Light Combat Helicopter
Light Combat Helicopter first flight.jpg
Light Combat Helicopter on its first flight
Role Attack helicopter
National origin India
Manufacturer Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
Design group Rotary Wing Research and Design Center[1]
First flight 29 March 2010
Introduction 2021
Status Limited series production
Primary users Indian Army
Indian Air Force
Produced 2017 – present
Number built 9 (4 TD, 9 LSP) (15 LSP on order)
Developed from HAL Dhruv

The HAL Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) is an Indian multi-role attack helicopter designed and manufactured by the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). The LCH has been ordered by the Indian Air Force (IAF) and the Indian Army. Its flight ceiling is the highest among all attack helicopters.[2]

The impetus for the development of the LCH came in the form of the Kargil War, a conflict fought between India and neighbouring Pakistan in 1999, which revealed the Indian armed forces lacked a suitable armed rotorcraft capable of operating unrestricted in the high-altitude theatre. Accordingly, both HAL and the Indian armed forces commenced exploratory efforts towards the conceptualisation of a combat helicopter to perform in this role. During 2006, the company announced that it had launched a development programme to produce such a rotorcraft, referred to simply as the LCH. Originally, the LCH was anticipated to attain initial operating capability (IOC) by December 2010, however development of the type was protracted and subject to several delays, some of which having been attributed to suppliers.

The LCH drew extensively on an earlier indigenous helicopter developed and manufactured by HAL, the Dhruv; using this rotorcraft as a starting point has been attributed as significantly reducing the cost of the programme. On 29 March 2010, the first LCH prototype performed its maiden flight. An extensive test programme, involving a total of four prototypes, was conducted. During the course of these tests, the LCH gained the distinction of being the first attack helicopter to land in Siachen, having repeatedly landed at several high altitude helipads, some of which being as high as 13,600 feet (4145 meters) to 15,800 feet (4815 meters). During mid-2016, the LCH was recognised as having completed its performance trials, paving way for the certification of its basic configuration. On 26 August 2017, limited series production of the LCH was formally inaugurated. On 19 November 2021, Prime Minister Narendra Modi formally handed over the LCH to IAF Air Chief Marshal Vivek Ram Chaudhari, clearing way for full scale induction.[3]

Development

Origins

LCH model on display at ILA Berlin Air Show 2008
LCH model on display at ILA Berlin Air Show 2008

During the late 1990s, India and neighboring nation Pakistan engaged in a brief but intensely-fought conflict commonly known as the Kargil War. This war, in which various elements of the Indian military were deployed, revealed operational shortcomings and areas for improvement, particularly the requirement for an attack helicopter that would be suitable for use within the high altitude climates in which some combat operations were fought along the north-western border region.[4][5] Accordingly, there was considerable interest in not only the acquisition of a suitable contemporary rotorcraft for the task (as well as to replace several aging types in Indian military service, such as the Cheetah and Chetak), but for such an aircraft to be domestically developed and manufactured in India as well.

During early 2004, Indian aerospace manufacturer Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) declared that the company was in the midst of discussions with the Indian armed forces on the prospects for a potential light combat helicopter derivative of the company's existing Dhruv utility helicopter platform for the requirement.[6] During late 2004, the Indian armed forces decided to curtail plans to order foreign-built attack helicopters in anticipation of a decision to formally select the tentative LCH.[7] During 2006, HAL publicly announced that it had embarked upon the development of such an attack helicopter, which it referred to as the Light Combat Helicopter (LCH).[4] During late 2006, the Indian government decided to aid the fledgling programme via the issuing of external finance to support the design phase of the LCH's development, this was done as to aid the attack helicopter in conforming with the established requirements of the Indian Army and the Indian Air Force.[citation needed]

The LCH is a derivative of the HAL Dhruv, which had been developed during the 1990s and inducted into the Indian Armed Forces during the 2000s. Basing the LCH on an existing helicopter is expected to greatly reduce the associated costs of the programme, which was estimated to be roughly 376 crore (US$47.1 million) in 2010.[8] By 2010, the Indian Air Force was reportedly set to acquire 65 LCHs while the Indian Army was to also procure 114 LCHs for its own purposes.[9]

