Agriculture contributes towards climate change through greenhouse gas emissions and by the conversion of non-agricultural land such as forests into agricultural land.[1][2] In 2019 the IPCC reported that 13%-21% of anthropogenic greenhouse gasses came specifically from the Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses Sector (AFOLU).[3] Emissions from agriculture of nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide make up to half of the greenhouse-gases produced by the overall food industry, or 80% of agricultural emissions.[4] Animal husbandry is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions.[5]

The agricultural food system is responsible for a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions.[6][4] In addition to being a significant user of land and consumer of fossil fuel, agriculture contributes directly to greenhouse gas emissions through practices such as rice production and the raising of livestock.[7] The three main causes of the increase in greenhouse gases observed over the past 250 years have been fossil fuels, land use, and agriculture.[8] Farm animal digestive systems can be put into two categories: monogastric and ruminant. Ruminant cattle for beef and dairy rank high in greenhouse-gas emissions; monogastric, or pigs and poultry-related foods, are low. The consumption of the monogastric types may yield less emissions. Monogastric animals have a higher feed-conversion efficiency, and also do not produce as much methane.[4]

There are many strategies that can be used to help soften the effects, and the further production of greenhouse gas emissions - this is also referred to as climate-smart agriculture. Some of these strategies include a higher efficiency in livestock farming, which includes management, as well as technology; a more effective process of managing manure; a lower dependence upon fossil-fuels and nonrenewable resources; a variation in the animals' eating and drinking duration, time and location; and a cutback in both the production and consumption of animal-sourced foods.[4][9][10][11] A range of policies may reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the agriculture sector for a more sustainable food system.[12][13]

Overview

Agricultural activities emit the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane.[14]

Carbon dioxide emissions

Carbon dioxide emissions come from things such as tilling of fields, planting of crops, and even the shipment of crops or food cultivated to markets for revenue.[15] Agricultural related emissions of carbon dioxide account for around 24% of the global greenhouse gas emissions.[16] To help mitigate carbon dioxide emissions farm practices such as reduce tillage, decrease in empty land, return biomass residue of crop to soil, and increase use of cover crops can be promoted.[17]

Methane emissions

Livestock farm.
Livestock farm.

Methane emissions come from livestock such as cows belching and are the number one contributor to agricultural greenhouse gases globally. Every year one cow alone will emit 220 pounds of methane methane making 14.5% of greenhouse gas emissions.[18] While the residence time of methane is much shorter than that of carbon dioxide its potency is 28 times stronger its contribution to warming.[18] Not only does livestock contribute to harmful emissions but they also require a lot of land and may overgraze which leads to unhealthy soil quality and reduced species diversity.[18] A few ways to reduce methane emissions includes consumption of plant-rich diets with less meat, feeding the cattle more nutritious food, manure management, and composting.[19]

Traditional rice cultivation is the second biggest agricultural methane source after livestock, with a near-term warming impact equivalent to the carbon-dioxide emissions from all aviation.[20] Government involvement in agricultural policy is limited due to high demand for agricultural products like corn, wheat, and milk.[21] The United States Agency for International Development's (USAID) global hunger and food security initiative, Feed the Future project is addressing food loss and waste. By addressing food loss and waste greenhouse gas emission mitigation is also addressed. By only focusing on dairy systems of 20 value chains in 12 countries, food loss and waste could be reduced by 4-10%.[22] These numbers are impactful and would mitigate greenhouse gas emissions while still feeding the population.[22]

Nitrous oxide emissions

Global nitrous oxide budget.
Global nitrous oxide budget.

Nitrous oxide emission comes from the increased use of synthetic and organic fertilizers. Fertilizers increase crop yield production and allows the crops to grow at a faster rate. Agriculture emissions of nitrous oxide is 6% of the greenhouse gas emission in the United States and has increased in concentration by 30% since 1980.[23] While 6% may appear to be a small contributor, per pound nitrous oxide is 300 times more powerful than carbon dioxide emissions and has a residence time of around 120 years.[23] Different management practice such as water conservation through drip irrigation, nutrient monitoring to avoid overfertilization, and the use of a cover crop in place of fertilizer application may help in reducing level of nitrous oxide emissions.[24]

Global methane budget.
Global methane budget.

