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The Great American Boycott
DateMay 1, 2006 (2006-05-01)
LocationUnited States of America
TypeDemonstration
ThemeImmigrants rights
Participants~1,000,000[1]


The Great American Boycott (Spanish: El Gran Paro Estadounidense, or Spanish: El Gran Paro Americano, lit. "the Great American Strike"), also called the Day Without an Immigrant (Spanish: Día sin inmigrante), was a one-day boycott of United States schools and businesses by immigrants in the United States (mostly Latin American) which took place on May 1, 2006.

The date was chosen by boycott organizers to coincide with May Day, the International Workers Day observed as a national holiday in Asia, most of Europe, and Mexico, but not officially recognized in the United States due to its Communist associations to some, and a separate Labor Day (a holiday it shares with Canada) in early September.[2][3][4]

As a continuation of the 2006 US immigration reform protests, the organizers called for supporters to abstain from buying, selling, working, and attending school, in order to attempt to demonstrate through the extent to which the labor obtained of undocumented immigrants is needed. Supporters of the boycott rallied in major cities across the US to demand general amnesty and legalization programs for illegal aliens. For this reason, the day was referred to as "A Day Without an Immigrant", a reference to the 2004 political satire film, A Day Without a Mexican.[citation needed]

Though most demonstrations were peaceful, a Vista, California rally took a violent turn at day's end when crowds began throwing rocks and bottles at sheriff's deputies. There were also two arrests made at a demonstration in Los Angeles's MacArthur Park.[5]

In a show of solidarity, internationally, labor unions and other groups engaged in a one-day boycott of US products called the "Nothing Gringo Boycott", particularly in Mexico and Central American countries.[6] It was later reported that this boycott had little, if any, effect on the US economy.[7] Demonstrations were also held in major cities across Mexico.[8]

Origin

Protesters waving flags in Houston
Protesters waving flags in Houston

The boycott was announced on April 10, 2006, in Los Angeles, California by the March 25 Coalition of Catholic groups, immigration advocacy organizations, and labor unions. Hermandad Mexicana, an affiliate of the Mexican American Political Association, the Coalition for Humane Immigrant Rights of Los Angeles (CHIRLA), Amigos de Orange, and local MEChA chapters all promptly joined.[9] It was coordinated nationally by the May Day Movement for Worker & Immigrants Rights.[4]

The Coalition arose out of protests against H.R. 4437, a legislative proposal that was passed by the United States House of Representatives on December 16, 2005, by a vote of 239 to 182, only to die in the United States Senate by not being brought to the floor before the 109th Congress ended. This bill would have made residing in the US illegally a felony and imposed stiffer penalties on those who knowingly employ and harbor noncitizens illegally. It also called for the construction of new border security fences along portions of the 2,000-mile United States–Mexico border. The coalition takes its name from the date of the first mass protest against the bill, a day which saw upwards of 500,000 demonstrators on the streets of Los Angeles, as well as hundreds of thousands in other major US cities.[citation needed] The March 25, 2006, protests were noted for their peaceful nature, despite the controversy surrounding the immigration issue.[10]

According to The New York Times,

"The boycott grew from an idea hatched by a small band of grass-roots advocates in Los Angeles, inspired by the farmworker movement of the 1960s led by Cesar Chavez and Bert Corona. Through the Internet and mass media catering to immigrants, they developed and tapped a network of union organizers, immigrant rights groups and others to spread the word and plan events tied to the boycott, timed to coincide with International Workers' Day".[11]

Initial response

The boycott and strike provoked controversy as soon as they were proposed. National organizations and prominent figures split over whether to support the boycott, with many moderates endorsing demonstrations but withholding support for the boycott. Many of the "moderate" demonstrations were scheduled for three o'clock in the afternoon, after working-hours for the many unskilled professions where illegal immigrant labor tends to be concentrated.

President George W. Bush urged immigrants not to boycott, and instead to protest after work and on the weekend.[12]

California governor Arnold Schwarzenegger said that a boycott would "hurt everyone".[13]

Marchers in Los Angeles
Marchers in Los Angeles

California's top education official opposed the boycott and called for students to stay in school on Monday.[citation needed]

Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa, the city's first Mexican-American mayor since the 19th century, called for children to attend school and for a late afternoon rally.[14] He also urged protesters to carry American flags, and not the flags of their home countries.[13]

The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops offered Mass as an alternative to boycotting, and suggested that churches toll their bells in memory of immigrants who died trying to come to the US. The bishops, too, urged students to stay in school.[15]

National Hispanic and immigration-advocacy groups were also split, with some fearing that the actions would provoke a backlash. The League of United Latin American Citizens, normally a moderate organization, was one of the few to fully support both the boycott and the strike.