Development of the LCH did not progress to schedule. On 21 June 2007, HAL chairman Ashok Baweja announced that and stated that the first prototype LCH was to conduct its maiden flight during October 2008, and stated that the company was currently "halfway through the design stage".[10] During November 2008, the company declared that, while the first flight had been postponed until March 2009, it was still working to secure initial operating capability (IOC) for the LCH by December 2010, while it was still anticipated that the type would receive its Final Operational Clearance (FOC) during 2011.[11][12] During February 2009, Baweja announced another six-month delay to the development timetable, he also attributed some of the setbacks in the programme as having been a result of HAL's suppliers failing to deliver necessary tooling on time.[13]

Prototype and testing

First prototype of HAL Light Combat Helicopter with tandem crew seating arrangement undergoing engine start on 5 April 2010
First prototype of HAL Light Combat Helicopter with tandem crew seating arrangement undergoing engine start on 5 April 2010

During late January 2010, Nayak stated that the LCH had successfully completed initial ground tests and was now ready to fly; the first flight was anticipated to occur during February.[14] On 4 February 2010, the first LCH prototype completed its first powered ground run.[15][16] On 29 March 2010, the maiden flight of the LCH was conducted by the type's first LCH Technology Demonstrator (TD-1). It flew a 20-minute flight from HAL's Helicopter Complex at Bengaluru, during which the rotorcraft carried out low speed, low altitude checks on the systems on board. Following the completion of the flight, the crew reported that the performance of the helicopter and systems were satisfactory.[17][18]

On 23 May 2010, following the successful completion of the third test flight of the LCH prototype; it was deemed to have fulfilled the desired parameters and thus enabled further armed tests to proceed. The second LCH prototype (TD-2) differed considerably from its predecessor, being fitted with armaments and featuring a substantial reduction in weight; it was publicly unveiled at Aero India 2011 during February 2011. Speaking at the event, Nayak stated that the programme had exceeded human and payload requirements mandated by IAF for the development.[19][20] On 28 June 2011, TD-2 performed its first flight, allowing it to join the test programme.[21]

On 1 July 2012, the LCH began a series of trials near Chennai; among other elements, the onboard air speed measurement system was evaluated and various component stresses were measured.[22] Between late June and early July 2012, the second prototype, TD-2, was involved in a series of sea level trials. These trials covered flight performance, the measurement of loads, and the rotorcraft's handling qualities.[23]

LCH armed with FZ275 LGR rockets and Mistral missile.
LCH armed with FZ275 LGR rockets and Mistral missile.

During mid-2012, the third LCH prototype, which was claimed to be significantly lighter than either of its predecessors as well as incorporating various other improvements, was reportedly set to be delivered.[22] The third prototype, TD-3, ultimately performed its maiden flight on 12 November 2014 for a duration of 20 minutes.[24] Both TD3 and TD4 were extensively used during the test programme for the purpose of testing the rotorcraft's mission sensors and weapon systems, which involved a series of live-firing trials. Reportedly, a total of ₹ 126 crore (US$20.2 million) had been sanctioned for the development and structural build of the fourth prototype.[25]

During early 2015, a number of cold weather trials involving the third prototype (TD-3) were carried out at Air Force Station Leh. During these tests, engine start-up tests (performed using internal batteries after lengthy overnight exposure to the cold climate without special protective measures being applied) proved satisfactory at the temperatures as low as −18 °C at an altitude of 4.1 km. Several flights were also carried out to assess the rotorcraft's high altitude performance and low speed handling.[26] During the course of these tests, the LCH gained the distinction of being the first attack helicopter to land in Siachen, having repeatedly landed at several high altitude helipads, some of which being as high as 13,600 feet to 15,800 feet.[27][28]

During June 2015, the LCH successfully completed hot weather flight trials at Jodhpur, during which the type was exposed to temperatures ranging from 39 to 42 °C. The flight testing reportedly covered 'temperature survey of engine bay and hydraulic system', 'assessment of performance', 'handling qualities and loads' at different 'all up weights', 'low speed handling' and 'height-velocity diagram establishment'.[29]

On 1 December 2015, LCH TD4 completed its first flight. By March 2016, the LCH had reportedly completed basic performance flight testing and outstation trials, including a number of live-fire tests involving prototype TD-3 firing 70 mm rockets in its weaponized configuration.[30] By mid-2016, certification firing trials had commenced, these included tests of the integration of its mission sensors, such as the electro-optical system, helmet pointing system, and of the various armaments – air-to-air missiles, turret gun and rockets – that the type can deploy.[31]

