Golden Rose by Giuseppe and Pietro Paolo Spagna. Rome, around 1818/19. Kept today in the Imperial Treasury in Hofburg Imperial Palace in Vienna.
Golden Rose by Giuseppe and Pietro Paolo Spagna. Rome, around 1818/19. Kept today in the Imperial Treasury in Hofburg Imperial Palace in Vienna.

The Golden Rose is a gold ornament, which popes of the Catholic Church have traditionally blessed annually. It is occasionally conferred as a token of reverence or affection. Recipients have included churches and sanctuaries, royalty, military figures, and governments.

Significance and symbolism

Golden Rose of Minucchio da Siena (1330), given by Pope John XXII to Rudolph III of Nidau, Count of Neuchâtel
Golden Rose of Minucchio da Siena (1330), given by Pope John XXII to Rudolph III of Nidau, Count of Neuchâtel

The rose is blessed on the fourth Sunday of Lent, Lætare Sunday (also known as Rose Sunday), when rose-coloured vestments and draperies substitute for the penitential purple, symbolizing hope and joy in the midst of Lenten solemnity. Throughout most of Lent, Catholics pray, fast, perform penance, and meditate upon the malice of sin and its negative effects; but Rose Sunday is an opportunity to look beyond Christ's death at Calvary and forward to His joyous Resurrection. The beautiful Golden Rose symbolizes the Risen Christ of glorious majesty. (The Messiah is hailed "the flower of the field and the lily of the valleys" in the Bible.)[1] The rose's fragrance, according to Pope Leo XIII, "shows the sweet odor of Christ which should be widely diffused by His faithful followers" (Acta, vol. VI, 104), and the thorns and red tint of the petals refer to His bloody Passion.

Many popes, on the occasion of conferring the Rose, have in sermons and letters explained its mystical significance. Innocent III said: "As Lætare Sunday, the day set apart for the function, represents love after hate, joy after sorrow, and fullness after hunger, so does the rose designate by its colour, odour and taste, love, joy and satiety respectively," also comparing the rose to the flower referred to in Isaiah 11:1: "There shall come forth a rod out of the root of Jesse, and a flower shall rise up out of his root."

History and development of the modern Rose


The blossom

Before the pontificate of Sixtus IV (1471–84) the Golden Rose consisted of a simple and single blossom made of pure gold and slightly tinted with red. Later, to embellish the ornament while still retaining the mystical symbolism, the gold was left untinted but rubies and afterwards many precious gems were placed in the heart of the rose or on its petals.

Pope Sixtus IV substituted in place of the single rose a thorny branch with leaves and many (ten or more) roses, the largest of which sprang from the top of the branch with smaller roses clustering around it. In the center of the principal rose was a tiny cup with a perforated cover, into which the pope poured musk and balsam to bless the rose. The whole ornament was of pure gold. This 'Sistine' design was maintained but varied as to decoration, size, weight and value. Originally it was little over three inches in height, and was easily carried in the Pope's left hand as he blessed the multitude with his right hand, when passing in procession from the church of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme (in Rome) to the Lateran Palace. Afterwards, especially when a vase and large pedestal became part of the ornament, a robust cleric was required to carry it, preceding the papal cross in the procession. The rose sent to Wilhelmina Amalia of Brunswick, wife of Joseph I, afterwards emperor, by Innocent XI, weighed twenty pounds and was almost eighteen inches high. It was in bouquet form, with three twisting branches that came together after many windings at the top of the stem, supporting a large rose and cluster of leaves.

Vase and pedestal

The vase and the pedestal supporting it have varied as to material, weight, and form. In the beginning they were made of gold; but afterward of silver heavily gilt with gold. The pedestal can be either triangular, quadrangular, or octangular, and is richly ornamented with various decorations and bas-reliefs. In addition to the customary inscription, the coat of arms of the pope who had the ornament made, and that of he who blessed and conferred it, are engraved on the pedestal.

Value of the ornament

Golden Rose from the Vatican Library.
Golden Rose from the Vatican Library.

