Countries with significant Greek population and descendants
  Greece
  + 1,000,000
  + 100,000
  + 10,000
  + 1,000

The Greek diaspora, also known as Omogenia (Greek: Ομογένεια, romanizedOmogéneia),[1][2] are the communities of Greeks living outside of Greece and Cyprus.

Such places historically (dating to the ancient period) include, Albania, North Macedonia, southern Russia, Ukraine, Asia Minor and Pontus (in today's Turkey), Georgia, Egypt, Sudan, southern Italy (the so-called "Magna Graecia"), Sicily, Cargèse and Marseille in France.

The term also refers to communities established by Greek migration (mostly since the 19th century) outside of the traditional areas; such as in Australia, Canada, United States, United Kingdom, Germany, South Africa, Brazil and others.

The Greek diaspora population is estimated at 5 million, which when added to the population of Greece (approximately 10 million), it gives a total worldwide Greek population of approximately 15 million.

Overview

The Greek diaspora is one of the oldest diasporas in the world, with an attested presence from Homeric times to the present.[3] Examples of its influence range from the role played by Greek expatriates in the emergence of the Renaissance, through liberation and nationalist movements involved in the fall of the Ottoman Empire, to commercial developments such as the commissioning of the world's first supertankers by shipping magnates Aristotle Onassis and Stavros Niarchos.[4]

History

Antiquity

Greek coastal settlements throughout the Mediterranean and Black Sea
Greek territories and colonies during the Archaic period (800–480 BC)

In Archaic Greece, the trading and colonizing activities of Greeks from the Balkans and Asia Minor propagated Greek culture, religion and language around the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins. Greek city-states were established in Southern Italy (the so-called "Magna Graecia"), northern Libya, eastern Spain, the south of France, and the Black Sea coast, and the Greeks founded over 400 colonies in these areas.[5] Alexander the Great's conquest of the Achaemenid Empire marked the beginning of the Hellenistic period, which was characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization in Asia and Africa; the Greek ruling classes established their presence in Egypt, West Asia, and Northwest India.[6]

Many Greeks migrated to the new Hellenistic cities founded in Alexander's wake, as geographically dispersed as Uzbekistan[7] and Kuwait.[8] Seleucia, Antioch and Alexandria were among the largest cities in the world during Hellenistic and Roman times.[9] Greeks spread across the Roman Empire, and in the eastern territories the Greek language (rather than Latin) became the lingua franca. The Roman Empire was Christianized in the fourth century AD, and during the late Byzantine period the Greek Orthodox form of Christianity became a hallmark of Greek identity.[10]

Middle Ages

White church on a canal
San Giorgio dei Greci, Venice

In the seventh century, Emperor Heraclius adopted Medieval Greek as the official language of the Byzantine Empire. Greeks continued to live around the Levant, Mediterranean and Black Sea, maintaining their identity among local populations as traders, officials, and settlers. Soon afterwards, the Arab-Islamic Caliphate seized the Levant, Egypt, North Africa and Sicily from the Byzantine Greeks during the Byzantine–Arab Wars. The Greek populations generally remained in these areas of the Caliphate and helped translate ancient Greek works into Arabic, thus contributing to early Islamic philosophy and science (which, in turn, contributed to Byzantine science).

Fall of Byzantium and exodus to Italy

After the Byzantine–Ottoman Wars, which resulted in the fall of Constantinople in 1453 and the Ottoman conquest of Greek lands, many Greeks fled Constantinople (now Istanbul) and found refuge in Italy. They brought ancient Greek writings that had been lost in the West, contributing to the Renaissance. Most of these Greeks settled in Venice, Florence, and Rome.

Fall of the Empire of Trebizond and exodus to Russia and Georgia

Two churches, a short distance apart
Street in Cargèse (Karyes), Corsica (founded by Maniot refugees), with a Greek church in the background

Between the fall of the Empire of Trebizond to the Ottomans in 1461 and the second Russo-Turkish War in 1828–29, thousands of Pontic Greeks migrated (or fled) from the Pontic Alps and eastern Anatolia to Georgia and other southern regions of the Russian Empire, and (later) the Russian province of Kars in the South Caucasus. Many Pontic Greeks fled their homelands in Pontus and northeastern Anatolia and settled in these areas to avoid Ottoman reprisals after supporting the Russian invasions of eastern Anatolia in the Russo-Turkish Wars from the late 18th to the early 20th century. Others resettled in search of new opportunities in trade, mining, farming, the church, the military, and the bureaucracy of the Russian Empire.[11]

Modern era

Ottoman Empire

Presentation of Our Lady to the Temple Greek Orthodox Church in Balwyn North, Melbourne
Orange Greek Orthodox church on a city street
One of Vienna's two Greek Orthodox churches

Greeks spread through many provinces of the Ottoman Empire and took major roles in its economic life, particularly the Phanariots (wealthy Greek merchants who claimed noble Byzantine descent during the second half of the 16th century). The Phanariots helped administer the Ottoman Empire's Balkan domains in the 18th century; some settled in present-day Romania, influencing its political and cultural life. Other Greeks settled outside the southern Balkans, moving north in service to the Orthodox Church or as a result of population transfers and massacres by Ottoman authorities after Greek rebellions against Ottoman rule or suspected Greek collaboration with Russia in the Russo-Turkish wars fought between 1774 and 1878. Greek Macedonia was most affected by the population upheavals, where the large, indigenous Ottoman Muslim population (often including those of Greek-convert descent) could form local militias to harass and exact revenge on the Greek-speaking Christian Orthodox population; this often forced the inhabitants of rural districts, particularly in the more vulnerable lowland areas, to abandon their homes.[citation needed]

A larger-scale movement of Greek-speaking peoples in the Ottoman period was Pontic Greeks from northeastern Anatolia to Georgia and parts of southern Russia, particularly the province of Kars Oblast in the southern Caucasus after the short-lived Russian occupation of Erzerum and the surrounding region during the 1828–29 Russo-Turkish War. An estimated one-fifth of Pontic Greeks left their homeland in the mountains of northeastern Anatolia in 1829 as refugees, following the Tsarist army as it withdrew back into Russian territory (since many had collaborated with—or fought in—the Russian army against the Muslim Ottomans to regain territory for Christian Orthodoxy). The Pontic Greek refugees who settled in Georgia and the southern Caucasus assimilated with preexisting Caucasus Greek communities. Those who settled in Ukraine and southern Russia became a sizable proportion of cities such as Mariupol, but generally assimilated with Christian Orthodox Russians and continued to serve in the Tsarist army.