Land use

This section needs to be updated. The reason given is: it needs more recent info e.g. on plowing and soil. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (July 2019)
Substantial land-use change contributions to emissions have been made by Latin America, Southeast Asia, Africa, and Pacific Islands. Area of rectangles shows total emissions for that region.[25]
Substantial land-use change contributions to emissions have been made by Latin America, Southeast Asia, Africa, and Pacific Islands. Area of rectangles shows total emissions for that region.[25]

Agriculture contributes to greenhouse gas increases through land use in four main ways:

Together, these agricultural processes comprise 54% of methane emissions, roughly 80% of nitrous oxide emissions, and virtually all carbon dioxide emissions tied to land use.[26]

The planet's major changes to land cover since 1750 have resulted from deforestation in temperate regions: when forests and woodlands are cleared to make room for fields and pastures, the albedo of the affected area increases, which can result in either warming or cooling effects, depending on local conditions.[27] Deforestation also affects regional carbon reuptake, which can result in increased concentrations of CO2, the dominant greenhouse gas.[28] Land-clearing methods such as slash and burn compound these effects by burning biomatter, which directly releases greenhouse gases and particulate matter such as soot into the air. Land clearing can destroy the soil carbon sponge.

Rice production

The worldwide production of rice accounts for more greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in total than that of any other plant food.[29] It was estimated in 2021 to be responsible for 30% of agricultural methane emissions and 11% of agricultural nitrous oxide emissions.[30] Methane release is caused by long-term flooding of rice fields, inhibiting the soil from absorbing atmospheric oxygen, a process causing anaerobic fermentation of organic matter in the soil.[31] A 2021 study estimated that rice contributed 2 billion tonnes of anthropogenic greenhouse gases in 2010,[29] of the 47 billion total.[32] The study added up GHG emissions from the entire lifecycle, including production, transportation, and consumption, and compared the global totals of different foods.[33] The total for rice was half the total for beef.[29]

Livestock

See also: Environmental_impact_of_meat_production § Greenhouse_gas_emissions

Livestock and livestock-related activities such as deforestation and increasingly fuel-intensive farming practices are responsible for over 18%[34] of human-made greenhouse gas emissions, including:

The Niamana Livestock Market
The Niamana Livestock Market

Livestock activities also contribute disproportionately to land-use effects, since crops such as corn and alfalfa are cultivated in order to feed the animals.

In 2010, enteric fermentation accounted for 43% of the total greenhouse gas emissions from all agricultural activity in the world.[35] The meat from ruminants has a higher carbon equivalent footprint than other meats or vegetarian sources of protein based on a global meta-analysis of lifecycle assessment studies.[36] Methane production by animals, principally ruminants, is estimated 15-20% global production of methane.[37][38]

Worldwide, livestock production occupies 70% of all land used for agriculture, or 30% of the land surface of the Earth.[34] The way livestock is grazed also affects future fertility of the land. Not circulating grazing can lead to unhealthy compacted soils. The expansion of livestock farms affects the habitats of native wildlife and has led to their decline.

Fertilizer production

The greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide are produced during the manufacture of nitrogen fertilizer. CO2 is estimated as over 1% of global CO2 emissions.[39] Nitrogen fertilizer can be converted by soil bacteria to nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas.[40] Nitrous oxide emissions by humans, most of which are from fertilizer, between 2007 and 2016 have been estimated at 7 million tonnes per year,[41] which is incompatible with limiting global warming to below 2 °C.[42]

Soil erosion

An example of drastic soil erosion as a result of agriculture.
An example of drastic soil erosion as a result of agriculture.

