Greene King
TypeSubsidiary
(Private limited company)
LSE Formerly:GNK
IndustryAlcoholic beverage
Founded1799
Headquarters
Bury St Edmunds, England, UK
Key people
Philip Yea (Chairman)
Nick Mackenzie (CEO)
ProductsBeer
Revenue£2,176.7 million (2018)[1]
£373.1 million (2018)[1]
£162.5 million (2018)[1]
OwnerCK Asset Holdings
Websitewww.greeneking.co.uk

Greene King is a large pub retailer and brewer. It is based in Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk, England. The company owns pubs, restaurants and hotels. It was listed on the London Stock Exchange until it was acquired by CK Assets in October 2019.

History

Greene King plaque on the side of a pub in Sudbury, Suffolk
Greene King plaque on the side of a pub in Sudbury, Suffolk

The brewery was founded by Benjamin Greene in Bury St. Edmunds in 1799.[2] In Richard Wilson's biographical analysis of the Greene family, he credits various family members for being able to achieve distinction in the worlds of business and banking, literature (Graham Greene, for example) and broadcasting in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.'[3]

In 1836 Edward Greene took over the business and in 1887 it merged with Frederick William King's brewing business to create Greene King.[4]

Greene King has grown via mergers and acquisitions, including Rayments Brewery (1961),[5] the Magic Pub Company (1996),[6] Hungry Horse (1996),[7] Morland Brewery (1999),[8] Old English Inns (2001),[9] Morrells (2002),[10] a large part of the Laurel Pub Company (2004),[11] Ridley's Brewery (2005),[12] Belhaven Brewery (2005),[13] Hardys and Hansons (2006),[14] the Loch Fyne fish restaurant chain (2007),[15] Cloverleaf (2011),[16] Realpubs (2011),[17] the Capital Pub Company (2011)[18] and the Spirit Pub Company (2015).[19]

The Spirit acquisition, where Greene King bought Spirit for £773.6m, took the total number of Greene King sites to 3,116, brought 14 brands together and made Greene King the largest managed pub company in the UK. It was completed on 23 June 2015.[19]

It was announced in November 2018 that Rooney Anand would be stepping down from his role as CEO after 14 years in the position.[20]

In 2019 the Hong Kong based CK Assets announced the proposed take over of Greene King, which shareholders had to approve.[21][22][23] According to the Financial Times, the holding company is taking the view that the pubs owned by Greene King are an asset that is safe from potential recession. Analyst David Blennerhassett told the FT that CK Assets has a track record of buying such assets in the UK and he does not expect it to sell Greene King later as a bet on the falling pound.[24] The takeover was approved by the High Court in October 2019.[25]

Operations

The Carleton, a Greene King pub in Pontefract, West Yorkshire
The Carleton, a Greene King pub in Pontefract, West Yorkshire

The Greene King brewery in Bury St Edmunds produces beers branded in the names of breweries now closed, including Morland (Old Speckled Hen), Ruddles, Hardys & Hanson and Tolly Cobbold. The Belhaven Brewery in Dunbar continues to operate in Scotland.[26][27]

The group operates 3,100 pubs, restaurants and hotels:[19]

Visitor centre

Greene King's Brewery Museum, shown in 2006
Greene King's Brewery Museum, shown in 2006
The Greene King main brewery, seen from Westgate Street
The Greene King main brewery, seen from Westgate Street
The Greene King main brewery
The Greene King main brewery

There is a visitor centre next to the brewery, and tours are run regularly throughout the week. The brewery has an exhibition of pub sign artwork by George Taylor, who designed over 250 such signs for Greene King pubs.[29]

People

Greene King has been supporting apprenticeships since 2011 through its Greene King Apprenticeship Programme. Since launch, the scheme has processed some 9,000 apprentices.[30][31]

In 2016, Greene King launched the Get Into Hospitality Programme in partnership with The Prince's Trust. The aim of the programme is to address the skills and experience gaps that prevent unemployed people from getting into work. Those who successfully complete and graduate from the programme are offered a role onto the Greene King Apprenticeship Programme.[32][33]

In 2017, Greene King launched the Craft Academy, an 18 month brewing venture led by apprentices. Through the programme, apprentices earn while they learn about brewing, design and marketing. Through the scheme, they will gain a Level 3 NVQ Diploma in Sales.[34] The first five beers from the Craft Academy was launched at Craft Beer Rising Festival in London and include; Over Easy (3.8% session IPA), Big Bang IPA (5.6% bold and citrusy IPA), Bitter Sweet (6% black IPA), Desert Ryeder (4.8% rye beer) and High & Dry (5% dry hop lager).[35]