In 1788, Ali Pasha of Ioannina destroyed Moscopole. This predominantly ethnic Aromanian settlement historically had an important Greek influence.[12] This is why some members of the Aromanian diaspora that settled in places such as Vienna in Austria have been considered as Greeks and part of a Greek diaspora as well.[13]

19th century

During and after the Greek War of Independence, Greeks of the diaspora established the fledgling state, raised funds and awareness abroad and served as senior officers in Russian armies which fought the Ottomans to help liberate Greeks under Ottoman subjugation in Macedonia, Epirus, and Thrace. Greek merchant families had contacts in other countries; during the disturbances, many set up home bases around the Mediterranean (notably Marseilles in France, Livorno, Calabria and Bari in Italy and Alexandria in Egypt), Russia (Odesa and St. Petersburg), and Britain (London and Liverpool) from where they traded (typically textiles and grain). Businesses frequently included the extended family, and they brought schools teaching Greek and the Greek Orthodox Church.[14] As markets changed, some families became shippers (financed through the local Greek community, with the aid of the Ralli or Vagliano Brothers). The diaspora expanded across the Levant, North Africa, India[15] and the US.[16] Many leaders of the Greek struggle for liberation from Ottoman Macedonia and other parts of the southern Balkans with large Greek populations still under Ottoman rule had links to the Greek trading and business families who funded the Greek liberation struggle against the Ottomans and the creation of a Greater Greece.

The terrible devastation of the island of Chios in the 1822 massacre caused a great dispersion of the islanders, leading to the creation of a specific Chian diaspora.

After the Treaty of Constantinople, the political situation stabilised; some displaced families returned to the newly independent country to become key figures in cultural, educational and political life, especially in Athens. Financial assistance from overseas was channeled through these family ties, providing for institutions such as the National Library and sending relief after natural disasters.

20th century

During the 20th century, many Greeks left the traditional homelands for economic and political reasons; this resulted in large migrations from Greece and Cyprus to the United States, Australia, Canada, Brazil, The United Kingdom, New Zealand, Argentina, The United Arab Emirates, Singapore, Germany, Norway, Belgium, Georgia, Italy, Armenia, Russia, Chile, Mexico and South Africa, especially after World War II (1939–45), the Greek Civil War (1946–49) and the Turkish Invasion of Cyprus in 1974.[17]

Large room with tables, chairs and a TV
Main hall of the Greek community centre in Khartoum, Sudan (2015)

After World War I, most Pontian and Anatolian Greeks living in Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey) were victims of Muslim Turkish intolerance for Christians in the Ottoman Empire. More than 3.5 million Greeks, Armenians, and Assyrians were killed in the regimes of the Young Turks and Mustafa Kemal, from 1914 to 1923.[18] Greeks in Asia Minor fled to modern Greece, and the Russian Empire (later the USSR) was also a major destination.

After the Greek Civil War, many communist Greeks and their families fled to neighboring Yugoslavia, the USSR and the Soviet-dominated states of Eastern Europe (especially Czechoslovakia). Hungary founded a village (Beloiannisz) for Greek refugees, and many Greeks were resettled in the former Sudeten German region of northern Czechoslovakia around Krnov (Jägerndorf). Sweden also admitted large numbers of Greeks, and over 17,000 Greek-Swedish descendants live in the country. Although many immigrants later returned to Greece, these countries still have a number of first- and second-generation Greeks who maintain their traditions.[17]

With the fall of Communism in eastern Europe and the USSR, Greeks of the diaspora immigrated to modern Greece's main urban centers of Athens, Thessaloniki, and Cyprus; many came from Georgia.[17]

Pontic Greeks are Greek-speaking communities originating in the Black Sea region, particularly from the Trebizond region, the Pontic Alps, eastern Anatolia, Georgia, and the former Russian south-Caucasus Kars Oblast. After 1919–23, most of these Pontic Greek and Caucasus Greek communities resettled in Greek Macedonia or joined other Greek communities in southern Russia and Ukraine.

Greek nationality

Main article: Greek nationality law

Anyone who is ethnically Greek and born outside Greece may become a Greek citizen through naturalization if they can prove that a parent or grandparent was a Greek national. The Greek ancestor's birth and marriage certificates and the applicant's birth certificate are required, along with birth certificates for all intervening generations between the applicant and the person with Greek citizenship.

Greek citizenship is acquired by birth by all persons born in Greece who do not acquire a foreign citizenship and all persons born to at least one parent who is a registered Greek citizen. People born out of wedlock to a father who is a Greek citizen and a mother who is a non-Greek automatically gain Greek citizenship if the father recognizes them as his child before they turn 18.[19][20][21]

Present day

Centers of the Greek diaspora are New York City,[22] Boston,[23] Chicago,[24] Los Angeles, Munich, London, Melbourne, Wellington,[25] Sydney, Auckland, Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver, Johannesburg, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Culiacán, Mexico City, and Buenos Aires.[17]

The SAE – World Council of Hellenes Abroad has compiled several studies on the Greek diaspora. The total number of Greeks living outside Greece and Cyprus is uncertain. Available census figures indicate about three million Greeks outside Greece and Cyprus, but the SAE estimates about seven million worldwide. The Greek diaspora defends Greek interests, particularly in the US.[26] Assimilation and loss of the Greek language influence the definition of the Greek diaspora. To learn more about how factors such as intermarriage and assimilation influence self-identification among young Greeks in the diaspora, and to help clarify the estimates of Greeks in the diaspora, the Next Generation Initiative began an academically supervised research study in 2008.[citation needed]