During mid-2016, the LCH was recognised as having completed its performance trials, paving way for the certification of its basic configuration; a letter confirming this status was hand-delivered to HAL by CEMILAC in the presence of the Indian Defence Minister on 16 October 2015.[32] On 26 August 2017, Defence Minister Arun Jaitley formally inaugurated full-scale production of the LCH.[4][33]

On 31 January 2018, LCH TD2 was flown with an Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) designed by HAL. The new system is expected to replace the previously imported Automatic Flight Control System.[34] It was reported that a radar is under development for LCH.[35]

On 17 January 2019, LCH completed weapons trials with the successful firing of Mistral-2 air-to-air missile at a flying target.[36][37] In the same day, HAL announced that the LCH is ready for operational service after completing the required weapon integration tests.[38]

On 21 February 2019, Thales announced that it was awarded a contract to supply 135 70 mm rockets for 15 LCHs alongside 18 Dhruvs.[39]

Production

Vice Admiral Biswajit Dasgupta being briefed about the LCH during his HAL visit
Vice Admiral Biswajit Dasgupta being briefed about the LCH during his HAL visit

The LCH was declared ready for production in February 2020. HAL's Helicopter Division, based in Bengaluru, has established a dedicated hangar to accommodate the LCH assembly line.[40] During September 2020, the first LCH of the limited series production (LSP) batch had reportedly commenced ground-based testing.[41]

A total of 162 LCHs are planned to be ordered as of 2020.[2] 15 Limited Series Production variants for Army and Air Force are being built at HAL and the first two were scheduled to be delivered by March 2022. An additional hangar was set up in which reportedly is capable of achieving a peak production of 30 helicopters per year.[42] On 22 July 2021, it was announced that HAL will deliver the first three LCHs to the Indian Air Force.[43] On 30 March 2022, the Cabinet Committee on Security approved the limited series production of 15 LCHs, incuding ten for the IAF and five for the Indian Army.[44] The contract is worth Rs. 3,887 Cr along with infranstructure sanctions at Rs. 377 Cr.[45]

Design

Overview

LCH sortie undertaken by Air Chief Marshal R. K. S. Bhadauria
LCH sortie undertaken by Air Chief Marshal R. K. S. Bhadauria

The HAL Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) is a multirole combat helicopter, designed to perform various attack profiles, including relatively high altitude flight.[46] The design and development of the LCH was done in-house, by the Rotary Wing Research and Design Centre (RWR&DC), an internal design office of HAL dedicated to the design of helicopters.[47]

Equipped with a two-person tandem cockpit to accommodate a pilot and co-pilot/gunner, it has been developed to perform both the anti-infantry and anti-armour missions.[48] In addition to these roles, the LCH is intended to be used for a variety of operational purposes, such as to perform air defence against slow-moving aerial targets, including both manned aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), participation in counter-insurgency operations (COIN) and Counter Surface Force Operations (CSFO),[49] the destruction of enemy air defence operations and wider offensive use during urban warfare conditions, escort to special heliborne operations (SHBO), support of combat search and rescue (CSAR) operations, and armed aerial scouting duties.[50] In terms of its basic configuration, the LCH possesses a relatively narrow fuselage and is equipped with stealth profiling, armour protection, and is equipped to conduct day-and-night combat operations. According to reports, the protective measures included in the rotorcraft includes a digital camouflage system, an infrared (IR) suppressor fitted to the engine exhaust, and an exterior covered by canted flat panels to minimise its radar cross-section (RCS).[48][51] It is furnished with an integrated dynamic system, including a hingeless main rotor and bearing-less tail rotor, which works in conjunction with an anti-resonance isolation system to dampen vibrations.[48] During Aero India 2011, HAL's Rotary Wing Research & Design Centre informed the press that the LCH is "probably the most agile design in the world because of its rotor".[52]

The LCH had inherited many of its technical features from one of HAL's earlier indigenous rotorcraft, commonly known as the HAL Dhruv. Shared elements between the two helicopters include the power-plant used, both being powered by a pair of co-developed HAL/Turbomeca Shakti-1H1 derived from Safran Ardiden turboshaft engines, albeit fitted with infrared suppressors. The features that are unique to the rotorcraft includes its narrow fuselage, a crashworthy tricycle landing gear arrangement, crashworthy self-sealing fuel tanks, armour protection, and a low visibility profile; these design elements have been attributed as having resulted in a relatively lethal, agile and survivable rotorcraft.[26] Atypically for a combat helicopter, it shall also be capable of high-altitude warfare (HAW), possessing an in-service operational ceiling of 6,000–6,500 metres (19,700–21,300 ft).[52]