Criticism

Main article: Lewes Arms controversy

Greene King's ongoing business expansion has sometimes been the subject of criticism. As a result of its active acquisition policy, it has come to be known by beer protesters as Greedy King.[36] The growing consumer reaction to Greene King buying out smaller breweries was demonstrated towards the end of 2006 when a pub in Lewes, East Sussex started a well-publicised protest against Greene King for removing the locally produced Harveys Sussex Best Bitter from sale, while continuing to sell other guest beers.[37]

In January 2014, popular Manchester pub The Lass O'Gowrie, voted "Best Pub in Britain" at the Great British Pub Awards in 2012,[38] closed after landlord Gareth Kavanagh was forced out in an argument over rent. Having lost 40% of their trade after the BBC moved to Salford, Kavanagh had won a rent reduction at an independent tribunal before being forced out by the brewery.[39]

Greene King has also been criticised for removing many traditional and historic pub signs as part of rebranding schemes.[40]

In 2021, residents of Linlithgow launched a petition aimed at preventing Greene King from changing the name of "The Black Bitch" pub to "The Black Hound". The term "black bitches" is traditionally used for natives of the town, and an image of a black bitch appears on the town's coat of arms. Greene King argued that the name "The Black Bitch" had "racist and offensive connotations".[41][42][43][44]

Beers

Greene King

Abbot Ale
Abbot Ale
A pint of Greene King IPA
A pint of Greene King IPA

Hardy's and Hansons

Belhaven

Morland

Can of Old Speckled Hen
Can of Old Speckled Hen

Ridley's

Ruddles

Trader Joe's

In March 2016, Greene King won Best Managed Pub Company (51+ sites) at the 2016 Publican Awards.[67] Greene King's chief executive, Rooney Anand, also won Business of the Year Award at the Publican Awards 2016.[68] In March 2017, Greene King Pub Partners won Best Tenanted & Leased Pub Company (201+ sites) at the 2017 Publican Awards.[69]

References

  1. ^ a b c "Preliminary Results 2018" (PDF). Greene King. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  2. ^ a b c Smyth, Rob (6 November 2014). "BUSINESS: A close look at Greene King's takeover of Spirit Pub Company". Burton Mail. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
  3. ^ Wilson, Richard.G. (1983). Greene King: A Business and Family History. London: Bodley Head. p. xi. ISBN 9780370305486.
  4. ^ "MP of the Month:Edward Greene, brewer and businessman". Victorian Commons. 26 February 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
  5. ^ "Greene King: How a regional brewer became a national pub chain". East Anglian Times. 19 November 2014. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
  6. ^ "Greene King to Buy Magic Pub in Britain". The New York Times. 19 June 1996. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
  7. ^ Roger Protz (18 September 2013). "Rooney Anand Greene King". Morning Advertiser. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
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  9. ^ "Greene King starts Old English examination". M & C Allegra. 29 September 2001. Retrieved 26 February 2016.(subscription required)
  10. ^ "Brewer buys pub chain for Ł67m". BBC News. 18 June 2002. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  11. ^ "Greene King snaps up Laurel pubs". The Guardian. 9 July 2004.
  12. ^ "Historic brewer Ridley's to close". BBC News. 4 July 2005. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
  13. ^ "Greene King taking over Belhaven". BBC News. 22 August 2005. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
  14. ^ Katie Allen (15 June 2006). "Greene King buys Hardys & Hansons". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
  15. ^ "Greene King buys up seafood chain". BBC News. 7 August 2007. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
  16. ^ Hamish Champ (31 January 2011). "Greene King buys Cloverleaf Restaurants for £56m". Morning Advertiser. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
  17. ^ Nick Fletcher (27 April 2011). "Greene King expands presence in London with Realpubs purchase". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
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  41. ^ "Linlithgow pub changes name over 'racist connotations'". BBC News. 1 December 2021. Retrieved 2 December 2021.
  42. ^ "Historic Linlithgow pub to change its name from 'The Black Bitch' over 'racist connotations'". Edinburgh Evening News. Retrieved 2 December 2021.
  43. ^ "Residents furious over plan to rename 'racist' Black Bitch pub". The Times. Retrieved 2 December 2021.
  44. ^ "Thousands sign petition to stop Black Bitch pub from being renamed". The Scotsman. Retrieved 3 December 2021.
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  59. ^ "Morland Hen's Tooth". Ratebeer.com. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
  60. ^ "Morland Tanners Jack (Bottle)". Ratebeer.com. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
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  69. ^ Ed Bedington (15 March 2017). "NWTC sweeps board at publican awards". Morning Advertiser. Retrieved 18 March 2017.