This glossary provides definitions and context for terminology related to, and jargon specific to, the sport of pickleball. Words or phrases in italics can be found on the list in their respective alphabetic sections.

0–9

0–0
See Zero–Zero
0–0–2 or 0–0–start
See Zero–Zero–Two.

A

Ace
Any serve that is not returned by the receiver,[1] or, more specifically, a serve that the receiver's paddle never touches.[2] The term, originally used in Tennis, has been attributed to American sportswriter Allison Danzig.
Andiamo!
Meaning "Let's go!" in Italian, it can be heard after a player wins a particularly critical point. The term was popularized in pickleball by professional player Julian Arnold.[3]
APP
See Association of Pickleball Professionals
Approach shot
A shot executed while moving from the backcourt towards the non-volley line.
Around-the-post (ATP)
A legal shot that travels outside the net posts, allowing its trajectory to stay below the height of the net.[4]
Association of Pickleball Professionals
A pro pickleball tour sanctioned by USA Pickleball.[5]
At the net
A player positioned at the non-volley line; considered a strategically dominant position.[6]
Attackable ball or Attackable shot
A ball returned over the net in a way that allows the receiving side to make a strategic offensive shot. This can mean the ball was hit high and deep enough to allow their opponent to return a targeted aggressive volley from outside the non-volley zone, or the ball has enough height after the bounce to permit a targeted aggressive groundstroke.

B

Backcourt
The area of the court located near the baseline.
Backhand
Striking the ball with the reverse side of the paddle while the back of the player’s hand is facing the net.
Backspin
See Spin.
Backswing
The backward movement of the paddle in advance of striking the ball.
Bagel
A shutout game ending when one team earned no points. In a standard pickleball game, an 11-0 ending score.[7]
Baker
See Shake & bake.
Bainbridge Cup
An international pickleball competition organized by the International Federation of Pickleball, or the trophy awarded at the competition.
Bainbridge Island
An island in the state of Washington, USA, where the sport of pickleball was invented at the home of Joel Pritchard.
Ball! or Ball on!
A call made to alert all players when an errant ball is on the court, usually a ball from another court. For safety, all play should immediately stop and the serve started over once the court is clear.[8]
Ball type
Pickleballs come in two basic types, "indoor" or "outdoor", but some may be labeled "hybrid" with features that fall between the two. Rules permit any USAP approved ball to be used in indoor or outdoor matches.
Banger
A player that hits mostly powerful drive shots.[8]
Baselines
The lines parallel to the net at the back of the pickleball court 22 feet (6.7 m) from the net.[9]
Bash
A hard shot that hits the top of the net (i.e. the tape) and then lands in play on the opponent's side of the court. A bash is typically unintentional and very difficult to return as the ball changes speed and/or direction due to contact with the net.
Bert
In doubles, a poach shot where a player crosses in front of their partner to execute an erne on their partner's side of the court.[10]
Block shot or Blocking
A backhanded defensive shot with little or no backswing intended to slow the ball and drop it in the opponent’s non-volley zone; used in response to a body shot.[11]
Body shot
A shot that hits the body of the opposing player, thereby winning the point. Care should be taken to avoid the head, neck or face.[12]
Bounce it!
In doubles, a call made by one partner to the other instructing them to allow the ball to bounce before striking the ball. Called when a player thinks the ball may land out of bounds.[13]

C

Carry
Hitting the ball in such a way that it does not bounce away from the paddle but tends to be carried along on the face of the paddle. This is a fault.
Centerline
The line bisecting the service courts that extends from the non-volley line to the baseline.[14]
Chainsaw serve
A serve that starts by swiping, brushing or rolling the ball against the paddle before tossing the ball in preparation for striking the ball, thereby imparting spin on the ball, then striking the ball with a topspin stroke imparting even more spin. The serve was popularized by Zane Navratil and is sometimes referred to as the Zane Navratil serve. As of 2021 the serve is no longer allowed per USAP rules, but still permitted in unsanctioned PPA pro games.[15][8]
Chicken wing
An awkward defensive shot made with the paddle arm bent and the elbow extended up and away from the body.[8][7] It also can refer to the shoulder and armpit area, on the paddle side of a player's body, that when targeted can force the player to make a chicken wing defensive shot.[1]
Chip shot
See Chop.
Chop, Chip, Cut, or Slice shot
Striking the ball using a slightly open faced paddle while moving the paddle in a downward undercutting motion to impart backspin on the ball.
Closed face
Tilting the paddle face down when striking the ball with the upper edge of the racket angled forward.[16][8] (See also Flat face and Open face)
Continental grip
Holding the paddle handle so that the index finger and thumb form a "V" in line with the edge of the paddle.[17] (See also Grip (tennis))
Corkspin
See Spin.
Crosscourt
The opponent's half of the court that is diagonally opposite the player striking the ball.
Crush & rush
See Shake & bake.
Cut shot
See Chop.

