IAI 1125 Astra/Gulfstream G100/G150
Role Business jet
Manufacturer Gulfstream Aerospace
First flight 1984
Status In service
Primary user United States Navy
Produced 1985–2017[1]
Number built 265 : 145 Astra/G100[2] + 120 G150[1]
Developed from IAI Westwind
Variants Gulfstream G200

The Gulfstream G100, formerly known as the IAI Astra SPX, is an Israel Aerospace Industries-manufactured twin-engine business jet, that was produced for Gulfstream Aerospace. Deliveries began in 1986. The United States Navy employs the aircraft as the C-38A Courier. A later derivative known as the G150 was launched in 2002. Gulfstream announced the final sale of the G150 in September 2016 and the last delivery by mid-2017.[1]

Design and development

IAI Astra at the 1988 Paris Air Show

Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) developed the Astra from its Model 1124 Westwind business jet. Work on an improved Westwind began in the late 1970s,[3] with the first prototype flight on 19 March 1984.[4] The first production Astra flew on 20 March 1985, with FAA certification granted on 29 August 1985 and customer deliveries starting in 1986.[4]

The original 1125 Astra was replaced by the Astra SP, announced in 1989; 37 were built. The third variant, the Astra SPX, flew for the first time in August 1994. This variant was renamed G100 from September 2002 following Gulfstream's acquisition of Galaxy Aerospace, which held the Astra type certificate, in May 2001.

In September 2002, Gulfstream announced the improved G150, based on the G100. This last variant features a wider (12 in) and longer fuselage (16 in aft of rear pressure bulkhead) updated avionics and an increase in maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) to 26,100 pounds (11,839 kg) compared to the G100's MTOW of 24,650 pounds (11,181 kg). It was certified by the FAA in late 2005.[5] It has been certified for the steeper-than-normal approach path required to land at London City Airport.[6] Production of the G100 was discontinued following certification of the G150.[citation needed] IAI continued to manufacture G150s in Israel and the completed airframes were then flown to the U.S. for interior outfitting. In September 2016, Gulfstream announced that, owing to slow sales, production would be stopped, with delivery of the final aircraft due in mid-2017.[7]

The Astra was further developed in the 1990s; the wing was modified and mated to a completely new fuselage. This development became the IAI Galaxy (later the Gulfstream G200).[8]

By 2018, Gulfstream G150s from 2006–2008 were in the range of $3.8 to $4.8 million.[9]

Operational history

C-38A (G100) and Boeing C-40 Clipper of the United States Air National Guard

The G100 was ordered for the United States Air Force in 1997 as the C-38A Courier. The C-38A was operated by the 201st Airlift Squadron at Andrews Air Force Base in Maryland until 2015. The C-38A replaced the earlier Learjet C-21. The C-38A differs from the standard Gulfstream G100, being fitted with various military avionics systems.[10]

The C-38A was also ordered for the United States Navy, replacing North American T-2 Buckeyes at Naval Air Station Patuxent River beginning in September 2015. Two aircraft remain in service as of 2023, both former 201st Airlift Squadron C-38's. The C-38 is tasked with acting as a chase plane, radar test target, and pilot proficiency aircraft for the test and evaluation squadron VX-20.[11]

In 2012, an IAI Astra operated by the Eritrean Air Force as the Eritrean presidential aircraft was stolen by two pilots, both serving Eritrean Air Force officers. They flew the Astra to Saudi Arabia and requested political asylum after landing at Jizan Regional Airport.[12]


The updated G150 has a larger fuselage and a new nose
IAI 1125 Astra
Original version, powered by two 16.46 kilonewtons (3,700 lbf) Garrett TFE731-3A-200G turbofans.[13] A total of 32 built.[14]
IAI 1125 Astra SP
Version with modified aerodynamics (giving 53 nautical miles (61 mi; 98 km) increase in range), improved avionics and revised interior.[15] A total of 36 built from 1990.[16]
IAI 1125 Astra SPX
More powerful (18.90 kilonewtons (4,250 lbf) Honeywell TFE-731-40R-200G) engines and fitted with winglets. Increased weights and range.
  • Gulfstream G100
marketing name of the IAI 1125 after the programme was taken over by Gulfstream Aerospace in 2001.[14] A total of 77 Astra SPX and G100 aircraft were built.[2]
Gulfstream G150
Improved version of G100 with wider and longer cabin, a revised nose and uprated (19.7 kilonewtons (4,400 lbf)) engines.[2] Nearly 120 were in service in 2016.[1]

Notable accidents and incidents


 United States

Specifications (G-100)

Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 2003–2004[22]

General characteristics



See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era


  1. ^ a b c d "Gulfstream sells final G150, marks end of 10-year production run" (Press release). Gulfstream. 28 September 2016. Archived from the original on 6 July 2019. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
  2. ^ a b c Gerzanics, Mike (28 February 2006). "FLIGHT TEST: Gulfstream G150 – Space Machine". Flightglobal.
  3. ^ Relman 1993, p. 314.
  4. ^ a b Relman 1993, p. 316.
  5. ^ "FAA Type Certificate Data Sheet No. A16NM Revision 8 – Gulfstream Aerospace 1125 Westwind Astra; Astra SPX; Gulfstream 100; Gulfstream G150" (PDF). 23 May 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 November 2016. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
  6. ^ G150 Steep Approach to London City approaches reach 5.5 degrees Aviation Week. Accessed: 9 January 2011.[dead link]
  7. ^ Sarsfield, Kate (28 September 2016). "Gulfstream calls time on struggling G150". Flightglobal.
  8. ^ "The Israel IAI-1126 Galaxy/Gulfstream G200"
  9. ^ Mark Huber (December 2018). "For many models, market hitting the apex" (PDF). Aviation International News. pp. 20–21, 24. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 December 2018. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  10. ^ "C-38 Courier". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
  11. ^ T-2C Buckeye ends 56-year Navy career Archived 3 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine Naval Air Systems Command
  12. ^ a b Oliva, Leandro (7 October 2012). "REPORT: Air Force Captains Steal Eritrean Presidential Jet, Defect to Saudi Arabia". Business Insider. Allure Media. Archived from the original on 20 April 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  13. ^ Lambert 1993, pp. 182–183.
  14. ^ a b Jackson 2003, p. 623.
  15. ^ Lambert 1993, p. 182.
  16. ^ Jackson 2003, pp. 622–623.
  17. ^ "Accident IAI 1125 Astra SP N1125A,". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 25 March 2024.
  18. ^ "N1125A (1990 ISRAEL AIRCRAFT INDUSTRIES 1125 WESTWIND ASTRA owned by AVIATION TRUST COMPANY LLC TRUSTEE) Aircraft Registration". FlightAware. Retrieved 25 March 2024.
  19. ^ Hoyle Flight International 8–14 December 2015, p. 39.
  20. ^ "TRADE REGISTERS". armstrade.sipri.org. SIPRI. Archived from the original on 14 April 2010. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  21. ^ "NAVAIR C-38". navair.navy.mil. Retrieved 6 January 2023.
  22. ^ Jackson 2003, pp. 623–624.
  23. ^ David Esler (27 October 2016). "Honeywell's Super-Midsize HTF7000 Engine". Business & Commercial Aviation. Aviation Week.