United States

Main article: Greek Americans

The United States has the largest ethnically-Greek population outside Greece. According to the US Department of State, the Greek-American community numbers about three million and the vast majority are third- or fourth-generation immigrants.[27] According to the World Council of Churches, the Ecumenical Patriarchate has a membership of 600,000 in the US and Canada who are still Greek Orthodox;[28] however, many Greeks in both countries have adopted other religions or become secular. The 2010 census recorded about 130,000 Greek Americans, although members of the community dispute its accuracy.[citation needed]

Canada

Main article: Greek Canadians

Most Greek Canadians live in Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. The 2016 census reported that 271,405 Canadians were Greek by ancestry and 16,715 people were born in Greece.[29]

Chile

Main article: Greeks in Chile

Greek immigration to Chile began during the 16th century from the island of Crete. Cretan Greeks settled in the Antofagasta Region in the mid-16th century and spread to other locations, such as the Greek colony in Santiago and the cities of San Diego, Valparaíso, Talcahuano, Puerto Montt, and Punta Arenas.[citation needed]

Australia

Main article: Greek Australians

See also: Greek community of Melbourne

Australia has one of the world's largest Greek communities. Greek immigration to Australia began during the 19th century, increasing significantly in the 1950s and 1960s. According to the 2016 census, there were 397,431 Greeks and Greek Cypriots (by ancestry) living in Australia and 93,740 Greeks born in Greece or Cyprus. According to Greeks around the Globe, Greek Australians number about 700,000.[30] The majority of Greeks in Australia (over 90 percent) are Greek Orthodox and many attend church weekly. According to the SBS, Greeks in Australia have a higher level of church attendance than Greeks in Greece. There are minorities of Catholics, Jehovah's Witnesses and Pentecostals. Currently, there are 152 Greek Orthodox churches in Australia, most under jurisdiction of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia. In addition, there are 8 monasteries as well as schools, theological colleges and aged care centres.

Brazil

Main article: Greek Brazilians

About 50,000 Greeks immigrated to Brazil from Greece and Cyprus, with 20,000 in the city of Sao Paulo. Brazil has a sizable community of Antiochean Greeks (known as Melkites), Orthodox, Catholics, and Jews. According to the Catholic Church,[31] the Eparchy of Nossa Senhora do Paraíso em São Paulo (Melkite Greek), the Eparchia Dominae Nostrae Paradisis S. Pauli Graecorum Melkitarum had a 2016 membership of 46,600. The World Council of Churches estimates that the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch has a membership of 90,000 in Latin America, the majority of whom live in Brazil.[32]

Germany

Main article: Greeks in Germany

Israel

Main article: Greeks in Israel

About 250 Non-Jewish Greeks immigrated to Ottoman Palestine and Mandatory Palestine for the service of the Greek-Orthodox church in the country between 1850 and 1920, mostly residing in Jerusalem and Nazareth City. About 1,500-2,500 Ethnic Greeks Today, few were able to obtain Greek Citizenship largely due to the refusal of recognition from Greece.[33]

Mexico

Main article: Greek Mexicans

Greeks started to immigrate to Mexico in the late 1800s from mainland and especially the Greek islands and Cyprus. While there was an individual immigration to Mexico, the Mexican government looked to start olive production in the Pacific Coast so thousands were taken to the state of Sinaloa where the Greeks found fortunes in the tomato production instead. Today there are tens of thousands of Greek-Mexicans living primarily in Culiacán, Veracruz, and Mexico City as well as surrounding areas and other cities.

Demographics

List of countries and territories by Greek population
Country/territory Official Data
Ancestry
Official Data
Greek Nationality
Official Data
Born in Greece
Estimates Article
United States 1,243,592 (ACS-5Y 2021, Greek ancestry)[34] 121,928 (ACS-5Y 2021, born in Greece)[35] 3,000,000[36]
9,785 (ACS-5Y 2021, Cypriot ancestry)[34]
Greek Americans
Cyprus 721,000 (2011 census, Cypriot and Greek citizens)[37] 1,150,000[38]
322 Ethnic Greeks in the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (2006 census)[39]
Greek Cypriots
Germany 449,000 (2021, Greek Migration Background)[40] 362,565 (2021, Greek Nationality)[41] 289,225 (2021, Foreign-born, Greece)[42] 320,000,[43] 370,000[30][44]
348,475 (2016, Greek Nationality), 274,060 (2016, born in Greece), 74,415 (2016, born in Germany)[45]
Greeks in Germany
Australia 424,750 (2021 census, Greek ancestry)[46] 92,314 (2021 census, born in Greece)[46]
16,737 (2021 census, born in Cyprus)[47]
700,000[30] Greek Australians
Canada 262,135 (2021 census, Greek ancestry)[48] 58,410 (2021 census, born in Greece)[49]
4,335 (2021 census, born in Cyprus)[49]
720,000[30] Greek Canadians
United Kingdom 43,875 (2011 Census, Greek ethnic origin)[50] 62,000 (2021, Greek Nationality)[51]
14,000 (2021, Cyprus Nationality),[51]
77,000 (2021, Foreign-born, Greece)[51]
59,000 (2021, Foreign-born, Cyprus)[51]
300,000-400,000[52]
25,891 (2011 Census, Greek Cypriot ethnic origin)[50]
15,296 (2011 Census, Cypriot (part not stated) ethnic origin)[50]
Greek Britons
Albania 40,000 Greek citizenship holders (2011 census)[53] Sources vary. Between 200,000 and 300,000 ethnic Greeks in Albania.[54][55][56][57] In addition, a large number also reside in Greece, Australia and the United States.[58]
The European Council has deemed the 2011 census as corrupt and unreliable. Majority are Greek passport holders/migrants.
Greeks in Albania
Ukraine 91,548 (2001 census)[59] Greeks in Ukraine
Netherlands 37,382 (2023, Greek Migration Background)[60] 25,138 (2022, Greek Nationality)[61] 23,465 (2022, Greek Foreign-born, Greece)[60] 4,000,[30] 12,500[62] Greeks in the Netherlands
Russia 35,640 (2010 census)[63] Greeks in Russia and Caucasus Greeks
South Africa 10,878 (2020, Greece, Migrant Stock), 3,034 (1995, Greece, Migrant Stock)[64]
4,069 (1996, Foreign-born, Greece)[65]
120,000 (estimate)[30] 50,000-60,000 (estimate)[66] 120,000 (estimate, 1970)[67] 70,000 (estimate, 1990)[67] 40,000 (estimate, 2012)[68] 35,000 (estimate, 2022)[67][69] Greeks in South Africa
Sweden 35,193 (2021, Greek Origin)[70] 11,049 (2021, Greek Nationality)[71] 19,931 (2018, Foreign-born, Greece)[72] [73] Greeks in Sweden
Belgium 24,836 (2014, Greek foreign origin and descendants) 17,513 (2018, Greek Nationality)[74] 17,350 (2018, Foreign-born, Greece)[74] 16,275 (2015, Foreign national, Greece) Belgium, Foreign national[75] Greeks in Belgium
Switzerland 17,695 (2021, Greek Nationality)[76] 16,984 (2021, Foreign-born, Greece)[77] 8,340,[30] 11,000[78]
France 7,800 (2016, Greek Nationality)[79] 11,100 (2016, Foreign-born, Greece)[80] 35,000 – 80,000[81][82]