D

Dead ball
A ball that is no longer in play, or any action that stops play.[18] A dead ball occurs whenever one of the following occur; a fault is committed, the ball strikes a permanent object, or a hindrance is called.[19]
Dink or Dink shot
A soft return shot made at, in, or near the non-volley zone, after the ball has bounced, that just clears the net and drops into the opponent's non-volley zone.[20]
Dink volley
A soft return shot made at or near the non-volley line, prior to the ball bouncing, that just clears the net and drops into the opponent's non-volley zone.
Dinker
A pickleball player that is exceptionally good at dinking.[1]
Double-bounce rule
See Two-bounce rule.
Double hit
Hitting the ball twice with the paddle before the ball is returned. A valid play as long as the hits are both performed as part of one continuous stroke.[21] Double hit might also refer to hitting the ball twice, involving one player or both players on a team, but using two separate strokes. This is a fault.[22]
Doubles
Pickleball matches having two players per side. (See also Singles)
Drive shot
A powerful groundstroke or volley hit fast and low over the net to the opponent's backcourt.[8][23]
Drop serve
See Serve.
Drop or Drop shot
A soft return shot made from the back court or mid court, after the ball has bounced, that lands in or near the opponent's non-volley zone.
Drop volley
A soft return shot made from the back court or mid court, prior to the ball bouncing, that lands in or near the opponent's non-volley zone.

E

Erne
A volley hit near the net by a player positioned outside the court or in the process of leaping outside the court. A legally executed erne shot allows a player to hit the ball closer to the net without stepping in the non-volley zone. Named for Erne Perry, the first person credited with using the shot in mainstream competitive play.[24]
Even service court
See Service court.

F

Fault
An infringement of the rules that ends a rally and results in a dead ball.[25]
First server, First serve
In doubles; the first team member to serve the ball after a side–out. If a side-out occurs when the team's score is even, the team's starting server will be the first server, otherwise the non-starting server will be the first server. (See also Starting server)
Flat face
Keeping the paddle face parallel with the plane of the net when striking the ball without angling the racket up or down.[26][8] (See also Closed face and Open face)
Foot fault
A foot fault can occur when serving or when volleying.
Full stack
See Stacking

G

Grip
May refer to;
Groundstroke or Ground stroke
A ball that is struck after it bounces.[29]

H

Half stack
See Stacking
Half Volley
A ground stroke that is struck low to the ground immediately after the ball bounces.[30]
Hand signal(s)
A non-verbal cue used to communicate during the game. Hand signals might be used by line judges or players.[31][32] Common hand signals include:
Hinder or Hindrance
An interference of play by something outside of the game, such as an errant ball or a person crossing the court. Hinders result in a dead ball, and the point is replayed. A dead ball occurs as soon as a hinder is called by either side. If it is subsequently determined that the hinder call was invalid, then the point is not replayed, and the side calling the hinder loses the point.[33]