The value of the rose varies according to the munificence of the pontiffs or the economic circumstances of the times. Baldassari (1709) says that the rose conferred about the year 1650 cost about 500 scudi d'oro (equivalent of about 1.7 kg of gold). The two roses sent by Pope Alexander VII were valued at about 800 and 1200 scudi respectively. Pope Clement IX sent the Queen of France one costing about 1600 scudi, made of eight pounds of gold. The workmanship on this rose was exceedingly fine, for which the artificer received the equivalent of 300 scudi. Innocent XI caused seven and one-half pounds of gold to be formed into a rose, which was further embellished with many sapphires, costing in all 1450 scudi.[2] Rock (1909) adds that in the 19th century not a few of the roses cost 2000 scudi and more.[3]


The custom of giving the rose supplanted the ancient practice of sending Catholic rulers the Golden Keys from St. Peter's Confessional, a custom introduced either by Pope Gregory II (716) or Pope Gregory III (740). A certain analogy exists between the rose and the keys: both are of pure gold blessed and bestowed by the pope upon illustrious Catholics, and also, both are somewhat reminiscent of a reliquary—the rose contains musk and balsam, the keys are filings from the Chair of St. Peter.

The exact date of the institution of the rose is unknown. According to some it is anterior to Charlemagne (742-814), according to others it had its origin at the end of the 12th century, but it certainly antedates the year 1050, since Pope Leo IX (1051) speaks of the rose as of an ancient institution at his time.

The custom, started when the popes moved to Avignon, of conferring the rose upon the most deserving prince at the papal court, continued after the papacy moved back to Rome. The prince would receive the rose from the pope in a solemn ceremony and be accompanied by the College of Cardinals from the papal palace to his residence. From the beginning of the seventeenth century, the rose was sent only to queens, princesses and eminent noblemen. Emperors, kings and princes were given a blessed sword and hat as a more suitable gift. However, if a deserving Catholic emperor, king or other great prince was present in Rome on Lætare Sunday, he would be presented with the rose.

The office of carrying and conferring the rose upon those living outside of Rome was given by the pope to cardinal legates a latere, nuncios, inter-nuncios and Apostolic ablegates. In 1895 a new office, called "Bearer of the Golden Rose" or "Keeper of the Golden Rose", destined for Members of Royal Houses (not hereditary), was instituted, and assigned to a secret chamberlain of sword and cloak participant, a rank within the Papal Household, but it was abolished in a series of reforms in 1968 by Pope Paul VI.

Blessing of the Rose

Golden Rose presented to the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception by Pope Benedict XVI.

The earliest roses were not blessed; instead, blessing was introduced to render the ceremony more solemn and induce greater reverence for it on the part of the recipient. According to Cardinal Petra (Comment. in Constit. Apostolicas, III, 2, col. 1), Pope Innocent IV (1245–54) was the first to bless it. However, others claim that Pope Innocent III (1198–1216), Pope Alexander III (1159–81) or Pope Leo IX (1049–55) was the first. It is said that Leo IX, in 1051, obliged the monastery (nuns) of Bamberg in Franconia, to furnish a Golden Rose to be blessed and carried on Laetare Sunday each year (Theop. Raynaud, De rosa mediana a pontifice consecrata, IV, 413). Pope Benedict XIV attests that the ceremony of blessing originated at the end of the 14th or the beginning of the 15th century. Catalanus, papal master of ceremonies, believes that even the earliest roses were anointed with musk and balsam, but the blessing with prayers, incense, and holy water had its inception later on, sometime before pontificate of Pope Julius II (1503–13). Currently, the pope blesses the rose every year, but it is not always a new and different rose; the old one is used until it has been given away.

Originally (before the papacy moved to Avignon) the rose was blessed in the Hall of Vestments (sacristy) in the palace where the pope was; but the solemn Mass and the donation of the rose took place in the Santa Croce in Gerusalemme (a figure, according to Pope Innocent III, of the heavenly Jerusalem). The blessing was followed by a solemn Mass sung either by the pope himself or the first Cardinal Priest. In the former case the rose was placed on a veil of rose-colored silk richly embroidered with gold; in the latter the pope held the rose in his hand, except while kneeling, or during the Introit, Confiteor, Elevation and the singing of "Laudemus in Domino". Rose in hand, the pope returned processionally to the Lateran Palace; the Prefect of Rome led his horse by the bridle and aided him in dismounting. Upon arrival, he gave the rose to the Prefect, as a recompense for these acts of respect and homage. Before 1305, the rose was given in Rome to no foreigner, except to the Emperor on the day of his coronation. While residing at Avignon (1305–1375), the popes, unable to visit Roman churches and basilicas, performed many of their sacred functions, among them the blessing of the rose, in the private chapel of their palace (whence the origin of the Cappella Pontificia). On their return to Rome they (Sixtus V excepted) retained this custom.

