The grimdark subgenre originated with Warhammer 40,000

Grimdark is a subgenre of speculative fiction with a tone, style, or setting that is particularly dystopian, amoral, and violent. The term is inspired by the tagline of the tabletop strategy game Warhammer 40,000: "In the grim darkness of the far future there is only war."[1][2]


Several attempts to define the neologism[3] "grimdark" have been made:

Whether grimdark is a genre in its own right or an unhelpful label has also been discussed. Valentine noted that while some writers have embraced the term, others see it as "a dismissive term for fantasy that's dismantling tropes, a stamp unfairly applied."[4]

Use in fantasy fiction

According to Adam Roberts, grimdark is an "anti-Tolkien" approach to fantasy writing. George R. R. Martin's popular grimdark fantasy series A Song of Ice and Fire is characterized, in Roberts' view, by its reaction to Tolkien's idealism, even though it owes much to Tolkien.[1] According to Jon Garrad, grimdark is associated with the gothic movement of the 1990s and its negativity and emphasis on loss.[8]

Writing in The Guardian in 2016, Damien Walter summarized what he considered grimdark's "domination" of the fantasy genre as "bigger swords, more fighting, bloodier blood, more fighting, axes, more fighting", and a "commercial imperative to win adolescent male readers". He saw this trend as being in opposition to "a truly epic and more emotionally nuanced kind of fantasy" that delivered storytelling.[9]

Grimdark fantasy has been written since the 1980s by Glen Cook,[10] George R. R. Martin, Joe Abercrombie,[4][11] Richard K. Morgan,[4] Steven Erikson,[12] Paul Kearney[13][14] and Mark Lawrence.[5][11] In a broader sense, the "pervasively gritty, bleak, pessimistic, or nihilistic view of the world"[15] characteristic of grimdark fiction is found in much popular fiction from the 2000s, including Batman comics, the television series Breaking Bad, and the media franchise The Walking Dead.[15]

Contrasting genres and trends

In 2017, the writer Alexandra Rowland proposed that the "opposite of grimdark" is "hopepunk", a trend that emphasizes what grimdark rejects: the importance of hope and the sense that ideals are worth fighting for despite adversity.[15][16] The novelist Derek B. Miller defined hopepunk as "stories that free the soul from darkness. That necessitates situating the characters and action in a dark world and then directing the drama and activity towards the light. Whether they reach it or not is part of the story."[17]

Another style proposed to provide a contrast to grimdark is "noblebright", which takes as its premise that not only are there good fights worth fighting, but that they are also winnable and result in a happy ending.[15]

See also


  1. ^ a b c Roberts, Adam (2014). Get Started in: Writing Science Fiction and Fantasy. Hachette UK. p. 42. ISBN 9781444795660.
  2. ^ Moser, Marcel (2019). "Hope as the Main Driving Force of Humanity in the Grimdark Universe of Warhammer 40,000" (PDF). Kick (2). ISSN 2623-9558.
  3. ^ Ayres, Jackson (20 February 2016). "When Were Superheroes Grim and Gritty?". Los Angeles Review of Books. Retrieved 5 September 2022.
  4. ^ a b c d Valentine, Genevieve (25 January 2015). "For A Taste Of Grimdark, Visit The 'Land Fit For Heroes'". NPR Books. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  5. ^ a b Shurin, Jared (28 January 2015). "NEW RELEASES: THE GOBLIN EMPEROR BY KATHERINE ADDISON". Pornokitsch. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  6. ^ Bourke, Liz (17 April 2015). "The Dark Defiles by Richard Morgan". Strange Horizons. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  7. ^ Young, Helen Victoria (2015). Fantasy and Science Fiction Medievalisms. Cambria Press. p. 5. ISBN 9781604978964.
  8. ^ Garrad, Jon (2017). "Endless Nineties: the perennial aesthetic of'grimdark'games". Gothic Styles, Gothic Substance.
  9. ^ Walter, Damien (1 January 2016). "Science fiction and fantasy look ahead to a diverse 2016". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
  10. ^ Cordova, Savannah (1 March 2019). "Grimdark Books". Reedsy. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  11. ^ a b Mike Gelprin; Mark Lawrence; Gerri Leen; Adrian Tchaikovsky; Nick Wisseman (1 October 2014). Grimdark Magazine Issue #1. Grimdark Magazine. pp. 15–16. ISBN 978-0-9941659-1-6.
  12. ^ "Interview with dark fantasy legend Steven Erikson". 17 November 2020.
  14. ^ Burke, Cheresse (11 November 2014). "Review: Riding the Unicorn by Paul Kearney".
  15. ^ a b c d Romano, Aja (27 December 2018). "In the era of Trump and apocalyptic change, Hopepunk is weaponizing optimism". Vox. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  16. ^ Kehe, Jason (16 September 2021). "Is Becky Chambers the Ultimate Hope for Science Fiction?". Wired. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
  17. ^ "Radio Life: Interview With Author Derek B. Miller". SciFiNow. 21 January 2021.