I

I-formation
In doubles; a player positioning strategy used by the serving team, where the non-serving player starts at the non-volley line. The intent is to confuse the receiving team while allowing the serving side to preposition one player at the net, putting pressure on the receiving side to make a quality fourth shot. The strategy can be risky and requires the non-serving player to stay low and out of the ball's flight pattern. The serving team must wait for the return ball to bounce, which means the server must cover the entire width of the court on the third shot, if their partner is already up at the non-volley line. The non-serving partner can be intentionally targeted by the receiving side forcing a fault for the serving side.[34]
IFP
See International Federation of Pickleball.
In
A line call made when a ball lands within the court lines, or in the case of a serve, within the service court.[35] Sometimes indicated using a pointed index finger hand signal.
Incorrect position
When the ball is served from the wrong serving area.
Incorrect receiver
In doubles; when the wrong receiving team member returns the serve.
Incorrect server
In doubles; when the wrong serving team member serves the ball.
Indoor ball
See Ball type.
Interference
See Hinder.
International Federation of Pickleball (IFP)
A federation of national pickleball organizations. Established in 2010 to serve as the world governing body for the sport of pickleball.

J

Joey
Hitting an ATP shot directly back at the opponent that made the ATP shot. Named for Joe Valenti.[36]

K

Kitchen
See Non-volley zone.

L

Left service court
See Service court.
Let serve
When a served ball hits the net, but still lands in the correct service court. A valid serve in USAP rules.
Line call
The determination whether a ball has landed inside or outside the court lines, or in the case of the serve, inside or outside the service court. In non-refereed matches, players are responsible for making good-faith line calls on their side of the net. When there is any uncertainty the call should be made in favor of their opponent. The point where the ball contacts the ground determines whether a ball is in or out. Although the sphere of the ball might overlap the line when viewed from above, due to the rigidity of the ball the contact point might remain outside the lines, however, an out call should not be made unless space can be clearly seen between the line and the contact point.[35]
Lob shot
Hitting the ball in a high arc over the opponent's head with the objective of landing the ball in the opponent's backcourt. (See also Lob (tennis))

M

Men's doubles
See Doubles.
Men's singles
See Singles.
Midcourt
The area of the court between the non-volley zone and backcourt including the transition zone.[8]
Misdirection
A strategy where a player intentionally deceives their opponent by preparing to hit the ball in a certain direction, or with a certain pace, but at the last second hitting the ball in an unexpected direction or with an unexpected pace.[8]
Mixed doubles
See Doubles.
Momentum
In physics, momentum is the tendency of a body in motion to continue its motion and direction. If a player's momentum causes that player to step in or touch the non-volley zone, after volleying the ball, that player incurs a fault. All actions that took place after the offending player volleyed the ball are void, regardless of whether the other side continued to play the point, and regardless of how many time the ball passed over the net after the offending player first volleyed the ball.[37] Momentum may also refer to the tendency to expect a side that has won multiple consecutive points, to continue winning additional points.

N

Nasty Nelson
A serve that intentionally hits the non-receiving opposing player closest to the net, rewarding the point to the server. Named for Timothy Nelson.[38]
Navratil serve
See Chainsaw serve.
No man's land
The part of the court approximately midway between the baseline and the non-volley line. Considered a strategically vulnerable location for a player to be standing.[39]
Non-volley line or Kitchen line
Court lines on each side of the net that are parallel to the net, and 7 feet (2.1 m) from the net, that run from one sideline to the other.[40] The non-volley line, and the sidlenes on either side of the NVZ, are part of the non-volley zone.
Non-volley zone, NVZ or Kitchen
A 7 feet (2.1 m) by 20 feet (6.1 m) area adjacent to the net within which one may not volley the ball. The non-volley zone includes all lines around it.[41] Also called the "kitchen".[42] A player may step or stand within the non-volley zone at any time, but must reestablish both feet outside the non-volley zone prior to volleying the ball. If a player's momentum causes the player to touch any part of the non-volley zone after volleying the ball, it results in a dead ball and that player incurs a fault, regardless of whether the other team continued to play or not.
NVZ
See Non-volley zone.

O

Odd service court
See Service court.
Open face
Tilting the paddle face up when striking the ball with the lower edge of the racket angled forward.[43][8] (See also Closed face and Flat face)
Out
A line call made when a ball lands outside the court lines, or in the case of a serve, outside the service court.[35] Sometimes indicated using a palm facing down hand signal.
Out!
A call made by a player which may be interpreted in one of two ways:
Outdoor ball
See Ball type.
Overhead smash
See Smash.
Overspin
See Spin.