Large scale farming can cause large amounts of soil erosion, causing between 25 and 40 percent of soil to reach water sources, with it carrying the pesticides and fertilizers used by farmers, thus polluting bodies of water further.[43] The trend to constantly bigger farms has been highest in United States and Europe, due to financial arrangements, contract farming. Bigger farms tend to favour monocultures, overuse water resources, accelerate the deforestation and a decline in soil quality. A study from 2020 by the International Land Coalition, together with Oxfam and World Inequality Lab found that 1% of the land owners manage 70% of the world's farmland. The highest discrepance can be found in Latin America: The poorest 50% own just 1% of the land. Small landowners, as individuals or families, tend to be more cautious in land use. As of 2020, however, the proportion of small landowners has been decreasing since the 1980s. Currently, the largest share of smallholdings can be found in Asia and Africa.[44]

Global estimates

Global greenhouse gas emissions attributed to different economic sectors as per the IPCC AR5 report. 3/4ths of emissions are directly produced, while 1/4th are produced by electricity and heat production that supports the sector.
Global greenhouse gas emissions attributed to different economic sectors as per the IPCC AR5 report. 3/4ths of emissions are directly produced, while 1/4th are produced by electricity and heat production that supports the sector.
Greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture, by region, 1990-2010
Greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture, by region, 1990-2010

In 2019 the IPCC reported that 13%-21% of anthropogenic greenhouse gasses came specifically from the Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses Sector (AFOLU).[3] Emissions from agriculture of nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide make up to half of the greenhouse-gases produced by the overall food industry, or 80% of agricultural emissions.[4]

In 2020, it was estimated that the food system as a whole contributed 37% of total greenhouse gas emissions, and that this figure was on course to increase by 30–40% by 2050 due to population growth and dietary change.[45]

Older estimates

In 2010, agriculture, forestry and land-use change were estimated to contribute 20–25% of global annual emissions.[46]

Mitigation

Mean greenhouse gas emissions for different food types[47]
Food Types Greenhouse Gas Emissions (g CO2-Ceq per g protein)
Ruminant Meat
62
Recirculating Aquaculture
30
Trawling Fishery
26
Non-recirculating Aquaculture
12
Pork
10
Poultry
10
Dairy
9.1
Non-trawling Fishery
8.6
Eggs
6.8
Starchy Roots
1.7
Wheat
1.2
Maize
1.2
Legumes
0.25

In developed countries

Agriculture is often not included in government emissions reductions plans.[48] For example, the agricultural sector is exempt from the EU emissions trading scheme[49] which covers around 40% of the EU greenhouse gas emissions.[50]

Several mitigation measures for use in developed countries have been proposed: [51]

In developing countries

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has reported that agriculture is responsible for over a quarter of total global greenhouse gas emissions.[52] Given that agriculture's share in global gross domestic product (GDP) is about 4%, these figures suggest that agricultural activities produce high levels of greenhouse gases. Innovative agricultural practices and technologies can play a role in climate change mitigation[53] and adaptation. This adaptation and mitigation potential is nowhere more pronounced than in developing countries where agricultural productivity remains low; poverty, vulnerability and food insecurity remain high; and the direct effects of climate change are expected to be especially harsh. Creating the necessary agricultural technologies and harnessing them to enable developing countries to adapt their agricultural systems to changing climate will require innovations in policy and institutions as well. In this context, institutions and policies are important at multiple scales.

Travis Lybbert and Daniel Sumner suggest six policy principles:[54]

  1. The best policy and institutional responses will enhance information flows, incentives and flexibility.
  2. Policies and institutions that promote economic development and reduce poverty will often improve agricultural adaptation and may also pave the way for more effective climate change mitigation through agriculture.
  3. Business as usual among the world's poor is not adequate.
  4. Existing technology options must be made more available and accessible without overlooking complementary capacity and investments.
  5. Adaptation and mitigation in agriculture will require local responses, but effective policy responses must also reflect global impacts and inter-linkages.
  6. Trade will play a critical role in both mitigation and adaptation, but will itself be shaped importantly by climate change.

