Giimbiyu
Mangerr
Native toAustralia
RegionNorthern Territory
Extinct1980s–1990s[1]
Arnhem Land?
  • Giimbiyu
Dialects
  • Mangerr
  • Erri
  • Urningangga
Latin (Australian Aboriginal)
Language codes
ISO 639-3Variously:
zme – Mangerr
urc – Urningangg
err – Erre
Glottologgiim1238
AIATSIS[2]N220
ELPUrningangga
Giimbiyu (purple), among other non-Pama-Nyungan languages (grey)

Giimbiyu is an extinct Aboriginal Australian language isolate once spoken by the Giimbiyu people of northern Australia.

The name Giimbiyu is a Gaagudju word for 'of the stoney country'. It was introduced in Harvey (1992) as a cover term for the named dialects,[2]

In 1997 Nicholas Evans proposed an Arnhem Land family that includes the Giimbiyu languages. However, they are not included in Bowern (2011).[3]

Phonology

Consonants

Peripheral Laminal Apical
Labial Velar Palatal Alveolar Retroflex
Plosive p k ɟ t ʈ
Nasal m ŋ ɲ n ɳ
Fricative ɣ
Tap ɾ
Lateral ʎ l ɭ ɭʲ
Approximant w j ɻ

Vowels

Front Back
High ɪ u
Mid ɛ ø
Low a

Vocabulary

Capell (1942) lists the following basic vocabulary items:[5]

gloss Mangeri Uningangk
man wurilg wurig
woman ŋeːn ŋeːn
head wiliŋerm ulŋerb
eye iːm iːm
nose jingolm ingolb
mouth jagir indjaːd
tongue nindjadj indjaːd
stomach abeɽweɽe abeɽwe
bone ijerm mulgud
blood maneŋulm waija
kangaroo oidjbaɣar wurulamb
opossum muŋaːd malijarŋ
emu wiwijüw iwidjiw
crow gagud gagud
fly muɳimuɳi maŋanaŋaɳ
sun muɣaːliŋ indjuwawi
moon järagäl järagäl
fire wiɽumgarm widjälim
smoke wuŋɛŋg wuŋɛŋg
water ogog ogog

References

  1. ^ Mangerr at Ethnologue (25th ed., 2022) Closed access icon
    Urningangg at Ethnologue (25th ed., 2022) Closed access icon
    Erre at Ethnologue (25th ed., 2022) Closed access icon
  2. ^ a b N220 Giimbiyu at the Australian Indigenous Languages Database, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
  3. ^ Bowern, Claire. 2011. "How Many Languages Were Spoken in Australia?", Anggarrgoon: Australian languages on the web, December 23, 2011 (corrected February 6, 2012)
  4. ^ Birch, Bruce (2006). A first dictionary of Erre, Mengerrdji and Urningangk: three languages from the Alligator Rivers Region of North Western Arnhem Land, Northern Territory. Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation: Jabiru: Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corp.
  5. ^ Capell, Arthur. 1941-1942, 1942-1943. Languages of Arnhem Land, North Australia. Oceania 12: 364-392, 13: 24-51.