Native toNepal
Native speakers
200 (2011)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3gyo

Gyalsumdo (Devanagari: ग्याल्सुस्दो) is a mostly undocumented Tibetic language spoken by an estimated 200 individuals of the Manang District in the Gandaki Zone of Nepal.[2][3] In January 2018 the language was added to ISO 639-3 under the code "gyo."[4]

Gyalsumdo is a tonal language; however in Gyalsumdo, unlike most other Central Tibetan languages, the word, rather than the syllable acts as the tone bearing unit. The language is reportedly closely related to the nearby Nubri and Tsum languages which share a large proportion of vocabulary.[2] Gyalsumdo is also described as being somewhat intelligible by speakers of Nar-Phu.[5]


  1. ^ Gyalsumdo at Ethnologue (25th ed., 2022) Closed access icon
  2. ^ a b "Language Landscape". Retrieved 2019-01-11.
  3. ^ "Preliminary documentation and description of Gyalsumdo, an undocumented Tibetan language of Manang, Nepal". Endangered Languages Archive at SOAS University of London.
  4. ^ "gyo | ISO 639-3". Retrieved 2019-01-11.
  5. ^ Hildebrandt, Kristine (2015). "A Sociolinguistic Survey of the Languages of Manang, Nepal: Co-Existence and Endangerment". 14. Journal of Indigenous Nationalities.