State- or NGO-sponsored projects can help farmers be more resilient to climate change, such as irrigation infrastructure providing a dependable water source as rains become more erratic.[55][56] Water catchment systems that collect water during the rainy season to be used during the dry season or periods of drought, can also be used to mitigate the effects of climate change.[56] Some programs, like Asociación de Cooperación para el Desarrollo Rural de Occidente (C.D.R.O.), a Guatemalan program funded by the United States’ government until 2017, focus on agroforestry and weather monitoring systems to help farmers adapt. The organization provided residents with resources to plant new, more adaptable crops to alongside their typical maize to protect the corn from variable temperatures, frost, etc. C.D.R.O. also set up a weather monitoring system to help predict extreme weather events, and would send residents text messages to warn them about periods of frosts, extreme heat, humidity, or drought.[57] Projects focusing on irrigation, water catchment, agroforestry, and weather monitoring can help Central American residents adapt to climate change.

The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP)[58] was developed in 2010 to evaluate agricultural models and intercompare their ability to predict climate impacts. In sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, South America and East Asia, AgMIP regional research teams (RRTs) are conducting integrated assessments to improve understanding of agricultural impacts of climate change (including biophysical and economic impacts) at national and regional scales. Other AgMIP initiatives include global gridded modeling, data and information technology (IT) tool development, simulation of crop pests and diseases, site-based crop-climate sensitivity studies, and aggregation and scaling.

One of the most important projects to mitigate climate change with agriculture and adapting agriculture to climate change at the same time, was launched in 2019 by the "Global EverGreening Alliance". The initiative was announced in the 2019 UN Climate Action Summit. One of the main methods is Agroforestry. Another important method is Conservation farming. One of the targets is to sequester carbon from the atmosphere. By 2050 the restored land should sequestrate 20 billion of carbon annually. The coalition wants, among other, to recover with trees a territory of 5.75 million square kilometres, achieve a health tree - grass balance on a territory of 6.5 million square kilometres and increase carbon capture in a territory of 5 million square kilometres.

The first phase is the "Grand African Savannah Green Up" project. Already millions families implemented these methods, and the average territory covered with trees in the farms in Sahel increased to 16%.[59]

Climate-smart agriculture

Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) (or climate resilient agriculture) is an integrated approach to managing landscapes to help adapt agricultural methods, livestock and crops to the effects of climate change and, where possible, counteract it by reducing greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture, at the same time taking into account the growing world population to ensure food security.[60] Thus, the emphasis is not simply on carbon farming or sustainable agriculture, but also on increasing agricultural productivity. "CSA ... is in line with FAO’s vision for Sustainable Food and Agriculture and supports FAO’s goal to make agriculture, forestry and fisheries more productive and more sustainable".[61][62]

CSA has three pillars: increasing agricultural productivity and incomes; adapting and building resilience to climate change; and reducing or removing greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. CSA lists different actions to counter the future challenges for crops and plants. With respect to rising temperatures and heat stress, e.g. CSA recommends the production of heat tolerant crop varieties, mulching, water management, shade house, boundary trees and appropriate housing and spacing for cattle.[63]There are attempts to mainstream CSA into core government policies, expenditures and planning frameworks. In order for CSA policies to be effective, they must be able to contribute to broader economic growth, the sustainable development goals and poverty reduction. They must also be integrated with disaster risk management strategies, actions, and social safety net programmes.[64]