The Golden Rose is presented by Archbishop Domenico Maria Jacobini to Amélie of Orléans, Queen of Portugal, at Necessidades Palace, 1892
The Golden Rose is presented by Archbishop Domenico Maria Jacobini to Amélie of Orléans, Queen of Portugal, at Necessidades Palace, 1892

The blessing of the rose now takes place in the Hall of Vestments (camera dei parimenti), and the solemn Mass in the papal chapel. The rose is placed on a table with lighted candles, and the pope, vested in alb and rose-colored stole and cope with precious mitre on his head, begins the ceremony with the usual versicles and the following poetical prayer:

"O God! by Whose word and power all things have been created, by Whose will all things are directed, we humbly beseech Thy Majesty, Who art the joy and gladness of all the faithful, that Thou wouldst deign in Thy fatherly love to bless and sanctify this rose, most delightful in odour and appearance, which we this day carry in sign of spiritual joy, in order that the people consecrated by Thee and delivered from the yoke of Babylonian slavery through the favour of Thine only-begotten Son, Who is the glory and exultation of the people of Israel and of that Jerusalem which is our Heavenly mother, may with sincere hearts show forth their joy. Wherefore, O Lord, on this day, when the Church exults in Thy name and manifests her joy by this sign [the rose], confer upon us through her true and perfect joy and accepting her devotion of today; do Thou remit sin, strengthen faith, increase piety, protect her in Thy mercy, drive away all things adverse to her and make her ways safe and prosperous, so that Thy Church, as the fruit of good works, may unite in giving forth the perfume of the ointment of that flower sprung from the root of Jesse and which is the mystical flower of the field and lily of the valleys, and remain happy without end in eternal glory together with all the saints."

The prayer finished, the pope puts incense (handed by the cardinal-deacon) into the censer and incenses the balsam and then the musk, and afterwards puts the balsam and powdered musk into the tiny cup in the heart of the principal rose. He then incenses the rose and sprinkles it with holy water. It is then given to the youngest cleric of the Camera, who carries it in front of the pope to the chapel, where it is placed on the altar at the foot of the cross upon a richly embroidered silk veil, where it remains during the Mass sung by the first cardinal-priest. After the Mass, the rose is carried in procession before the pope to the sacristy, where it is carefully put away in a place set apart for it, until bestowed upon some worthy personage.


Golden Rose of the Basilica of Our Lady of Scherpenheuvel

Golden Roses have been awarded to people – men, women, and one married couple - as well as to states and churches.

Until the sixteenth century Golden Roses were usually awarded to male sovereigns. From the sixteenth century onwards it became more common to award them to female sovereigns and to the wives of sovereigns. The last male to receive a Golden Rose was Francesco Loredan, Doge of Venice, in 1759. The last person to receive a Golden Rose was Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg, in 1956.

Among the principal churches to which the rose has been presented are St. Peter's Basilica (five roses), the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran (four roses),[4] and the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore (two roses).[5]

Since Paul VI, all Golden Roses have been awarded to churches; all of Benedict XVI's awards were to Marian shrines.

