In English and related languages, several terms involving the words "great" or "gross" relate to numbers involving a multiple of exponents of twelve (dozen):

- A
**gross**refers to a group of 144 items (a dozen dozen or a square dozen, 12^{2}).^{[1]}^{[2]} - A
**great gross**refers to a group of 1,728 items (a dozen gross or a cubic dozen, 12^{3}).^{[1]}^{[2]} - A
**small gross**^{[3]}or a**great hundred**^{[4]}refers to a group of 120 items (ten dozen, 10×12).

The term can be abbreviated *gr.* or *gro.*, and dates from the early 15th century. It derives from the Old French *grosse douzaine*, meaning "large dozen”.^{[5]} The continued use of these terms in measurement and counting represents the duodecimal number system.^{[6]} This has led groups such as the Dozenal Society of America to advocate for wider use of "gross" and related terms instead of the decimal system.^{[7]}^{[8]}