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The guanbi policy (關閉政策; closure policy) or closed port policy (閉港政策) was a military blockade policy of the government of the Republic of China (ROC) against the People's Republic of China (PRC). On 18 June 1949, ROC Government announced the aerial and naval blockade policy along the Chinese coast from Liao River to Min River area starting on 26 June.[1] The application area was extended further southwest to include the Guangdong Province in February 1950.[2]

The Executive Yuan approved another Emergency measure to ban the activities of domestic vessels, crew and the owner companies to the People's Republic of China on 16 August 1950.[3], and the complete naval traffic blockade measure on 12 July 1962.[4] Moreover, the Kuomintang government extended the privateering on the foreign vessels regardless even in the international waters.[5][6]

New York Times reported that 67 foreign ships were intercepted by the ROC Armed Forces from September 1949 to October 1954, with half of them being British vessels - 141 incidents of interference as per British official statistics.[7] The Western Enterprise Incorporated (WEI) supported by the Central Intelligence Agency acted a strategic role in the operations.[8][9]

Various incidents occurred with tragic ending of human lives and properties lost throughout the following years.[10][11] It wasn't until 12 September 1979, the naval traffic blockade status ended;[2] and the regulation on the vessels, crew and owner companies was abolished on 15 January 1992.[12]

References

  1. ^ Executive Yuan Decree (1949-06-18). "38 穗五 No. 4896". Guangzhou: 5th Directorate of the President Office.
  2. ^ a b National Archives Administration, National Development Council (2009-01-08). "封鎖共區" (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Archival Resources for Teaching.
  3. ^ Executive Yuan Decree (1950-08-16). "投匪資匪之輪船公司及船隻緊急處置辦法". ROC Ministry of Transportation and Communications.
  4. ^ 臺灣省政府公報五十二年秋字第三十三期 (1963-06-07). "戡亂時期截斷匪區海上交通辦法" (in Chinese (Taiwan)). National Central Library Gazette Online.
  5. ^ 李禎祥 (2009-01-08). "反共抗俄大暴走:1954年陶甫斯號劫船事件" (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Taiwan People News.
  6. ^ P. M. Ivanov (1996-01-01). Russian-Taiwanese relations: Current state, problems, and prospects of development. School of Law, University of Maryland. ISBN 0925153451.
  7. ^ John W. Garver (1997-04-30). The Sino-American Alliance, Nationalist China and American Cold war Strategy in Asia. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe, Inc. ISBN 9780765600530.
  8. ^ Robert Accinelli (1996-01-23). Crisis and Commitment: United States Policy toward Taiwan, 1950-1955. The Journal of American History. ISBN 0807822590.
  9. ^ Frank Holober (1999-09-01). Raiders of the China Coast: CIA Covert Operations during the Korean War. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1557503885.
  10. ^ 李禎祥 (2009-01-08). "Praca" (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Taiwan News Weekly, ver. 376, Taiwan Association for Truth and Reconciliation.
  11. ^ Лев КАПЛИН. "The tragedy of the tanker "Tuapse"" (in Russian). Riddles of History.
  12. ^ Executive Yuan Decree (1992-01-15). "投匪資匪之輪船公司及船隻緊急處置辦法歷史沿革". ROC Ministry of Transportation and Communications.

See Also