P

Pace
The speed and power imparted on the ball after it is struck by the paddle.[1] Pace can be used strategically to control the tempo or rhythm of the game and to put the opponent on the defensive. The ability to alter pace can leave the opponent uncertain what to expect on each shot.[44]
Pantry
Unofficially, the area outside the court on either side of the kitchen (Non-Volley-Zone). When a player jumps over the kitchen to execute an Erne shot, the player lands in the pantry.[8]
Permanent object
Any object near or above the court such as the ceiling, fencing, net posts, spectators, or officials.[45] If a ball hits a permanent object, but the ball did not yet bounce on the opposing side's court, the last player striking the ball incurs a fault. If the ball hits a permanent object after bouncing on the opposing side's court, the opposing side incurs a fault.[19]
Pickle boat
In the sport of rowing, or crew, a pickle boat is a team of rowers made up of leftover rowers that were not selected to compete as principal rowers. Joel Pritchard's wife stated that she named the sport of pickleball after the pickle boat, because the sport was created from leftover pieces of equipment from other sports.[46][47] (See Etymology of pickleball)
Pickleball
The word pickleball may refer to the sport of pickleball, or to the ball used in the sport. Archaic spellings of the word include "pickle ball" and "pickle-ball".
Pickled
To lose a game without scoring a single point, usually losing 11 to 0.
Pickler
A pickleball player, particularly someone obsessed with the game.[48]
Pickles
The name of a dog owned by Joel and Joan Pritchard that is often said to be the name origin for the sport of pickleball. Joan Pritchard said the dog came along after the sport was already named, and it was the dog that was named for the sport. (See Etymology of pickleball)
Poach
In doubles; When a player crosses over to their partner's side of the court to take a shot that would normally be their partner's responsibility. Poaching can be a successful strategy to catch the opponent off guard or when there is an opportunity for a put-away shot, but can create team disharmony, if frequently performed unsuccessfully or done for the sole purpose of dominating play.[49]
Point
A point may refer to a period of the game that begins with a serve and ends with a dead ball, also known as a rally, or the score of one earned by the side that does not incur the fault. Because official pickleball rules specify side-out scoring, a point (period) only results in a point (score) when the non-serving side faults, but see Scoring for possible exceptions.
Pop-up
A ball that is hit high enough that it is easily attackable. Usually this is unintentional.
PPA
See Professional Pickleball Association
Pro pickleball tour
One of two professional pickleball tours; one operated by the Association of Pickleball Professionals, the other by the Professional Pickleball Association.
Professional Pickleball Association
A pro pickleball tour NOT sanctioned by USA Pickleball, and that may allow variations from the USA Pickleball official rules.[5]
Pukaball
An alternate name for the sport of “pickleball” used chiefly in Hawaii.[50]
Put-away
A shot that your opponent cannot react fast enough to successfully counter.[51]

R

Rally
Continuous play that starts with a serve and ends with a fault.[52]
Rally scoring
See Scoring.
Ready position
The stance a player should take in advance of their opponent hitting the ball. The best ready position may change depending on where a player is on the court, but generally means a player is; facing the ball, with both feet planted a little more than shoulder width apart, putting their weight on the balls of their feet, and holding the paddle out front about chest height.[53]
Receiver
The player returning the serve that is diagonally opposite the server. The receiver may be the correct or incorrect receiver.
Right service court
See Service court.