Avionics and armaments

Head-on view of the LCH with underwing rocket pods mounted on its stub wings
Head-on view of the LCH with underwing rocket pods mounted on its stub wings

The LCH is furnished with a glass cockpit which accommodates an Integrated Avionics and Display System (IADS) which used an array of multifunction displays in conjunction with the onboard target acquisition and designation (TADS) system.[48] A prominent element of the TADS system is the helmet mounted sight (HMS), which serves as the principal instrument for targeting and triggering the rotorcraft's armaments. The LCH is protected via an extensive electronic warfare suite which is provided by the South African division of Saab Group; this suite comprises various defensive elements to guard against several different threats, these include a radar warning receiver (RWR), laser warning receiver (LWR) and a missile approach warning (MAW) system.[4]

The LCH is equipped with an integrated data link, which enables the type to participate in network-centric operations by facilitating the transfer of mission data to other platforms, comprising both airborne and ground-based elements. This networking capable is said to facilitate operational cooperation and force multiplication practices.[4][49] The onboard sensor suite is Elbit CoMPASS, produced locally by Bharat Electronics Limited. It consists of a CCD camera, a forward looking infrared (FLIR) imaging sensor, a laser rangefinder and a laser designator to facilitate target acquisition under all-weather conditions, including under nighttime conditions.[53] The series production variant will come with Integrated Architecture Display System (IADS) and Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) which are locally developed by HAL with private sector industries.[54]

During 2006, it was announced that HAL had selected the M621 cannon to serve as the gun armament of the helicopter. The M621 cannon is incorporated in a Nexter-built THL 20 turret and integrated into a helmet-mounted sight.[55] Various missiles can also be equipped upon the LCH; these include a maximum of four 70 mm anti-tank guided missiles – options are to include both foreign and Indian-built missiles, the latter in the form of the Helina anti-tank missile. In terms of air-to-air missiles, the LCH shall be capable of being armed with the MBDA Mistral 2 missile.[4] Payloads of rockets are also available as offensive options for attacking targets with.[48]

Operational history

Indian Air Force LCH flying at Leh
Indian Air Force LCH flying at Leh

During November 2016, the Indian Ministry of Defense (MoD) authorised the purchase of an initial batch of 15 LCHs with 10 for the Indian Air Force (IAF) and 5 for the Indian Army Aviation Corps (AAC), referred to as being a limited series production order.[56][57] By mid-2017, the AAC had placed combined orders for 114 LCHs, while the IAF had a total of 65 LCHs on order. During early 2017, it was reported that the LCH's initial operating capability (IOC) with the Indian armed forces was expected to occur by 2018.[58] The AAC intended to deploy the indigenous LCH alongside the American-built Boeing AH-64 Apache attack helicopter.[59]

Achieving export sales for the LCH has been a stated priority of both HAL and the Indian government. During mid-2016, a spokesperson for the Indian Defence Ministry stated the ministry was in the progress of holding discussions with several unidentified African nations on the topic of the LCH.[60][61]

On 7 August 2020, IAF's Vice Chief Air Marshal Harjit Singh Arora flew an LCH from Thoise to Leh accompanied by a HAL test pilot in full mission configuration.[62] On 12 August 2020, HAL announced that the Indian Air Force has deployed two LCH prototypes to Ladakh for conducting armed patrols from forward air bases.[63] In January 2021, government gave initial approval for the production of an initial batch of 15 LCHs, ten for the IAF and five for the AAC.[42]

On 1 June, 2022, an attack squadron was raised by the Army Aviation Corps in Bangalore. A total of seven squadrons are planned, each with ten helicopters.[64]

Operators

 India

Specifications

Light Combat Helicopter firing rockets
Light Combat Helicopter firing rockets
HELINA / Dhruvastra Quad Pack Configuration
HELINA / Dhruvastra Quad Pack Configuration

Data from Jane's All the World's Aircraft,[66] Jane's Defence Weekly,[53][67] and HAL India[48][68]