35,747 (2005, Greek citizens)[83][82]

Greeks in France
Italy 7,243 (2021, Greek Nationality)[84] 7,572 (2018, Greek citizens)[83]
20,000,[30] 30,000[85]
Greeks in Italy
Austria 6,864 (2019, Greek Nationality)[86] 6,766 (2019, Foreign-born, Greece)[86] 5,000[87] Greeks in Austria
Spain 5,369 (2022, Greek Nationality)[88] 4,422 (2022, Foreign-born, Greece)[89] 300,[30] 1,500–2,000[90][91]
Denmark 4,147 (2022, Greek Ancestry)[92] 3,622 (2022, Greek Nationality)[92] 4,241 (2022, Foreign-born, Greece)[92] Greeks in Denmark
Norway 5,337 (2020, Greek Ancestry)[93] 4,027 (2022, Greek Nationality)[94] 3,599 (2020, Foreign-born, Greece)[93]
Portugal 794 (2021, foreign citizens with Greek Nationality, thus not counting, for instance, 30 Luso-Greeks who have acquired the Portuguese nationality after 2008)[95][96]
Luxembourg 4,017 (2022, Greek Nationality)[97] 1,571 (2009)[98]
Brazil 5,000[99] – 3,000[100] 50,000 in Sao Paulo[101] Greeks in Brazil
Argentina 2,196 (2001, born in Greece)[102] 5,000,[103] 50,000[104] Greeks in Argentina
Chile 8,500 (2012 census) 9,000-12,000[105] in Santiago and Antofagasta Greeks in Chile
Mexico 25,000[106] Greek Mexicans
Venezuela 6,000,[citation needed] 3,000 (Greek-born population)[107] Greeks in Venezuela
Romania 6,513 (2002 census)[108] 15,000[109] Greeks in Romania
Georgia 15,166 (2002 census)[110] 15,166[111] Greeks in Georgia and Caucasus Greeks
Kazakhstan 4,703 (1999 census)[112] 9,000[113] Greeks in Kazakhstan
Armenia 900 (2011 census)[114] 6,000[115] Greeks in Armenia and Caucasus Greeks
Uzbekistan 5,453 (1989 census)[116] 4,500[117] Greeks in Uzbekistan
Egypt 3,000,[118] 5,000[99] Greeks in Egypt
Qatar 3.000[119]
Hungary 3,916 (2011 census)[120] 4,000 – 10,000[121] Greeks in Hungary
Poland 3,600 (2011 census)[122] Greeks in Poland
Bulgaria 3,408 (2001 census)[123] 8,500[124] Greeks in Bulgaria
Czech Republic 3,231 (2001 census)[125] 3,000[126] Greeks in the Czech Republic
Moldova 3,000[127] Greeks in Moldova
Turkey 2,500-3,500[128][129] Greeks in Turkey, Pontic Greeks and Caucasus Greeks
Ecuador 3,000[30]
New Zealand 2,589 (2013 census, people who declared Greek ancestry)[130] 999 (2013, Foreign-born, Greece)[130] 4,500,[131] 5,000[30] Greeks in New Zealand
Lebanon 1,500-2,500[30][132] Greeks in Lebanon
Oman 1,500[30]
Saudi Arabia 1,300[30]
Cameroon 1,200[30]
Zimbabwe 1,100[133] Greeks in Zimbabwe
Uruguay 1,000,[30] 2,000[134] Greeks in Uruguay
Syria 8,000[30] Greeks in Syria
Israel 1,000-6,000 Greek Jews (Sephardic and Romaniote); 1,500-2,500 (non-Jewish Greeks)[135] Greeks in Israel
Panama 800,[30] 1,000[134]
Finland 1,681[136] 500[137] Greeks in Finland
Serbia 725 (2011 census)[138] 5,000[139] Greeks in Serbia
Republic of North Macedonia 422 (2002 census)[140] Greeks in North Macedonia
Turkmenistan 359 (1995 census)[141]
Latvia 289 (2011 census)[142] 100[143]
Lithuania 159 (2011 census)[144] 250[145]
Estonia 150 (2001 census)[146]
Slovenia 54 (2002 census)[147]
Zambia 800[148]
Kyrgyzstan 650–700[149] Greeks in Kyrgyzstan
Malta 500[150] Greeks in Malta
Ethiopia 500[151] Greeks in Ethiopia
Jordan 400,[30] 600[152]
Democratic Republic of the Congo 300[153] Greeks in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Bahamas 300[30]
Nigeria 300[154]
Tanzania 300[30]
Barbados 300[citation needed]
The Gambia 300[citation needed]
Costa Rica 80,[30] 290[155]
Sudan 250[156] Greeks in Sudan
Azerbaijan 250–300[157] Greeks in Azerbaijan
Malawi 200[158]
Colombia 200[30]
Ireland 200[30][159]
Kenya 200[30]
United Arab Emirates 200[30] Greeks in the United Arab Emirates
Morocco 180[30]
Peru 150,[30] 350[160]
Botswana 150[30]
Djibouti 150[30]
Hong Kong 150[30]
Kuwait 140[161]
Slovakia 100[162]
Japan 100,[30] 300[163]
Bolivia 100[164]
China 100[165]
Philippines 100[166] Greeks in the Philippines
South Sudan 90[167] Greeks in South Sudan
Indonesia 72[168]
Papua New Guinea 70[30]
Iran 60,[30] 80[169]
Ivory Coast 60[30]
Madagascar 60[30]
Croatia 50[170]
Tunisia 50[30]
Senegal 50[30]
Thailand 50[171]
Central African Republic 40[30]
Singapore 40[172]
Cuba 30[30]
Algeria 30[30]
Eritrea 30[30]
Paraguay 20,[30] 25[172]
Chad 20[30]
Guatemala 20[30]
Mozambique 20[30]
Namibia 20[30]
Togo 20[30]
Taiwan 20[30]
Uganda 15[173]
Dominican Republic 14[174]
Republic of the Congo 10[30]
Vietnam 10[175]