S

Score
The current status of the game that is announced prior to each serve. In singles the score is announced as the serving side's total points followed by the receiving side's total points. In doubles the score is announced as the serving side's total points, followed by the receiving side's total points, followed by the serving side's server number.
Scoring
May refer to the point earned when a team wins a rally, or the type of scoring used during a match. Two types of scoring are commonly used, side-out scoring and rally scoring, but the official pickleball rules specify side-out scoring.
Scorpion
An overhead shot taken by a player while in a squatted position. An offensive shot often used in lieu of what might otherwise be a defensive backhand shot.[54]
Second server, Second serve
In doubles; the person the serve passes to, and the call announced by an official, when the serving team commits their first fault after a side–out.
Serve, service
The initial strike of the ball to start a rally.[55] Two types of underhand serves are permitted in pickleball.
Server number
In doubles; either “1” or “2”, designating whether the server is the team's first or second server. It is the third number announced when the score is called.
Service court or Service area
The area of the court that a valid serve must land in; bounded by the non-volley line, centerline, sideline, and baseline.[56] All lines are considered in, except the non-volley line. A serve landing on the non-volley line is a fault.
Service line
See Baseline.
Service return
The first ball returned over the net after a serve.
Serving area
The area behind the baseline, and between the imaginary extended sidelines, that a valid serve can be served from.
Shake & bake or Crush & rush
In doubles; A strategy used by the serving team on the third shot. Instead of performing a third shot drop, one player (the shaker) drives the ball low and hard over the net while the other player (the baker) rushes to the net near the centerline. The intent is to pressure the opponent into making a week volley or pop up shot that the "baker" can put-away.[57][58]
Shaker
See Shake & bake.
Side-out
When the serve moves to the opponent's side of the net.
Side-out scoring
See Scoring.
Sidelines
The lines perpendicular to the net on each side of the court, denoting in- and out-of-bounds.[59]
Sidespin
See Spin.
Singles
Pickleball matches having one player per side. (See also Doubles)
Slice
See Chop.
Smash or Overhead smash
A powerful shot that is made while the ball is above the player's head. It permits the player to drive the ball in a sharp downward direction making it difficult to return. The shot is often used in response to a Lob shot.[60] (See Smash (tennis))
Spin
Diagram S: the three axes of rotation. If arrow "X" represents the direction of the ball, then spin around the X-axis would be corkspin, the Y-axis backspin or topspin, and the Z-axis sidespin.
Diagram S: the three axes of rotation. If arrow "X" represents the direction of the ball, then spin around the X-axis would be corkspin, the Y-axis backspin or topspin, and the Z-axis sidespin.
Any rotation imparted on a ball by the strike of the paddle. Spin is commonly described as topspin, backspin, sidespin or corkspin, depending on the axis of rotation. Topspin and backspin have the same axis of rotation, but spin in opposite directions. Spin imparted on a ball is almost always a combination of more than one type of spin and would rarely exactly align with the three axes represented in diagram S.[61] (For the science behind the effects of spin see Magnus effect.)
Stacking
In doubles; when teammates line up, or "stack", on the same side of the center line during a serve, or service return, positioning themselves to move to their preferred court positions.[62] Preferred positions may be determined by each players skills, abilities, speed, or whether each player is right or left handed. For the purpose of serving and receiving, teammates must alternate between the right and left sides of their court each time they earn a point. Other than when acting as the server or receiver, teammates may position themselves anywhere on the court that provides them with the best advantage. Stacking permits a doubles team to quickly move into the positions they deem most advantageous.[63] Stacking adds complexity that can result in confusion regarding which player is the correct server or receiver. The wrong server or receiver results in a fault. (See also Switching)
Starting server
In doubles; the first server in a game on each side. When the starting server is serving from the right side of the court the serving side's score will be zero or an even number. When the starting server is serving from the left side of the court the serving side's score will be an odd number. The opposite is true of the non-starting server.
Swipe serve
See Chainsaw serve.
Switch
In doubles, a call made by one partner to the other to switch sides (see switching). The call might be communicated verbally, or with a hand signal.
Switching
In doubles; a strategy used to position each partner in a more advantageous position. The two partners will each switch to the opposite side of the court from where they started. This may occur in mid-play when a player moves to take a ball on their partner's side of the court, and the partner then moves to the other side of the court to cover. It might also occur after a service return. The receiving team's player that is near the non-volley line may use a hand signal behind their back to indicate whether or not the two players should switch sides after the return.[65] (See also Hand signal and Stacking)

T

Third shot
The third shot of the game that comes after the first time the receiving team returns the ball to the serving team.[66]
Third shot drop
A strategy used by the serving team to place the ball just over the net in their opponent's non-volley zone thereby making it difficult for their opponent to attack the ball, and giving the serving team time to move up to the non-volley line.
Topspin
See Spin.
Three-quarters stack
See Stacking
Tweener
When a player returns a shot by hitting the ball between their own legs.[7] This may occur when chasing down a lobbed ball that the player cannot get in front of, with the player's back to the net, or when a player is facing the net and the ball passes between their legs, and their only option is to reach around and return the ball back between their legs and over the net. (See also Tweener (tennis))
Two-bounce rule or Double-bounce Rule
The requirement that the receiving team and the serving team must each allow the ball to bounce once on their side at the beginning of every rally before attempting to volley the ball.

