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Republic of Peru
Spanish: Gobierno de la República de Perú
Formation1990
Websitehttp://www.pcm.gob.pe/
Legislative branch
LegislatureCongress of the Republic of Peru
Executive branch
LeaderPresident of Peru[note 1]
AppointerPresident of Peru
Main organCouncil of Ministers

The Republic of Peru is a unitary state with a multi-party semi-presidential system. The current government was established by the 1993 Constitution of Peru. The government is composed of three branches, being executive, judicial, and legislative branches.

Executive branch

Main articles: President of Peru and Council of Ministers of Peru

Government Palace of Peru.
Main office-holders
Office Name Party Since
President Dina Boluarte Independent 7 December 2022
First Vice President Vacant N/A 7 December 2022
Second Vice President Vacant N/A 7 May 2020
Prime Minister Alberto Otárola Independent 21 December 2022

The President of Peru is the head of state and the head of government, who is elected to a term of five years; incumbents cannot be re-elected for a second consecutive term.[1] Family members may also not immediately succeed in another family member's presidency.[2] The executive branch, in addition to the legislative branch, may propose legislation. After legislation has been passed by the congress, the President may promulgate the legislation, giving it the force of law.

In addition to the president, the executive branch contains the Council of Ministers, which, in addition to the prime minister, are appointed by the president.

Requirements to be Minister of State

According to Article 125 of the Political Constitution of Peru (1993), in order to be Minister, it is required:

Article 92 states that members of Congress can be Ministers of State.

Functions

  1. Run the process of strategic planning, embedded in the National System of Strategic Planning and determining the sector's functional national goals applicable to every level of government; approve action plans; assign necessary resources to their execution, within the boundaries of the corresponding public budget.
  2. Approve the budget proposal to the entities within their sector, abiding by article 32 and supervising their execution.
  3. Establish the management measurements of the entities within their sector and evaluate their fulfillment.
  4. Propose the inner organization of their Ministry and approve it according to their competencies attributed by Law.
  5. Designate and remove the advising positions or any directly appointed, the heads of public entities and other entities of the sector, when this appointment is not explicitly attributed to the Council of Ministries, other authorities or the President; and submit to the President the new appointees for approval on the contrary.
  6. Maintain relations with the regional and local government within the competencies attributed to the sector.
  7. Countersign the presidential mandates that concern to their Ministry
  8. Issue Supreme Resolution and Ministerial Resolutions.
  9. Put into effect the transfer of competencies, functions, and sectorial resources to Regional and Local Government and account for their execution.
  10. Execute all other functions that are put upon the Ministry by the Political Constitution of Peru, the Law, and the President.mlg

The Ministers of State can delegate, within their Ministry, the faculties and powers that are not exclusive to their function, to the extent that it is allowed by Law. Functions 2, 4, 5, 7, and 8 are exclusive to the Minister.

Ministries of Peru

Ministry Current minister Party Assumed office
PCM-PCM.png


Presidency of the Council of Ministers
JURAMENTACIÓN DEL MINISTRO DE DEFENSA LUIS ALBERTO OTÁROLA PEÑARANDA (52555414730) (cropped).jpg
Alberto Otárola indep. 21 Deceember 2022
Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores del Peru.png


Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Ana Gervasi 2022.png
Ana Gervasi indep. 10 December 2022
PCM-Defensa.png


Ministry of Defense
Jorge Chávez Cresta (cropped).jpg
Jorge Chávez Cresta [es] indep. 21 December 2022
PCM-Economia.png


Ministry of Economy and Finance
Alex Contreras 2022.png
Alex Contreras Miranda [es] indep. 10 December 2022
PCM-Interior.png


Ministry of the Interior
Vicente Romero, ministro del Interior.jpg
Vicente Romero Fernández indep. 13 January 2023
PCM-Justicia.png


Ministry of Justice and Human Rights
José Tello 2022.png
José Tello Alfaro [es] indep. 10 December 2022
PCM-Educación.png


Ministry of Education
Óscar Manuel Becerra [es] indep. 21 December 2022
PCM-Salud.png


Ministry of Health
Rosa Gutiérrez 2022.png
Rosa Gutiérrez Palomino [es] First Peru 10 December 2022
PCM-Agricultura.png


Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation
Nelly Paredes 2022.png
Nelly Paredes del Castillo [es] indep. 10 December 2022
PCM-Trabajo.png


Ministry of Labor and Promotion of Employment
Luis Adrianzén Ojeda [es] indep. 13 January 2023
Ministerio de la Producción.png


Ministry of Production
Raúl Pérez-Reyes (cropped).jpg
Raúl Pérez-Reyes [es] indep. 26 January 2023
PCM-Comercio-Exterior.png


Ministry of Foreign Commerce and Tourism
Luis Elguero 2022.png
Luis Fernando Helguero [es] indep. 10 December 2022
PCM-Energia-y-Minas.png


Ministry of Energy and Mines
Oscar Vera 2022.png
Óscar Vera Gargurevich [es] indep. 10 December 2022
PCM-Transportes.png


Ministry of Transportation and Communications
Paola Lazarte 2022.png
Paola Lazarte [es] indep. 13 December 2022
PCM-Vivienda.png


Ministry of Housing, Construction and Sanitation
Hania Pérez de Cuéllar 2022.png
Hania Pérez de Cuéllar [es] indep. 10 December 2022
PCM-MIMP.png


Ministry of Women and Vulnerable Populations
Nancy Tolentino Gamarra [es] indep. 13 January 2023
PCM-Ambiente.png


Ministry of the Environment
Albina Ruiz 2022.png
Albina Ruiz indep. 10 December 2022
PCM-Cultura.png


Ministry of Culture
Leslie Urteaga [es] indep. 21 December 2022
MIDIS.png


Ministry of Development and Social Inclusion
Julio Demartini 2022.png
Julio Demartini [es] indep. 10 December 2022

Judicial branch

Main article: Judicial system of Peru

The judicial branch is represented by the Supreme Court Of Justice, a 16-member body divided into three supreme sectors:[3]

Legislative branch

Main article: Congress of the Republic of Peru

The legislative branch of Peru is vested in the Congress of the Republic of Peru, which is a 130-member unicameral house.[4] The legislators are elected for five-year terms on a proportional representation basis. The legislation is voted on in Congress, then sent to the president, who may approve it.

Suffrage

Main article: Elections in Peru

Universal suffrage is granted to all over the age of 18. Voting is compulsory until the age of 70. Some argue whether compulsive voting is for the best of the country and the citizens. Enforced strictly, with exceptions.[5]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ While there is the office of prime minister, officially called "President of the Council of Ministers" (Presidente del Consejo de Ministros del Perú), the President of Peru is the actual head of government
  1. ^ Constitucion Política Del Perú 1993 (Ultima actualización / Last updated: July 2011) Titulo IV De La Estructura Del Estado; Capitulo IV Poder Ejecutivo; Articulo 112°. El mandato presidencial es de cinco años, no hay reelección inmediata. Transcurrido otro periodo constitucional, como mínimo, el ex presidente puede volver an postular, sujeto a las mismas condiciones.
  2. ^ Taj, Mitra. "Keiko Fujimori's brother says he will run for president of Peru in 2021 if she loses". Business Insider. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  3. ^ "Judicial Branch of Peru". World Fact Book. CIA. Archived from the original on August 5, 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
  4. ^ "Legislative Branch of Peru". World Fact Book. CIA. Archived from the original on June 13, 2007. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
  5. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 19 August 2017.