Notable Greeks of the diaspora

Notable people of the Greek diaspora (including those of Greek ancestry):

See also

References

  1. ^ Anagnostou, Yiorgos (2009). Contours of white ethnicity popular ethnography and the making of usable pasts in Greek America. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-8214-4361-3. ...providing an alternative to ascription omogenia (of the same race)—a term widely used by state representatives as well sectors of the ethnic media—to refer to Greek populations outside Greece.
  2. ^ Tziovas, Dimitris (2009). Greek diaspora and migration since 1700 society, politics and culture. Farnham, England: Ashgate Pub. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-7546-9374-1.
  3. ^ Tziovas, Dimitris (2009). Greek Diaspora and Migration since 1700 Society, Politics and Culture (PDF). Routledge. ISBN 9780754666097.
  4. ^ Rozen, Mina (2008). Homelands and Diasporas: Greeks, Jews and Their Migrations (International Library of Migration Studies). London, England: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-642-2.
  5. ^ Jerry H. Bentley, Herbert F. Ziegler, "Traditions and Encounters, 2/e," Chapter 10: "Mediterranean Society: The Greek Phase" Archived 2012-03-06 at the Wayback Machine (McGraw-Hill, 2003)
  6. ^ Hellenistic Civilization Archived July 5, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "Menander became the ruler of a kingdom extending along the coast of western India, including the whole of Saurashtra and the harbour Barukaccha. His territory also included Mathura, the Punjab, Gandhara and the Kabul Valley", Bussagli p101
  8. ^ John Pike. "Failaka Island". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  9. ^ "Growth of the Greek Colonies in the First Millennium BC (application/pdf Object)" (PDF). www.princeton.edu. Retrieved 2009-01-02.
  10. ^ Peregrine Horden, Nicholas Purcell, The Corrupting Sea: A Study of Mediterranean History, 2000, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 0-631-21890-4
  11. ^ See for example Anthony Bryer', 'The Empire of Trebizond and the Pontus' (Variorum, 1980) and his 'Migration and Settlement in the Caucasus and Anatolia' (Variorum, 1988), as well as works listed in Caucasus Greeks and Greeks in Georgia.
  12. ^ Crețulescu, Vladimir (2015). "The Aromanian-Romanian national movement (1859-1905): an analytical model". Balcanica Posnaniensia. Acta et studia. 22 (1): 99–121. doi:10.14746/bp.2015.22.8.
  13. ^ Seirinidou, Vasiliki (2008). "The "old" diaspora, the "new" diaspora, and the Greek diaspora in 18th-19th century Vienna". In Rozen, Minna (ed.). Homeland and Diasporas. Greeks, Jews and Their Migrations. International Library of Migration Studies. pp. 155–159. ISBN 978-1845116422.
  14. ^ Ina Baghdiantz McCabe, Gelina Harlaftis, Iōanna Pepelasē Minoglou, Diaspora Entrepreneurial Networks: Four Centuries of History, 2000, p.147, Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-60047-9
  15. ^ Vassiliadis, Dimitrios, "Three Centuries of Hellenic Presence in Bengal," ELINEPA, 2005
  16. ^ Vassilis Kardasis, Diaspora Merchants in the Black Sea: The Greeks in Southern Russia, 1775–1861,2001, Lexington Books, ISBN 0-7391-0245-1
  17. ^ a b c d Richard Clogg, The Greek diaspora in the twentieth century, 2000, Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-60047-9
  18. ^ "The Genocide of Ottoman Greeks, 1914–1923". Ncas.rutgers.edu. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  19. ^ "Citizenship". allthegreeks.com. Archived from the original on 2012-02-24. Retrieved 2009-06-27.
  20. ^ "Loss of Citizenship". allthegreeks.com. Archived from the original on 2012-02-24. Retrieved 2009-06-27.
  21. ^ "Acquisition of the Greek Citizenship". Hellenic Republic Ministry of Interior.
  22. ^ "SELECTED POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES 2010–2012 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
  23. ^ "SELECTED POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES 2010–2012 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
  24. ^ "SELECTED POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES 2010–2012 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
  25. ^ "Greeks – the Hellenic community".
  26. ^ Alexander Kitroeff & Stephanos Constantinides, 'The Greek-Americans and US Foreign Policy Since 1950' Etudes helléniques/ Hellenic Studies, vol.6, no.1, Printemps/Spring 1998
  27. ^ "Greece". U.S. Department of State.
  28. ^ "Ecumenical Patriarchate — World Council of Churches".
  29. ^ "Ethnic Origin (279), Single and Multiple Ethnic Origin Responses (3), Generation Status (4), Age (12) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2016 Census – 25% Sample Data". 2017-10-25.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax "GREEKS AROUND THE GLOBE". 19 June 2006. Archived from the original on 19 June 2006. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  31. ^ "Nossa Senhora do Paraíso em São Paulo (Melkite Greek)".
  32. ^ "Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East". World Council of Churches.
  33. ^ "/".
  34. ^ a b "American Community Survey B04006PEOPLE REPORTING ANCESTRY 2021: ACS 5-Year Estimates Detailed Tables". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2023-04-17.
  35. ^ "American Community Survey B05006 PLACE OF BIRTH FOR THE FOREIGN-BORN POPULATION IN THE UNITED STATES 2021: ACS 5-Year Estimates Detailed Tables". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2023-04-17.
  36. ^ "Greece (08/09)". United States Department of State. August 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-01. An estimated three million American residents in the United States claim Greek descent.
  37. ^ "Statistical Service – Population and Social Conditions – Population Census – Announcements – Preliminary Results of the Census of Population, 2011". Cystat.gov.cy. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  38. ^ Cole, Jeffrey (2011), Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, p. 92, ISBN 1-59884-302-8