See also

References

  1. ^ Section 4.2: Agriculture's current contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, in: HLPE 2012, pp. 67–69
  2. ^ Sarkodie, Samuel A.; Ntiamoah, Evans B.; Li, Dongmei (2019). "Panel heterogeneous distribution analysis of trade and modernized agriculture on CO2 emissions: The role of renewable and fossil fuel energy consumption". Natural Resources Forum. 43 (3): 135–153. doi:10.1111/1477-8947.12183. ISSN 1477-8947.
  3. ^ a b Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses Ch7 from "Climate Change 2022: Mitigation of Climate Change". www.ipcc.ch. Retrieved 6 April 2022.
  4. ^ a b c d e Friel, Sharon; Dangour, Alan D.; Garnett, Tara; et al. (2009). "Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: food and agriculture". The Lancet. 374 (9706): 2016–2025. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61753-0. PMID 19942280. S2CID 6318195.
  5. ^ "How livestock farming affects the environment". www.downtoearth.org.in. Retrieved 10 February 2022.
  6. ^ "The Food Gap: The Impacts of Climate Change on Food Production: a 2020 Perspective" (PDF). 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 April 2012.
  7. ^ Steinfeld H, Gerber P, Wassenaar T, Castel V, Rosales M, de Haan C (2006). Livestock's long shadow: environmental issues and options (PDF). Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN. ISBN 978-92-5-105571-7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 June 2008.
  8. ^ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Archived 1 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine (IPCC)
  9. ^ Thornton, P.K.; van de Steeg, J.; Notenbaert, A.; Herrero, M. (2009). "The impacts of climate change on livestock and livestock systems in developing countries: A review of what we know and what we need to know". Agricultural Systems. 101 (3): 113–127. doi:10.1016/j.agsy.2009.05.002.
  10. ^ Kurukulasuriya, Pradeep; Rosenthal, Shane (June 2003). Climate Change and Agriculture: A Review of Impacts and Adaptions (PDF) (Report). World Bank.
  11. ^ McMichael, A.J.; Campbell-Lendrum, D.H.; Corvalán, C.F.; et al. (2003). Climate Change and Human Health: Risks and Responses (PDF) (Report). World Health Organization. ISBN 92-4-156248-X.
  12. ^ SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS, in: HLPE 2012, pp. 12–23
  13. ^ Smith, P., et al., Executive summary, in: Chapter 5: Drivers, Trends and Mitigation (archived 30 December 2014), in: IPCC AR5 WG3 2014, pp. 816–817
  14. ^ Smith, Laurence G.; Kirk, Guy J. D.; Jones, Philip J.; Williams, Adrian G. (22 October 2019). "The greenhouse gas impacts of converting food production in England and Wales to organic methods". Nature Communications. 10 (1): 4641. Bibcode:2019NatCo..10.4641S. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-12622-7. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 6805889. PMID 31641128.
  15. ^ "Agricultural Practices Producing and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions" (PDF).
  16. ^ US EPA, OAR (29 December 2015). "Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions". www.epa.gov. Retrieved 4 April 2022.
  17. ^ Food, Ministry of Agriculture and. "Reducing agricultural greenhouse gases - Province of British Columbia". www2.gov.bc.ca. Retrieved 4 April 2022.
  18. ^ a b c Quinton, Amy (27 June 2019). "Cows and climate change".
  19. ^ "Curbing methane emissions: How five industries can counter a major climate threat | McKinsey". www.mckinsey.com. Retrieved 4 April 2022.
  20. ^ Reed, John (25 June 2020). "Thai rice farmers step up to tackle carbon footprint". Financial Times. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
  21. ^ Leahy, Sinead; Clark, Harry; Reisinger, Andy (2020). "Challenges and Prospects for Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Pathways Consistent With the Paris Agreement". Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems. 4. doi:10.3389/fsufs.2020.00069. ISSN 2571-581X.
  22. ^ a b Galford, Gillian L.; Peña, Olivia; Sullivan, Amanda K.; Nash, Julie; Gurwick, Noel; Pirolli, Gillian; Richards, Meryl; White, Julianna; Wollenberg, Eva (2020). "Agricultural development addresses food loss and waste while reducing greenhouse gas emissions". Science of the Total Environment. 699: 134318. Bibcode:2020ScTEn.699m4318G. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134318. PMID 33736198. S2CID 202879416.