U

Under-spin
See Spin.
Underhand serve
A serve that strikes the ball while the player's hand and paddle are moving forward with an upward arc. Official pickleball rules do not use the term "underhand serve", but the rules do state that a volley serve must be served in this manner. The rules do not specify that a drop serve must be served in this manner, but the limited bounce of the ball, after the drop, necessitates an underhand serve.[67]
USA Pickleball, USAP, USAPA
USA Pickleball (USAP) is the governing body of pickleball within the United States. It was previously known as the USA Pickleball Association (USAPA) or the US Amateur Pickleball Association (U.S.A.P.A.).

V

Volley
To hit the ball before it touches the ground and bounces.
Volley serve
See Serve.

W

Women's doubles
See Doubles.
Women's singles
See Singles.
World Pickleball Day
October 10th of each year. Established by the World Pickleball Federation in 2020.
World Pickleball Federation (WPF)
A federation of national pickleball organizations founded in 2018.
WPF
See World Pickleball Federation.

Z

Zane Navratil serve
See Chainsaw serve.
Zero–Zero
The starting score for a game of singles pickleball.
Zero–Zero–Two or Zero–Zero–Start
The starting score for a game of doubles pickleball.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Townsend, Stacie. "The Pickleball Dictionary". The Pickler. Archived from the original on 25 July 2022. Retrieved 25 July 2022.
  2. ^ Friedenberg, p. 164.
  3. ^ "Julian Arnold". Major League Pickleball. Archived from the original on 28 July 2022. Retrieved 29 July 2022.
  4. ^ USA Pickleball 2022 Rulebook, p. 46.
  5. ^ a b "The APP Tour vs. the PPA – What Makes these 2 Pickleball Tours Different?". Pickleball Max. Archived from the original on 21 April 2021. Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  6. ^ Friedenberg, p. 164.
  7. ^ a b c Whitfield, Gregg. "Glossary of Pickleball Terms". Pickleball Shots and Strategies. Archived from the original on 4 April 2022. Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Lenz, Andrew. "Andrew Lenz's Pickleball Dictionary". Pickleball Journey. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  9. ^ Leach, p. 4.
  10. ^ "Erne in Pickleball – Who, What, And How?". The Pickle Sports. Archived from the original on 28 July 2022. Retrieved 29 July 2022.
  11. ^ Friedenberg, p. 165.
  12. ^ "Pickleball Terms, Definitions, and Phrases Explained". Pickleball Oasis. Archived from the original on 4 March 2021. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  13. ^ "Pickleball Terms and Definitions". Pickleball Portal. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  14. ^ Leach, p. 4.
  15. ^ "Professional Pickleball Association Pro Tour won't implement new drop serve and let serve rules; bans Zane Navratil's Chainsaw serve". Dink Heads. Archived from the original on 21 June 2021. Retrieved 3 July 2022.
  16. ^ Friedenberg, p. 165.
  17. ^ Friedenberg, p. 16.
  18. ^ USA Pickleball 2022 Rulebook, p. 34.
  19. ^ a b Townsend, Stacie. "Pickleball Rules – Faults & Dead Balls on the Pickleball Court". The Pickler. Archived from the original on 22 June 2021. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  20. ^ Leach, p. 52.
  21. ^ USA Pickleball 2022 Rulebook, p. 42.
  22. ^ Friedenberg, p. 167.
  23. ^ Friedenberg, p. 167.
  24. ^ Barsaleau, Mary (January 29, 2022). "Coach Mary's Tip of the Week: What is an Erne, and How do I Execute It?". The Desert Sun. Retrieved March 13, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  25. ^ Leach, p. xxii.
  26. ^ Friedenberg, p. 171.
  27. ^ Leach, p. A-11.
  28. ^ Movsessian, p. 18.
  29. ^ Movsessian, p. 225.
  30. ^ Movsessian, p. 225.
  31. ^ "Pickleball Hand Signals: Everything You Need to Know". The Pickleball Player. Archived from the original on 21 August 2022. Retrieved 21 August 2022.