  39. ^ "Yaş Grubu, Milliyet ve Cinsiyete Göre Sürekli İkamet Eden(De-jure) KKTC Vatandaşı Nüfus". State Planning Organisation of TRNC. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  40. ^ "Population in private households 2021 by migration background". Retrieved 2022-10-21.
  41. ^ "Foreign Population by age group and selected citizenships on 31 December 2021". Retrieved 2022-10-21.
  42. ^ "Foreign population by place of birth and selected citizenships on 31 December 2021". Retrieved 2022-10-21.
  43. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Griechenland: Beziehungen zwischen Griechenland und Deutschland". Archived from the original on 2006-06-17.
  44. ^ "ΓΕΝΙΚΑ ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΑ ΔΙΑΣΠΟΡΑΣ". 12 October 2004. Archived from the original on 12 October 2004. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  45. ^ "Population by sex, age group and citizenship". Retrieved 25 February 2018.
  46. ^ a b "Data table for Cultural diversity summary". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2022-06-28. Retrieved 2022-10-23.
  47. ^ "People in Australia who were born in Cyprus". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 2023-04-17.
  48. ^ "Ethnic or cultural origin by generation status: Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations with parts". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 17 April 2023.
  49. ^ a b "Immigrant status and period of immigration by place of birth and citizenship: Canada, provinces and territories and census metropolitan areas with parts". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 17 April 2023.
  50. ^ a b c "2011 Census: QS211EW Ethnic group (detailed), local authorities in England and Wales (Excel sheet 2009Kb)". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  51. ^ a b c d "Population of the UK by country of birth and nationality". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 2023-04-17.
  52. ^ Duff, Oliver (3 April 2008). "Pandora: It's all Greek to Boris". The Independent. Retrieved 12 February 2013. ...Mediterranean nation's estimated 400,000-strong British diaspora.
  53. ^ "Albanian census 2011" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 14, 2014.
  54. ^ LAMBROS ANAST. PSOMAS. "Diagnostic Report" (PDF). Ecclesia.gr. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  55. ^ "OMONIA's Census: Greek minority constitutes 10% of population in Albania". Balkaneu.com. 11 December 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  56. ^ "Greeks". Archived from the original on 2014-11-15. Retrieved 2014-11-15.
  57. ^ Venetia Aftzigianni (2 March 2011). "Albania Announces Greek Population Census". Eu.greekreporter.com. Archived from the original on 22 April 2016. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  58. ^ Abrahams, Fred (1996). Human Rights in Post-communist Albania. Human Rights Watch. p. 134. ISBN 978-1-56432-160-2. Retrieved 20 April 2016. greek population albania.
  59. ^ State Statistics Committee of Ukraine: 2001 census Archived 2007-07-06 at the Wayback Machine
  60. ^ a b "Population on first of the month; gender, age, migration background". opendata.cbs.nl. Statistics Netherlands. Retrieved 12 December 2023.
  61. ^ "Population; sex, age and nationality, 1 January". ssb.no. Retrieved 2022-10-21.
  62. ^ According to the Netherlands Statistical Service, quoted by: Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Netherlands: The Greek Community Archived July 15, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  63. ^ "НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЙ СОСТАВ НАСЕЛЕНИЯ" (PDF). Official website of the 2010 Census. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  64. ^ "United Nations Population Division | Department of Economic and Social Affairs". un.org. Retrieved 2018-06-29.
  65. ^ "UN Data Foreign-born population by country/area of birth, age and sex". Data.unorg. 19 August 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  66. ^ "Greek Foreign Ministry". Archived from the original on 2008-06-05. Retrieved 2008-01-08.
  67. ^ a b c "The Turbulent Story of Greeks in South Africa". Retrieved March 26, 2023.
  68. ^ "What is the future of Greek in South Africa? Language shift and maintenance in the Greek communinity of Johannesburg". Retrieved March 26, 2023.
  69. ^ "Where have all the Greeks gone? The story of Greeks in Africa". 4 April 2021. Retrieved March 26, 2023.
  70. ^ "Population by country of birth and country of Origin, 31 December 2021, total". ssb.no. Retrieved 2022-10-23.
  71. ^ "Foreign citizens by year and country of citizenship". ssb.no. Retrieved 2022-10-21.
  72. ^ "Population by year and country of birth". ssb.no. Retrieved 2022-10-21.
  73. ^ "Number of Greek citizens in European Union". Retrieved 2022-10-31.
  74. ^ a b "eurostat". Retrieved 2022-10-31.
  75. ^ "Chapitre 2 - Migrations en Belgique : données statistiques" (PDF). Retrieved 2022-10-31.
  76. ^ "Population résidante permanente étrangère selon la nationalité, de 1980 à 2021". bfs.admin.ch (in French). 25 August 2022. Retrieved 2022-10-22.
  77. ^ "Population résidante permanente et non permanente selon le canton, la nationalité, le pays de naissance et le sexe". bfs.admin.ch (in French). Retrieved 2022-10-22.
  78. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Switzerland: The Greek Community Archived 2020-03-31 at the Wayback Machine
  79. ^ "Étrangers par nationalité détaillée". insee.fr (in French). Retrieved 2022-10-22.
  80. ^ "Immigrés par pays de naissance détaillé". insee.fr (in French). Retrieved 2022-10-22.
  81. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: France: The Greek Community Archived 2012-08-19 at the Wayback Machine
  82. ^ a b "Présentation de la Grèce". France Diplomatie : : Ministère de l'Europe et des Affaires étrangères. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  83. ^ a b "Population by sex, age group and citizenship". Eurostat. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  84. ^ "Italy, regions, provinces - Country of citizenship". esploradati.istat.it. Retrieved 2022-10-24.