  23. ^ a b "The Greenhouse Gas No One's Talking About: Nitrous Oxide on Farms, Explained". Civil Eats. 19 September 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2022.
  24. ^ Resources, University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural. "Nitrous Oxide Emissions". ucanr.edu. Retrieved 4 April 2022.
  25. ^ Fig. SPM.2c from Working Group III (4 April 2022). "Climate Change 2022 / Mitigation of Climate Change / Summary for Policymakers" (PDF). IPCC.ch. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. p. SPM-11. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 April 2022. Data is for 2019.
  26. ^ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios retrieved 26 June 2007
  27. ^ "Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change" (PDF).
  28. ^ IPCC Technical Summary retrieved 25 June 2007
  29. ^ a b c "Meat accounts for nearly 60% of all greenhouse gases from food production, study finds". the Guardian. 13 September 2021. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  30. ^ Gupta K, Kumar R, Baruah KK, Hazarika S, Karmakar S, Bordoloi N (June 2021). "Greenhouse gas emission from rice fields: a review from Indian context". Environmental Science and Pollution Research International. 28 (24): 30551–30572. doi:10.1007/s11356-021-13935-1. PMID 33905059. S2CID 233403787.
  31. ^ Neue HU (1993). "Methane emission from rice fields: Wetland rice fields may make a major contribution to global warming". BioScience. 43 (7): 466–73. doi:10.2307/1311906. JSTOR 1311906. Archived from the original on 15 January 2008. Retrieved 4 February 2008.
  32. ^ Charles K. "Food production emissions make up more than a third of global total". New Scientist. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  33. ^ Xu X, Sharma P, Shu S, Lin TS, Ciais P, Tubiello FN, Smith P, Campbell N, Jain AK (September 2021). "Global greenhouse gas emissions from animal-based foods are twice those of plant-based foods=". Nature Food. 2 (9): 724–732. doi:10.1038/s43016-021-00358-x. hdl:2164/18207. ISSN 2662-1355. S2CID 240562878.
  34. ^ a b c Steinfeld H, Gerber P, Wassenaar TD, Castel V, de Haan C (1 January 2006). Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options (PDF). Food & Agriculture Org. ISBN 9789251055717. Archived from the original on 25 June 2008 – via Google Books.,
  35. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2013) "FAO STATISTICAL YEARBOOK 2013 World Food and Agriculture". See data in Table 49.
  36. ^ Ripple WJ, Smith P, Haberl H, Montzka SA, McAlpine C, Boucher DH (20 December 2013). "Ruminants, climate change and climate policy". Nature Climate Change. 4 (1): 2–5. Bibcode:2014NatCC...4....2R. doi:10.1038/nclimate2081.
  37. ^ Cicerone RJ, Oremland RS (December 1988). "Biogeochemical aspects of atmospheric methane". Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 2 (4): 299–327. Bibcode:1988GBioC...2..299C. doi:10.1029/GB002i004p00299.
  38. ^ Yavitt JB (1992). "Methane, biogeochemical cycle". Encyclopedia of Earth System Science. London, England: Academic Press. 3: 197–207.
  39. ^ "Green Ammonia and the Electrification of the Haber-Bosch Process Reduce Carbon Emissions". guidehouseinsights.com. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  40. ^ "How Fertilizer Is Making Climate Change Worse". BloombergQuint. Retrieved 25 March 2021.
  41. ^ Tian, Hanqin; Xu, Rongting; Canadell, Josep G.; Thompson, Rona L.; Winiwarter, Wilfried; Suntharalingam, Parvadha; Davidson, Eric A.; Ciais, Philippe; Jackson, Robert B.; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Prather, Michael J. (October 2020). "A comprehensive quantification of global nitrous oxide sources and sinks". Nature. 586 (7828): 248–256. Bibcode:2020Natur.586..248T. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2780-0. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 33028999. S2CID 222217027. Archived from the original on 13 October 2020. Alt URL
  42. ^ "Nitrogen fertiliser use could 'threaten global climate goals'". Carbon Brief. 7 October 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2021.