The Washington, D.C.-based National Capital Immigration Coalition denounced the Boycott, while the National Council of La Raza took no position whatsoever.[citation needed]

Numerous anti-war, left-wing, socialist and communist groups also endorsed the Boycott. The Act Now to Stop War and End Racism coalition, in particular, provided signs and mobilized supporters to attend demonstrations, and while the American Civil Liberties Union took no official stance, it offered advice and information for protesters on its website.[16] The AFL-CIO also endorsed the protests, saying that the H.R. 4437 "isn't the answer" to immigration issues.[17] The AFL-CIO's executive vice president, Linda Chavez-Thompson, stated: "We believe that there is absolutely no good reason why any immigrant who comes to this country prepared to work, to pay taxes, and to abide by our laws and rules should be relegated to this repressive, second-class guest worker status."[18]

Regional demonstrations

Organization of events fell to local groups. In some cases, the split that occurred on the national level was evident on the local level as well in that separate events were planned by the various organizers. Major events were held in:

Rally in Chicago
Rally in Chicago


Union Square Park, New York City
Union Square Park, New York City

Business response

Opposition

Two Caucasians protest the Great American Boycott in Santa Barbara, California.
Two Caucasians protest the Great American Boycott in Santa Barbara, California.

Republican congressman Tom Tancredo stated that "The iron triangle of illegal employers, foreign governments and (interest) groups … puts tremendous pressure on our elected officials to violate the desires of law-abiding Americans. As nearly every recent poll shows, Americans want secure borders—not amnesty—and sooner or later they'll elect representatives who will listen to their constituents."[38]

Counter-demonstrations took place in various cities to coincide with the day's events, although they were mostly small in size.[26] Some encouraged their members to buy from American businesses to offset the economic impact of the boycott. Among them are the Southern California talk radio hosts John and Ken, who called for "The Great American Spend-a-Lot", a contest with prizes for listeners who spent the most money.[39]

The volunteer border security Minuteman Project, which has organized citizens' patrols along the US-Mexican border to monitor and deter illegal immigration, hosted rallies across the country, starting on Wednesday, May 3 in Los Angeles.[40] They also began constructing a 6-foot-high (1.8 m) barbed wire fence along the border in Arizona.[41] According to Minuteman Project founder Jim Gilchrist, "It's intimidation when a million people march down main streets in our major cities under the Mexican flag. This will backfire."

A new group, the 'You Don't Speak For Me' coalition, was formed in response to the boycott to challenge the notion that May 1 protesters speak on behalf of all Hispanics. According to former Assistant Secretary of the Treasury Pete Nunez, who is the group's spokesperson, "Millions of Hispanic-Americans—including many who have gone through the immigration process the right way—are offended by the demands being made by people who have broken our nation's laws."[42]

CNN's Lou Dobbs, criticized the boycott for its promotion by groups such as the radical protest organization ANSWER, (Act Now to Stop War and End Racism). Dobbs also stated that "It is no accident that they chose May 1 as their day of demonstration and boycott. It is the worldwide day of commemorative demonstrations by various socialist, communist, and even anarchic organizations."[43]

The Washington Post suggested that the May 2 ouster of the mayor and two council members in the town of Herndon, Virginia who had suffered criticism for their support of a day-labor center was a negative reaction to the Boycott.[44] Some Southern and Western states drew up new tougher anti-illegal immigration laws.[45] The Post also credited backlash from the Boycott support in the Arizona legislature for the passage of laws penalizing businesses who hire illegal immigrants and on other crimes associated with illegal immigration.[46] Georgia has also since passed a law, which took effect in 2007, that prohibits illegal immigrants from receiving many social services and requires police and employers to report illegal workers to the Immigration Service.[47]

Fox News's Sean Hannity asked "Why is it that so many people who didn't respect our laws and our sovereignty are demanding for the right to stay here, demanding for the right to jump in front of other people who are going through the process properly, and those that disagree are being called racist and bigoted?"[48]

According to an editorial by conservative commentator, Cinnamon Stillwell of the San Francisco Chronicle, "The one thing the boycott did achieve was to expose the lie that the country cannot function without the labor of illegal immigrants. While some may have been inconvenienced by the experience, the economy hardly came to a grinding halt. It seems there are still some jobs Americans are willing to do."[49]

Summary

The boycott highlighted the concerns of millions living in the United States legally and illegally and the highly emotional issue of aliens in the US, provoking intense debate on all sides of the political spectrum.[50]

On May 15, 2006, President Bush announced plans for the Pentagon to deploy up to 6,000 National Guard troops to help secure the Southern US border.[51]

H.R. 4437 was passed by the House of Representatives on December 16, 2005, by a vote of 239 to 182.

On May 25, 2006, the US Senate approved by a vote of 62–36, its own White House-backed immigration reform bill that would grant some illegal aliens a chance at citizenship and strengthen border security. Negotiations were held with the aim of meshing the Senate's immigration bill with H.R.4437, no agreement was reached before the election in November.[52]