General characteristics

Performance

Armament

Avionics

See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

Related lists

References

  1. ^ "Rotary Wing". Hindustan Aeronautics Limited. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  2. ^ a b Shukla, Ajai (13 August 2020). "Hindustan Aeronautics' light combat chopper cutting its teeth in Ladakh". Business Standard India. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
  3. ^ Sarkar, Shankhyaneel (19 November 2021). "PM Modi hands over Light Combat Helicopters to IAF chief". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 20 November 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  4. ^ a b c d e f Gady, Franz-Stefan. "India Kicks Off Production of Light Combat Helicopter." Archived 6 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine The Diplomat, 1 September 2017.
  5. ^ McKenna, James T. "India OKs Light Combat Helicopter Production." Archived 2 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine Rotor&Wing, 28 August 2017.
  6. ^ "Indian dawn." Archived 1 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 8 February 2004.
  7. ^ "Indian army slashes multi-role helicopter requirement." Archived 1 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 23 November 2004.
  8. ^ "Indigenous combat chopper takes to skies". Zeenews.com. 23 May 2010. Archived from the original on 29 June 2010. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
  9. ^ "Light Combat Helicopter - Defence Aviation". 2 April 2010. Archived from the original on 25 February 2011. Retrieved 15 June 2011. Light Combat Helicopter
  10. ^ Govindasamy, Siva. "HAL targets LCH first flight in Oct 2008." Archived 1 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 21 June 2007.
  11. ^ Govindasamy, Siva. "India delays LCH first flight to March 2009." Archived 1 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 24 November 2008.
  12. ^ "Indigenous attack chopper to fly in March". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 11 April 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
  13. ^ Govindasamy, Siva. "AERO INDIA: Light Combat Helicopter hit by six-month delay." Archived 1 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 13 February 2009.
  14. ^ Rao, Radhakrishna. "HAL's delayed light combat helicopter to fly in February." Archived 1 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 29 January 2010.
  15. ^ "Indigenous attack copter ready for first flight – India – DNA". Dnaindia.com. 8 February 2010. Archived from the original on 4 April 2010. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
  16. ^ "HAL to flight test LCH prototype next month". Archived from the original on 1 March 2012.
  17. ^ "India's attack helicopter takes first flight". Rediff.com News. 31 March 2010. Archived from the original on 12 February 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
  18. ^ Shukla, Ajai (31 March 2010). "India's Light Combat copter makes first flight". Business Standard India. Business-standard.com. Archived from the original on 4 April 2010. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
  19. ^ "India flies second high altitude Light Combat Helicopter prototype". The Times of India. n.d. Archived from the original on 11 April 2016.
  20. ^ "..:: India Strategic ::.. India flies second LCH". Archived from the original on 16 March 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
  21. ^ "Indian Light Combat Helicopter TD-2 successfully tested by HAL". Defence Aviation. 28 June 2011. Archived from the original on 5 July 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
  22. ^ a b "LCH Undergoes Sea Level Trials". Defence News. Archived from the original on 11 April 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
  23. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 26 September 2012.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  24. ^ "LCH TD3 makes a maiden flight". defencenews.in. Archived from the original on 11 April 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
  25. ^ "rotor plus: hal funded lch fnded td-3 undergoes first flight successfully". oneindia.com. 17 November 2014. Archived from the original on 16 December 2014.
  26. ^ a b "HAL's Light Combat Helicopter undergoes cold weather trials". The Economic Times. 2 March 2015. Archived from the original on 11 April 2016.
  27. ^ Urs, Ani l (3 September 2015). "HAL completes hot, high altitude trials of LCH at Leh". thehindubusinessline.com. Archived from the original on 27 August 2017. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
  28. ^ "LCH becomes first attack helicopter to land at Siachen". oneindia.com. 3 September 2015. Archived from the original on 18 August 2016. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
  29. ^ "Light Combat Helicopter completes hot weather flight trials". Times of India. 26 June 2015. Archived from the original on 10 February 2016.
  30. ^ "HAL's LCH passes rocket trials; will participate in 'Iron Fist' exercise". The Economic Times. 14 March 2016. Archived from the original on 20 April 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