  43. ^ Ruhl, JB (2000). "Farms, Their Environmental Harms, and Environmental Law". Ecology Law Quarterly. 27 (2): 263–349. JSTOR 24113926.
  44. ^ "1% of farms operate 70% of world's farmland". the Guardian. 24 November 2020. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
  45. ^ Science Advice for Policy by European Academies (2020). A sustainable food system for the European Union (PDF). Berlin: SAPEA. p. 39. doi:10.26356/sustainablefood. ISBN 978-3-9820301-7-3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 14 April 2020. ((cite book)): |last= has generic name (help)
  46. ^ Blanco, G., et al., Section 5.3.5.4: Agriculture, Forestry, Other Land Use, in: Chapter 5: Drivers, Trends and Mitigation (archived 30 December 2014), in: IPCC AR5 WG3 2014, p. 383 Emissions aggregated using 100-year global warming potentials from the IPCC Second Assessment Report
  47. ^ Michael Clark; Tilman, David (November 2014). "Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health". Nature. 515 (7528): 518–522. Bibcode:2014Natur.515..518T. doi:10.1038/nature13959. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 25383533. S2CID 4453972.
  48. ^ "Livestock – Climate Change's Forgotten Sector: Global Public Opinion on Meat and Dairy Consumption". www.chathamhouse.org. 3 December 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  49. ^ Barbière, Cécile (12 March 2020). "Europe's agricultural sector struggles to reduce emissions". www.euractiv.com. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  50. ^ Anonymous (23 November 2016). "EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS)". Climate Action - European Commission. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  51. ^ "Climate change adaptation in agriculture: practices and technologies" (PDF).
  52. ^ IPCC. 2007. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contributions of Working Groups I, Ii, and Iiito the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva: IPCC
  53. ^ Basak R. 2016. Benefits and costs of climate change mitigation technologies in paddy rice: Focus on Bangladesh and Vietnam. CCAFS Working Paper no. 160. Copenhagen, Denmark: CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). https://cgspace.cgiar.org/rest/bitstreams/79059/retrieve
  54. ^ Lybbert TJ, Sumner DA (February 2012). "Agricultural technologies for climate change in developing countries: Policy options for innovation and technology diffusion". Food Policy. 37 (1): 114–123. doi:10.1016/j.foodpol.2011.11.001.
  55. ^ Wernick, Adam (6 February 2019). "Climate change is the overlooked driver of Central American migration". The World (Podcast). Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  56. ^ a b Green, Lisa; Schmook, Birgit; Radel, Claudia; Mardero, Sofia (March 2020). "Living Smallholder Vulnerability: The Everyday Experience of Climate Change in Calakmul, Mexico". Journal of Latin American Geography. University of Texas Press. 19 (2): 110–142. doi:10.1353/lag.2020.0028. S2CID 216383920.
  57. ^ Blitzer, Jonathan (3 April 2019). "How Climate Change is Fuelling the U.S. Border Crisis". The New Yorker. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
  58. ^ "Food for the Future - Assessments of Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture" (Press release). Imperial College Press. April 2015. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  59. ^ Hoffner, Erik (25 October 2019). "Grand African Savannah Green Up': Major $85 Million Project Announced to Scale up Agroforestry in Africa". Ecowatch. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  60. ^ "Climate-Smart Agriculture". World Bank. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
  61. ^ "Climate-Smart Agriculture". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 19 June 2019. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
  62. ^ "CLIMATE-SMART AGRICULTURE Sourcebook" (PDF). Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations. 2013.
  63. ^ Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). "What is Climate Smart Agriculture?" (PDF). Retrieved 4 June 2022.
  64. ^ "Climate-Smart Agriculture Policies and planning". Archived from the original on 31 March 2016.