Year Recipient Pope Type of recipient Geographical area of recipient Notes
1096 Fulk IV, Count of Anjou Urban II man France [6]
1148 Alfonso VII, King of León and Castile Eugene III man Spain
1163 Louis VII, King of France Alexander III man France
1183 William I, King of Scots Lucius III man Scotland [7]
1227 Raimondo Orsini Gregory IX man Italy [8]
1244 Church of Saint Juste, Lyon Innocent IV church France [8]
1304 Church of San Domenico, Perugia Benedict XI church Italy [8]
1348 Louis I, King of Naples Clement VI man Italy
1348 Louis I, King of Hungary Clement VI man Hungary [8]
1350 Niccolò Acciaioli, Grand Seneschal of Naples Innocent VI man Italy [8]
1362-70 Valdemar IV of Denmark Urban V man Denmark [8]
1368 Joanna I, Queen of Naples Urban V woman Italy [8]
1369 St. Peter's Basilica Urban V church Italy [8]
1389 Raimondo Del Balzo Orsini Urban V man Italy [8]
1391 Alberto d'Este, Marquis of Ferrara Boniface IX man Italy [8]
1393 Astorre I Manfredi da Bagnacavallo Boniface IX man Italy [8]
1398 Ugolino III Trinci, Lord of Foligno Boniface IX man Italy [8]
1410 Niccolò III d'Este, Marquis of Ferrara Alexander V man Italy [9]
1411 Charles VI, King of France John XXIII man France [9]
1413 Luigi Alidosi, Lord of Imola John XXIII man Italy [9]
1415 Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor John XXIII man Germany [9]
1419 Republic of Florence Martin V state Italy [9]
1420 Guidantonio da Montefeltro, Count of Urbino Martin V man Italy [9]
1435 Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor Eugene IV man Germany [9]
1444 Henry VI, King of England Eugene IV man England
1448 Casimir IV, King of Poland Nicholas V man Poland
1452 Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, and Empress Eleonora Nicholas V couple Germany received the day after they were crowned
1457 Charles VII, King of France Callistus III man France
1461 March 15 Thomas Palaiologos Pius II man Greece [10]
1477 Ludovico III Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua Sixtus IV man Italy [11]
1481 Louis XI of France Sixtus IV man France [12]
1482 Eberhard I, Duke of Württemberg Sixtus IV man Germany
1486 James III, King of Scotland Innocent VIII man Scotland
1491 James IV, King of Scotland Innocent VIII man Scotland
1493 Isabella I, Queen of Castile Alexander VI woman Spain
1505 Alexander Jagiellon, King of Poland Julius II man Poland
1506 Manuel I, King of Portugal Julius II man Portugal
1514 Manuel I, King of Portugal Leo X man Portugal Second award
1518 Frederick III, Elector of Saxony Leo X man Germany
1512? Henry VIII, King of England Julius II man England
1521? Henry VIII, King of England Leo X man England
1524 Henry VIII, King of England Clement VII man England
1537 Federico II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua Paul III man Italy [13] because of his kindness towards the Fathers of the Council of Trent
1543 Ercole II d'Este, Duke of Ferrara Paul III man Italy [14]
1548 Catherine de' Medici, Queen of France Paul III woman France [14]
1550 João Manuel, Prince of Portugal Julius III man Portugal [14]
1551 Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore Julius III church Italy [14]
1555 Mary I, Queen of England Paul IV woman England [14]
1557 María Enríquez Álvarez de Toledo, Duchess of Alba de Tormes Paul IV woman Spain [14] wife of Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3rd Duke of Alba de Tormes
1560 Mary, Queen of Scots Pius IV woman Scotland
1561 Anne, Queen of Bohemia Pius IV woman Bohemia [14]
1564 Republic of Lucca Pius IV state Italy [14]
1572 Charles IX, King of France Gregory XIII man France given in appreciation of the King's role in enabling St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
1574 March 24 Don John of Austria Gregory XIII man Spain and Germany given in the church of St. Clara, Naples, by the Pope's Chamberlain, "in token of his [the Pope's] benevolence and paternal love."[15]
1592 Henry IV, King of France Clement VIII man France
1597 Morosina Morosini Clement VIII woman Venice given at her coronation as Dogaressa of Venice
1598 Margaret, Queen of Spain Clement VIII woman Spain received on the day she was married by proxy to Philip III, King of Spain
1607 Santa Maria sopra Minerva Paul V church Italy [16]
1610 Sancta Sanctorum Paul V church Italy [16]
1625 Henrietta Maria, Queen of England and Scotland Urban VIII woman England and Scotland [16] received at Amiens