  32. ^ "The official rules of pickleball: Line call in pickleball game". Pickleball Rush. Archived from the original on 9 July 2022. Retrieved 21 August 2022.
  33. ^ Friedenberg, p. 169.
  34. ^ Townsend, Stacie. "What Is the "I" Formation Strategy in Pickleball?". The Pickler. Archived from the original on 27 August 2022. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  35. ^ a b c d "Line call in pickleball game". Pickleball Rush. Archived from the original on 22 April 2021. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  36. ^ "Two Shots to Master: The ATP and the Joey". Pickleball Fire. March 2022. p. 12. Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  37. ^ USA Pickleball 2022 Rulebook, p. 13.
  38. ^ "Win Tricky Points on Your Serve with the Nasty Nelson". Pickleball Central. Archived from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  39. ^ Friedenberg, p. 170.
  40. ^ Pickleball Courts, p. 5.
  41. ^ Leach, p. 4.
  42. ^ USA Pickleball 2022 Rulebook, p. 37.
  43. ^ Friedenberg, p. 171.
  44. ^ "What is Pace in Tennis? How and When to Use IT". Tennis 4 Beginners. Archived from the original on 22 September 2021. Retrieved 12 August 2022.
  45. ^ Friedenberg, p. 171.
  46. ^ Greiner, Nicholas (November 2019). "Pickleball: injury Considerations in an increasingly Popular Sport". Science Perspective: 488.
  47. ^ Taber, Bob. "The Pickle Boat: Odds & Ends". Evergreen Pickleball Club. Archived from the original on 29 August 2022. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  48. ^ Jones, Ryan. "The Definitive Glossary of Pickleball Terms and Definitions". Pickleball Drive. Archived from the original on 12 May 2021. Retrieved 30 May 2022.
  49. ^ Friedenberg, p. 79.
  50. ^ Lucore, p. 41.
  51. ^ Movsessian, p. 226.
  52. ^ USA Pickleball 2022 Rulebook, p. 14.
  53. ^ "Pickleball Ready Position – Paddle Position & Preparedness". Pickleball Max. Archived from the original on 25 July 2022. Retrieved 26 July 2022.
  54. ^ Jones, JB. "Turn Defense into Offense with the Scorpion". The Dink Pickleball. Archived from the original on 24 May 2022. Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  55. ^ USA Pickleball 2022 Rulebook, p. 14.
  56. ^ Pickleball Courts, p. 5.
  57. ^ Townsend, Stacie. "What Is the "Shake & Bake" in Pickleball?". The Pickler. Archived from the original on 1 September 2021. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  58. ^ "Shake and Bake – Pickleball's Equivalent to Boxing's Left Jab and Right Cross". Pickleball Max. Archived from the original on 23 May 2022. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  59. ^ Leach, p. A-4.
  60. ^ Warner, Aaron. "What is a Smash in Pickleball?". That Sport Life. Archived from the original on 17 August 2022. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  61. ^ Pepper, Jeff. "The Science of Spin". Pickleball Magazine. Archived from the original on 26 August 2022. Retrieved 26 August 2022.
  62. ^ Sizemore, Trey. "Pickleball Stacking and Switching: A Beginner's Guide". PickleballHut.com. Pickleball Hut. Archived from the original on April 19, 2021. Retrieved March 10, 2022.
  63. ^ Townsend, Stacie. "What Is Stacking in Pickleball, Plus When & Why to Do It". The Pickler. Archived from the original on 26 June 2022. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  64. ^ a b c Townsend, Stacie. "How to Stack in Pickleball". The Pickler. Archived from the original on 26 June 2022. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  65. ^ Friedenberg, p. 174.
  66. ^ "63 Must-Know Pickleball Terms and Definitions (+ Funny Pickleball Sayings!)". Pink Pickleball. Archived from the original on 24 May 2022. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  67. ^ "Pickleball Serving Rules". Pickleball Adventure. Archived from the original on 20 August 2022. Retrieved 20 August 2022.

Sources