 10.833°W / 36.333; -10.833 (Carsbreck (ship))
19 October 1940 Bilderdijk  Netherlands 6,856 Sunk at 56°35′N 17°15′W / 56.583°N 17.250°W / 56.583; -17.250 (Bilderdijk (ship))
19 October 1940 Matheran  United Kingdom 7,653 Sunk at 57°00′N 17°00′W / 57.000°N 17.000°W / 57.000; -17.000 (Matheran (ship))
27 December 1940 Waiotira  United Kingdom 12,823 Sunk at 58°10′N 16°56′W / 58.167°N 16.933°W / 58.167; -16.933 (Waiotira (ship))
31 December 1940 Valparaíso  Sweden 3,760 Sunk at 60°01′N 23°00′W / 60.017°N 23.000°W / 60.017; -23.000 (Valparaiso (ship))
4 May 1941 Japan  Sweden 5,230 Sunk at 09°50′N 17°50′W / 9.833°N 17.833°W / 9.833; -17.833 (Japan (ship))
5 May 1941 Queen Maud  United Kingdom 4,976 Sunk at 07°54′N 16°41′W / 7.900°N 16.683°W / 7.900; -16.683 (Queen Maud (ship))
23 May 1941 Berhala  Netherlands 6,622 Sunk at 09°50′N 17°50′W / 9.833°N 17.833°W / 9.833; -17.833 (Berhala (ship))
24 May 1941 Vulcain  United Kingdom 4,362 Sunk at 09°20′N 15°35′W / 9.333°N 15.583°W / 9.333; -15.583 (Vulcain (ship))
29 May 1941 Tabaristan  United Kingdom 6,251 Sunk at 06°32′N 15°23′W / 6.533°N 15.383°W / 6.533; -15.383 (Tabaristan (ship))
30 May 1941 Empire Protector  United Kingdom 6,181 Sunk at 06°00′N 14°25′W / 6.000°N 14.417°W / 6.000; -14.417 (Empire Protector (ship))
31 May 1941 Rinda  Norway 6,029 Sunk at 06°52′N 15°14′W / 6.867°N 15.233°W / 6.867; -15.233 (Rinda (ship))
8 June 1941 Kingston Hill  United Kingdom 7,628 Sunk at 09°35′N 29°40′W / 9.583°N 29.667°W / 9.583; -29.667 (Kingston Hill (ship))
18 August 1941 Longtaker  Panama 1,700 Sunk at 61°25′N 30°50′W / 61.417°N 30.833°W / 61.417; -30.833 (Longtaker (ship))


  1. ^ While Inverliffey was a British vessel, she was flying the flag of Ireland the day that she was sunk.


  1. ^ a b c d e f g Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-38". German U-boats of WWII – uboat.net. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-38". German U-boats of WWII – uboat.net. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  3. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Most Successful U-boats". German U-boats of WWII – uboat.net. Retrieved 29 March 2010.
  4. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Type IXA". German U-boats of WWII – uboat.net. Retrieved 27 November 2019.
  5. ^ a b c d Gröner 1991, p. 68.
  6. ^ Blair, page 82
  7. ^ Blair, page 82.
  8. ^ NAVAL-HISTORY.NET. "The George Cross at Sea". Retrieved 18 April 2010.
  9. ^ a b "Dáil Éireann – Volume 77". Sinking of Ships. Parliamentary Debates. 27 September 1939. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2009.
  10. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Patrol info for U-38 (First patrol)". German U-boats of WWII – uboat.net. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  11. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Inverliffey". German U-boats of WWII – uboat.net. Retrieved 23 August 2009.
  12. ^ Visser, Auke. "International Esso Tankers". Early War Incident. Retrieved 24 August 2009.
  13. ^ a b Helgason, Guðmundur. "Patrol info for U-38 (Second patrol)". German U-boats of WWII – uboat.net. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  14. ^ Philbin III (1994) p. 95
  15. ^ a b Philbin III (1994) p. 96
  16. ^ a b c Philbin III (1994) p. 97
  17. ^ a b Helgason, Guðmundur. "Patrol info for U-38 (Third patrol)". German U-boats of WWII – uboat.net. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  18. ^ Boyle, Sean, Leukos blown out of the water Journal of the Maritime Institute of Ireland Spring 1987
  19. ^ "Steam Trawler Leukos". Remember. Maritime Institute of Ireland. Archived from the original on 7 March 2013. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
  20. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Patrol info for U-38 (Fourth patrol)". German U-boats of WWII – uboat.net. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  21. ^ Blair, page 150
  22. ^ Blair, page 155
  23. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Patrol info for U-38 (Fifth patrol)". German U-boats of WWII – uboat.net. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  24. ^ Hull, Mark (2003). Irish Secrets. Irish Academic Press. p. 110. ISBN 0-7165-2756-1.
  25. ^ Blair, p. 180
  26. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Patrol info for U-38 (Sixth patrol)". German U-boats of WWII – uboat.net. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  27. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Patrol info for U-38 (Seventh patrol)". German U-boats of WWII – uboat.net. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  28. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Patrol info for U-38 (Eighth patrol)". German U-boats of WWII – uboat.net. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  29. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Patrol info for U-38 (Ninth patrol)". German U-boats of WWII – uboat.net. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  30. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Patrol info for U-38 (Tenth patrol)". German U-boats of WWII – uboat.net. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  31. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Patrol info for U-38 (Eleventh patrol)". German U-boats of WWII – uboat.net. Retrieved 2 April 2010.


  • Blair, Clay (1996). Hitler's U-Boat War. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-84076-2.
  • Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). German U-boat commanders of World War II : a biographical dictionary. Translated by Brooks, Geoffrey. London, Annapolis, Md: Greenhill Books, Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-186-6.
  • Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945 [German U-boat losses from September 1939 to May 1945]. Der U-Boot-Krieg (in German). Vol. IV. Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn: Mittler. ISBN 3-8132-0514-2.
  • Gröner, Erich; Jung, Dieter; Maass, Martin (1991). U-boats and Mine Warfare Vessels. German Warships 1815–1945. Vol. 2. Translated by Thomas, Keith; Magowan, Rachel. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-593-4.
  • Philbin III, Tobias R., The Lure of Neptune: German-Soviet Naval Collaboration and Ambitions, 1919 – 1941, University of South Carolina Press, 1994, ISBN 0-87249-992-8

Coordinates: 53°34′N 8°32′E / 53.567°N 8.533°E / 53.567; 8.533