1626/7 Ferdinand II, Grand Duke of Tuscany Urban VIII man Italy [16]
1628 Maddalena, Dowager Grand Duchess of Tuscany Urban VIII woman Italy [16]
1630 Maria Anna, Queen of Hungary Urban VIII woman Germany [16] later Empress Consort
1631 Taddeo Barberini, Prefect of Rome Urban VIII man Italy [16] he was the pope's nephew
1634 St. Peter's Basilica Urban VIII church Italy [16]
1635 Maria Anna, Electress of Bavaria Urban VIII woman Germany [17]
1649 Mariana, Queen of Spain Innocent X woman Spain [18]
1651? Marie Louise, Queen of Poland Innocent X woman Poland [18]
1654 Lucrezia, Duchess of Modena Innocent X woman Italy [18]
1658 Siena Cathedral Alexander VII church Italy [18] cathedral of the pope's hometown, rose designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini
1668 Maria Theresa, Queen of France Alexander VII woman France for her infant son, the Dauphin, for whom the pope was godfather
1672 Elenor, Queen of Poland Clement X woman Poland
1684 March 25 Marie Casimire Louise, Queen of Poland Innocent XI woman Poland [19]
1699 Wilhelmina Amalia, Empress of the Holy Roman Empire Innocent XII woman Germany
1701 Maria Luisa, Queen of Spain Clement XI woman Spain
1726 Violante Beatrice, Grand Princess of Tuscany Benedict XIII woman Italy [20]
1736 Maria Josepha, Queen of Poland Clement XII woman Poland [21]
1759 Francesco Loredan, Doge of Venice Clement XIII man Italy
1776 Maria Christina, Duchess of Teschen Pius VI woman Austria
1784 Maria Amalia, Duchess of Parma Pius VI woman Italy
1790 Maria Carolina, Queen of Naples Pius VI woman Italy
1819 Caroline Augusta, Empress of Austria Leo XII woman Austria
1825 Maria Theresa, Queen Dowager of Sardinia Leo XII woman Italy
1830 Cathedral of Cingoli Pius VIII church Italy [22] cathedral of the pope's hometown
1832 Maria Anna, Queen of Hungary Gregory XVI woman Austria [22] later Empress Consort of Austria
1833 St Mark's Basilica Gregory XVI church Italy [22]
1842 Maria II, Queen of Portugal Gregory XVI woman Portugal
1849 Princess Maria Pia of Savoy Pius IX woman Italy given by her godfather on the day of her baptism; later Queen Consort of Portugal
1856 Eugenie, Empress of the French Pius IX woman France
1861 Maria Sophie, Queen of the Two Sicilies Pius IX woman Italy
1868 Elisabeth, Empress of Austria Pius IX woman Austria
1868 Isabella II, Queen of Spain Pius IX woman Spain
1870 Sant'Antonio dei Portoghesi Pius IX church Italy [23]
1877 Sep. Sanctuary of Our Lady of Lourdes Pius IX shrine France [24]
1886 Maria Christina, Queen Dowager of Spain Leo XIII woman Spain
1887 Mary Gwendoline Caldwell Leo XIII woman United States Mrs. Caldwell had donated money towards the founding of the Catholic University of America[25][26]
1888 Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil Leo XIII woman Brazil see Lei Áurea
1892 Amélie, Queen of Portugal Leo XIII woman Portugal
1893 Marie Henriette, Queen of the Belgians Leo XIII woman Belgium
1923 Victoria Eugenie, Queen of Spain Pius XI woman Spain
1926 Elisabeth, Queen of the Belgians Pius XI woman Belgium
1930 Elena, Queen of Italy Pius XI woman Italy [27]
1937 Elena, Queen of Italy Pius XI woman Italy [28] in observance of her 40th wedding anniversary
1953 Se Cathedral Pius XII church India [29] placed on the tomb of Francis Xavier
1956 Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg Pius XII woman Luxembourg
1964 Church of the Nativity Paul VI church Palestine [30]
1965 Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fátima Paul VI shrine Portugal [31]
1966 March 25 Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe Paul VI church Mexico [29]
1967 Basilica of Our Lady Aparecida (now known as the "Old Basilica of Aparecida") Paul VI church Brazil [29]
1979 June Black Madonna of Częstochowa John Paul II shrine Poland [32]
1979 Sep. Knock Shrine John Paul II shrine Ireland [33]
1982 June Basilica of Our Lady of Luján John Paul II shrine Argentina [34][35][36]
1985 June 28 Basilica of Assumption of Mary and Saints Cyril and Methodius in Velehrad John Paul II shrine Czech Republic [37][38]
1987 June Kalwaria Zebrzydowska John Paul II shrine Poland [39]
1988 May 14 Sanctuary of Our Lady of the Evangelization John Paul II shrine Lima, Peru [40]
2000 Dec. Holy House of Loreto John Paul II shrine Italy
2004 Aug. 14 Sanctuary of Our Lady of Lourdes John Paul II shrine France [41] Second award
2004 Oct. 17 Saint Joseph's Oratory John Paul II church Montreal, Canada