  85. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Italy: The Greek Community Archived 2006-07-17 at the Wayback Machine
  86. ^ a b "Bevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeit und Geburtsland". Archived from the original on 2015-06-02. Retrieved 2022-10-31.
  87. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Austria: The Greek Community Archived 2009-02-07 at the Wayback Machine
  88. ^ "Foreign population by country of nationality, age (five-years groups) and sex". ssb.no. Retrieved 2022-10-23.
  89. ^ "Foreign population by country of birth, age (five-years groups) and sex". ssb.no. Retrieved 2022-10-23.
  90. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Spain: The Greek Community Archived 2012-04-14 at the Wayback Machine
  91. ^ "Population by nationality, communities, sex and year". ssb.no. Retrieved 2022-10-23.
  92. ^ a b c "Statistics Denmark". statbank.dk. Retrieved 2022-10-22.
  93. ^ a b "Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents, 1 January 2020". ssb.no. Retrieved 2022-10-21.
  94. ^ "05183: Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents, by country background, year and contents". ssb.no. Retrieved 2022-10-21.
  95. ^ "Sefstat" (PDF).
  96. ^ "Acquisition of citizenship statistics". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 2023-05-28.
  97. ^ "Population par nationalités détaillées au 1er janvier". lustat.statec.lu (in French). Retrieved 2022-10-23.
  98. ^ Gouvernement du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg – Etat civil et population du Luxembourg [1]
  99. ^ a b Γενικα Στοιχεια Διασπορασ Archived July 16, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  100. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Brazil: The Greek Community Archived 2006-07-13 at the Wayback Machine
  101. ^ "Histórico de Hospedaria" (in Portuguese). Memorial do Inmigrante, government of Sao Paulo. Archived from the original on 2008-05-02. Retrieved 2009-02-25. (click on "Estatísticas Gerais: Imigrantes e Descendentes")
  102. ^ (in Spanish) Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INDEC): Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas 2001: País de nacimiento Archived 2014-06-03 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  103. ^ ONI: Colectividad Griega Archived 2016-10-23 at the Wayback Machine (in Spanish)
  104. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Argentina: The Greek Community Archived 2006-07-17 at the Wayback Machine
  105. ^ Grecia, Absolut (December 10, 2011). "Los Griegos de Chile". Absolut Viajes.
  106. ^ Comunidad Helenica de Mexico: The Greek side of Mexico Archived 2006-11-10 at the Wayback Machine
  107. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Venezuela: The Greek Community Archived 2020-09-24 at the Wayback Machine
  108. ^ "As Greek community in Romania grows, education becomes a concern". Clubafaceri.ro. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  109. ^ "As Greek community in Romania grows, education becomes a concern". ekathimerini.com. Retrieved 2022-10-31.
  110. ^ Eurominority: Greeks in Georgia Archived 2009-01-16 at the Wayback Machine
  111. ^ Cultural Relations and Greek Community [2] Archived 2022-10-22 at the Wayback Machine
  112. ^ Japan External Trade Organization: Institute of Developing Economies: Ethnodemographic situation in Kazakhstan Archived 2003-04-16 at the Wayback Machine
  113. ^ Filia Association of Greek communities celebrates 25 years [3] Archived 2022-10-22 at the Wayback Machine
  114. ^ Statistical Committee of Armenia: 2011 census
  115. ^ The Ethnic Minorities of Armenia [4] Archived 2022-04-03 at the Wayback Machine
  116. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года. Национальный состав населения Узбекской ССР [1989 all-Soviet census: Ethnic structure of Uzbek SSR] (in Russian). Demoscope Weekly. Archived from the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
  117. ^ Central Asia – Caucasus analyst: Greeks in Uzbekistan Archived 2012-06-01 at the Wayback Machine
  118. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Egypt: The Greek Community Archived 2006-07-15 at the Wayback Machine
  119. ^ "Κατάρ: Ελληνική "σφραγίδα" στα μεγαλεπήβολα έργα ενόψει Μουντιάλ". Pontos-news.gr. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  120. ^ Hungarian Central Statistical Office: 2011 census
  121. ^ "A MAGYARORSZÁGI GÖRÖGÖK MÚLTJÁRÓL ÉS JELENÉRŐL". Sulinet.hu. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  122. ^ Ludność. Stan i struktura demograficzno-społeczna. Narodowy Spis Powszechny Ludności i Mieszkań 2011 (PDF) (in Polish). Warszawa: Główny Urząd Statystyczny. 2013. p. 265. ISBN 978-83-7027-521-1.
  123. ^ Republic of Bulgaria: National Statistical Institute: 2001 census
  124. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Bulgaria: The Greek Community Archived 2012-06-01 at the Wayback Machine
  125. ^ Office of the Czech Republic Government: Report on the Situation of National Minorities in the Czech Republic in 2001
  126. ^ According to the Association of Greek Communities in the Czech Republic quoted by the Office of the Czech Republic Government: Report on the Situation of National Minorities in the Czech Republic in 2001
  127. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Moldova Archived 2007-09-30 at the Wayback Machine
  128. ^ "The Greek minority of Turkey". HRI.org. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
  129. ^ However according to the Human Rights Watch the Greek population in Turkey is estimated at 2,500 in 2006. "From “Denying Human Rights and Ethnic Identity” series of Human Rights Watch" Archived 2006-07-07 at the Wayback Machine Human Rights Watch, 2 July 2006.
  130. ^ a b "2013 Census totals by topic – Statistics New Zealand". December 13, 2013. Archived from the original on December 13, 2013.