See also

References

  1. ^ Glaister, Dan; MacAskill, Ewen. "US counts cost of day without immigrants". The Guardian. Retrieved October 22, 2020.
  2. ^ "Coalition plans May Day actions". Retrieved March 28, 2016.
  3. ^ May Day: The Fight Behind the Protest Archived June 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ a b "National May 1st Movement for Worker and Immigrant Rights". Retrieved March 28, 2016.
  5. ^ Gorman, Anna; Marjorie Miller; Mitchell Landsberg (May 2, 2006). "Immigrants Demonstrate Peaceful Power". Los Angeles Times. David D. Hiller. Retrieved August 20, 2007.
  6. ^ Tobar, Hector; Sanchez, Cecilia. "Migrants' Boycott Plan Is Crossing the Border". Los Angeles Times.[dead link]
  7. ^ "Group: Mexico Boycott Has Little Effect". SF Gate. Archived from the original on August 11, 2007.
  8. ^ Enriquez, Sam (May 2, 2006). "Holiday, boycott combine to slow business in Mexico". Seattle Times. Archived from the original on February 24, 2007.
  9. ^ Pacific News "Groups Call for ‘A Day Without an Immigrant’" Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ LA Times"500,000 Pack Streets to Protest Immigration Bills" Archived May 4, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ New York Times "Immigrants Take to U.S. Streets in Show of Strength" Archived November 8, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ Los Angeles Times "Bush Asks Immigrants to Reject Work Boycotts"[dead link]
  13. ^ a b Coos Bay Sun "Immigrants flex economic muscle with boycott"
  14. ^ Los Angeles Daily News "City's students absent in droves" Archived February 10, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ Fox News "'A Day Without Immigrants'" Archived October 19, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ American Civil Liberties Union "Immigrant Marches / Marchas de los Inmigrantes" Archived October 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ Why We Fight for Immigrant Rights Archived February 7, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ Remarks by AFL-CIO Executive Vice President Linda Chavez-Thompson at Immigration Press Briefing Archived May 3, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ WSB Radio "Pro-Illegal Immigration Rally at Capitol" Archived November 24, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ Archibold, Randal (May 2, 2006). "Immigrants Take to U.S. Streets in Show of Strength". The New York Times. p. A1.
  21. ^ "Marchers Crowd Inland Streets" Los Angeles Times; May 2, 2006.[dead link]
  22. ^ KLAS-TV "Las Vegas Boycott Organizers Plan Next Move"[permanent dead link]
  23. ^ CNN "Thousands march for immigrant rights" Archived November 7, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ "FROM E.LA TO OLVERA STREET NO BUSINESS AS USUAL" Archived December 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine Los Angeles IndyMedia; May 2, 2006.
  25. ^ "Report back: Troqueros May Day strike shuts down port" Archived December 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine Los Angeles IndyMedia; May 4, 2006.
  26. ^ a b Milwaukee Journal Sentinel "A mass appeal for immigration reform" Archived June 26, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ Village Voice "A Day Without White People" Archived May 13, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ ABC News "Immigrants turning out for nationwide boycott & day of protests" Archived March 19, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  29. ^ "Boycott participation mixed across O.C." Archived December 2, 2008, at the Wayback Machine Orange County Register; May 2, 2006.
  30. ^ New Mexico Business Weekly "Immigrants, NM businesses join national economic boycott" Archived May 29, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  31. ^ Marin Independent-Journal "Immigration protest plan fuels debate" Archived February 7, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  32. ^ Marin Independent-Journal "'We are all immigrants'" Archived July 17, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ Santa Barbara News-Press "A Sea of Voices", May 2, 2006
  34. ^ The Seattle Post-Intelligencer "Thousands join rally for immigrant rights"
  35. ^ The Seattle Times "Huge turnout for rally in Seattle" Archived May 11, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ Tampa Bay Business Journal "In Tampa Bay, immigration boycott has little impact on business" Archived May 29, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  37. ^ CNN "U.S. prepares for 'A Day Without an Immigrant' – Organizers plan massive boycott on Monday to stop business as usual" Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ "Turkish Press Daily News". Retrieved March 28, 2016.
  39. ^ John and Ken Show "The Great American Spend-a-lot" Archived February 10, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  40. ^ Grand Forks Herald "Groups rally in Minneapolis for tighter immigration controls" Archived May 13, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  41. ^ Columbia Missourian "Walkout by Latino immigrants set for today"
  42. ^ Yahoo Business News "Illegal Aliens on the Streets 'Don't Speak for Us,' Says New Hispanic-American Coalition"[permanent dead link][dead link]
  43. ^ CNN, "Radical groups taking control of immigrant movement" Archived December 9, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, May 1, 2006
  44. ^ Washington Post "Labor Site Backlash Felt at Polls In Herndon" Archived December 26, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, May 2, 2006
  45. ^ Washington Post "After Protests, Backlash Grows" Archived November 16, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, May 2, 2006
  46. ^ Washington Post "Hill Impasse Spurs States to Tackle Illegal Immigration", May 2, 2006
  47. ^ BBC News, "Mexico slams Georgia migrant law" Archived September 1, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  48. ^ "The Great American Boycott". The America's Intelligence Wire. May 2006.[dead link][dead link]
  49. ^ SFGate.com "The Day Without Immigrants Backfires" Archived April 14, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  50. ^ a WSWS reporting team (May 2, 2006). "US: Millions of immigrant workers join May 1st "boycott" – World Socialist Web Site". Retrieved March 28, 2016.
  51. ^ [CNN "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved May 15, 2006.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "The Situation: Monday, May 15"]
  52. ^ [CNN "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 27, 2016. Retrieved May 25, 2006.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Senate passes immigration bill"]