2004 Dec. Sameiro Sanctuary John Paul II shrine Braga, Portugal


2006 Black Madonna of Częstochowa Benedict XVI shrine Poland Second award
2007 May 12 Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady Aparecida ("New Basilica of Aparecida") Benedict XVI shrine Brazil Second award to the image of Our Lady Aparecida. The first award was given to the image in 1967 when it was housed in the Old Basilica, before the construction and consecration of the new Basilica in 1980.[44]
2007 Sep. 8 Basilica of the Birth of the Virgin Mary Mariazell Benedict XVI shrine Austria [45][46]
2008 Apr. 9 Shrine of Our Lady of Altötting Benedict XVI shrine Altötting, Germany [47]
2008 Apr. 16 Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception Benedict XVI shrine Washington D.C., USA [48]
2008 May 17 Sanctuary of Nostra Signora della Misericordia Benedict XVI shrine Savona, Italy [49]
2008 May 18 Shrine of Nostra Signora della Guardia Benedict XVI shrine Genoa, Italy [49]
2008 Sep. 7 Shrine of Our Lady of Bonaria Benedict XVI shrine Cagliary, Italy [49]
2008 Oct. 19 Shrine of the Virgin of the Rosary of Pompei Benedict XVI shrine Pompei, Italy [50]


2009 Apr. 28 Shrine of Our Lady of the Cross Benedict XVI shrine Aquila, Italy after the earthquake[52]
2009 May Shrine of Our Lady of Europe Benedict XVI shrine Gibraltar [53][54]
2009 Nov. 22 Basilica of Nuestra Señora de la Cabeza Benedict XVI shrine Jaén, Spain [49]
2010 Catedral Basílica de Nuestra Señora del Valle Benedict XVI church Argentina [36][55]
2010 Apr. 18 Shrine of Our Lady of Ta' Pinu Benedict XVI shrine Malta [56]
2010 May 12 Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fátima Benedict XVI shrine Portugal Second award[57]


2010 Aug. 23 Sanctuary of Our Lady of the Valley Benedict XVI shrine Catamarca, Argentina [59]
2010 Nov. 13 Virgen of Socorro Benedict XVI shrine Valencia, Venezuela [60]
2011 May 15 Basilica of Our Lady of Scherpenheuvel Benedict XVI shrine Belgium


2012 March 26 Basílica Santuario Nacional de Nuestra Señora de la Caridad Benedict XVI church Cobre, Cuba [62][63]
2013 Nov. 22 Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe Francis shrine Mexico

[64] Second award

2015 June 21 Santuario della Consolata Francis shrine Italy [65] Given during the pope's visit during the public showing of the Shroud of Turin
2016 July 28 Black Madonna of Częstochowa Francis shrine Poland [66] Third Award
2017 May 13 Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fátima Francis shrine Portugal Third Award[67]
2017 October 7 Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady Aparecida ("New Basilica of Aparecida") Francis shrine Brazil Third award of the Golden Rose to the icon of Our Lady Aparecida; second award since the icon was transferred from the Old Basilica to the new Basilica. This award commemorates the 300 anniversary of the icon's appearance and of devotion to it.[68]
2019 June 1 Our Lady of Csíksomlyó Francis shrine Transylvania, Romania [69]
2021 September 15 Basilica of Our Lady of Sorrows Francis shrine Slovakia [70]


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  3. ^ Rock, P.M.J., "Golden Rose" in The Catholic Encyclopedia (1909).
  4. ^ According to some sources, two of the four roses were given to the basilica proper and two to the chapel called Sancta Sanctorum.
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-09-30. Retrieved 2014-07-21.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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  7. ^ Ott, Michael. "Pope Lucius III." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 9. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 30 January 2021
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  9. ^ a b c d e f g Moroni, LIX, 126.
  10. ^ Zakythinos, D. A. (1932). "Les derniers Paléologues en exil". Le despotat grec de Morée (in French). Paris. p. 288.
  11. ^ "LUDOVICO III Gonzaga, marchese di Mantova in "Dizionario Biografico"".
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  13. ^ Moroni, LIX, 130-31.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h Moroni, LIX, 131.
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  18. ^ a b c d Moroni, LIX, 136.
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  28. ^ "Pope Blesses Gift for Queen Elena", New York Times (March 8, 1937): 12.
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  30. ^ "Paul VI Starts Trip to the Holy Land", New York Times (January 4, 1964): 1.
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