  131. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: New Zealand: The Greek Community Archived 2020-09-19 at the Wayback Machine
  132. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Lebanon Archived 2012-08-19 at the Wayback Machine
  133. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Zimbabwe: The Greek Community Archived 2009-03-23 at the Wayback Machine
  134. ^ a b Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Uruguay: The Greek Community Archived 2006-07-17 at the Wayback Machine
  135. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Israel: The Greek Community Archived 2006-07-16 at the Wayback Machine
  136. ^ http://pxnet2.stat.fi/PXWeb/pxweb/fi/StatFin/StatFin__vrm__vaerak/statfin_vaerak_pxt_029.px/table/tableViewLayout2/?rxid=726cd24d-d0f1-416a-8eec-7ce9b82fd5a4 [dead link]
  137. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Finland: The Greek Community Archived 2020-09-24 at the Wayback Machine
  138. ^ "Попис становништва, домаћинстава и станова 2011. у Републици Србији Становништво према националној припадности" [Census of Population, Households and Dwellings for 2011. in the Republic of Serbia Population by ethnicity] (PDF). Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
  139. ^ "[sim] Nama su samo Srbi braca". Mail-archive.com. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  140. ^ State Statistical Office of the Republic of North Macedonia: Total population, households and dwellings according to the territorial organization of the Republic of North Macedonia, 2004 Archived 2004-06-21 at the Wayback Machine.
  141. ^ "Итоги всеобщей переписи населения Туркменистана по национальному составу в 1995 году". Archived from the original on 13 March 2013. Retrieved 10 January 2024.
  142. ^ Latvian Statistical Office: Latvia: The Greek Community Archived 2014-07-27 at the Wayback Machine
  143. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Latvia: The Greek Community Archived 2011-05-21 at the Wayback Machine
  144. ^ "Lietuvos Respublikos 2011 metų visuotinio gyventojų ir būstų surašymo rezultatai" (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 10 January 2024.
  145. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Lithuania: The Greek Community Archived 2020-09-24 at the Wayback Machine
  146. ^ Estonian Statistical Office: Estonia: The Greek Community Archived 2011-07-17 at the Wayback Machine
  147. ^ Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia: Census of population, households and housing 2002
  148. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Zambia Archived 2009-03-23 at the Wayback Machine
  149. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Kyrgyzstan: The Greek Community Archived 2008-05-07 at the Wayback Machine
  150. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Malta: The Greek Community Archived 2020-09-24 at the Wayback Machine
  151. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Ethiopia: The Greek Community Archived 2006-07-15 at the Wayback Machine
  152. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Jordan: The Greek Community Archived 2006-07-16 at the Wayback Machine
  153. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Democratic Republic of Congo: The Greek Community Archived 2009-03-23 at the Wayback Machine
  154. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Nigeria: The Greek Community Archived 2009-03-23 at the Wayback Machine
  155. ^ "Los Griegos en Costa Rica". Solatino.gr. Retrieved 11 January 2018. [permanent dead link]
  156. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Sudan: The Greek Community Archived 2009-03-23 at the Wayback Machine
  157. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Azerbaijan: The Greek Community Archived 2006-07-16 at the Wayback Machine
  158. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Malawi: The Greek Community Archived 2009-03-23 at the Wayback Machine
  159. ^ "Bilateral Relations Between Greece And Ireland". July 17, 2006. Archived from the original on July 17, 2006.
  160. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Peru: The Greek Community Archived 2020-09-24 at the Wayback Machine
  161. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Kuwait: The Greek Community Archived 2006-07-17 at the Wayback Machine
  162. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Slovakia Archived 2012-02-06 at the Wayback Machine
  163. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Japan: The Greek Community Archived 2011-01-31 at the Wayback Machine
  164. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Bolivia: The Greek Community Archived 2020-09-24 at the Wayback Machine
  165. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: China: The Greek Community
  166. ^ "BILATERAL RELATIONS GREECE-PHILIPPINES". www.mfa.gr. Archived from the original on 2020-09-24. Retrieved 2009-01-02.
  167. ^ Chaldeos, Antonis (2017). The Greek community in Sudan (19th-21st cen.). Athens. p. 210. ISBN 9786188233454.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  168. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Indonesia: The Greek Community Archived 2006-07-14 at the Wayback Machine
  169. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Iran: The Greek Community Archived 2020-09-24 at the Wayback Machine
  170. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Croatia: The Greek Community Archived 2006-07-14 at the Wayback Machine
  171. ^ "Greece-Thailand relations". Mfa.gr. Archived from the original on 25 August 2012. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  172. ^ a b Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Singapore: The Greek Community Archived 2020-09-19 at the Wayback Machine
  173. ^ "Cultural Relations and Greek Community - UGANDA".
  174. ^ "Dominican Republic-Greece relations". Mfa.gr. Archived from the original on 24 September 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  175. ^ "Greek-Vietnamese relations". Mfa.gr. Archived from the original on 25 August 2012. Retrieved 11 January 2018.