  31. ^ "india-conduct-lch-weapons-trials". Defense News. 10 May 2016. Archived from the original on 11 April 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  32. ^ Jain, Smriti. "HAL's Light Combat Helicopter catches eyes of African countries: 5 special facts about the made-in-India LCH". Financial Express. Archived from the original on 20 August 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2016.
  33. ^ "Arun Jaitley inaugurates manufacture of light combat helicopter at HAL." Archived 27 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Business Standard.
  34. ^ Kumar, Chethan (31 January 2018). "Light combat helicopter flies with desi auto control systems, claims HAL". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 2 February 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  35. ^ Shukla, Ajai (1 February 2018). "Light Combat Helicopter gets cheaper with crucial indigenous AFCS". Business Standard. Archived from the original on 31 October 2018. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
  36. ^ "HAL's Light Combat Helicopter Completes Weapon Trials". NDTV. Indo-Asian News Service. 17 January 2019. Archived from the original on 19 January 2019. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
  37. ^ "LCH fires Mistral-2 missile, inches close to induction". OnManorama. 17 January 2019. Archived from the original on 17 January 2019. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
  38. ^ "Janes | Latest defence and security news". Janes.com.
  39. ^ "Thales to supply 70 mm rocket launchers for Indian attack helicopters - Rotor & Wing International". Rotorandwing.com. 23 February 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  40. ^ "Indigenous Light Combat Helicopter ready for operational induction: HAL". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  41. ^ Kumar, Chethan (20 September 2020). "HAL rolls out 300th ALH; ground run of LCH done too". The Times of India. Retrieved 10 October 2020.
  42. ^ a b Pubby, Manu (27 January 2021). "Indian forces to get local choppers even before formal contract". The Economic Times. New Delhi.
  43. ^ "Hindustan Aeronautics set to deliver first batch of 3 Light Combat Helicopters to IAF". Airrecognition.com. 22 July 2021. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  44. ^ "CCS Approves Procurement of 15 Light Combat Helicopters (LCH) Limited Series Production (LSP) from HAL for IAF (10) & IA(05)". pib.gov.in.
  45. ^ "India to acquire 15 light combat helicopters from HAL". Airrecognition.com. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  46. ^ "India's Light Combat Helicopter". Brahmand News. Archived from the original on 19 August 2016. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
  47. ^ "Rotary Wing". HAL. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  48. ^ a b c d e f "LCH". HAL India. Archived from the original on 20 November 2017. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  49. ^ a b "Indigenous combat copter takes to skies". The Times of India. 24 May 2010. Archived from the original on 11 April 2016.
  50. ^ "LCH". bharat-rakshak. Archived from the original on 2 August 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  51. ^ "Indian Light Combat Helicopter TD-2 successfully tested by HAL". Defence Aviation. Archived from the original on 16 October 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
  52. ^ a b "Aero India: HAL showcases new helicopter designs". SHEPHARD. 10 February 2011. Archived from the original on 20 February 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  53. ^ a b Hardy, James; Bedi, Rahul (23 February 2015). "Aero India 2015: Third LCH prototype breaks cover with new paintjob". Jane's Defence Weekly. Archived from the original on 5 December 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  54. ^ Jha, Manish Kumar (17 November 2021). "With Certainty, LCA MK 2 Aircraft Is Slated To Enter Production By 2027 And AMCA By 2035--HAL CMD R. Madhavan". BW Businessworld. Retrieved 22 November 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  55. ^ "Missile Mirage", Aviation Week & Space Technology, 1 January 2007.
  56. ^ Gady, Franz-Stefan (9 November 2016). "India Orders 83 New Fighter Jets, 15 Helicopter Gunships, and 464 Tanks". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 18 February 2019. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  57. ^ Waldron, Greg. "HAL commences LCH production." Archived 1 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 29 August 2017.
  58. ^ "LCH inching closer to IOC; first LSP chopper by 2018". mathrubhumi.com. 12 February 2017. Archived from the original on 14 April 2017. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  59. ^ Kumar, Avinash. "Dusk and Dawn of the Indian Attack Helicopters." Archived 1 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine Business Insider, 20 June 2015.
  60. ^ "LCH for African countries". Economic Times. 2016. Archived from the original on 11 April 2016. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
  61. ^ Bhat, Aditya. "HAL's Light Combat Helicopter advancing towards Initial Operational Clearance." Archived 1 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine International Business Times, 13 February 2017.
  62. ^ "Vice Chief Air Staff visits Ladakh; takes stock of IAF's preparedness". Business Standard India. Press Trust of India. 7 August 2020.
  63. ^ "Two HAL light combat choppers deployed in Ladakh". Hindustan Times. 12 August 2020. The two LCHs deployed in Ladakh are prototypes
  64. ^ "Army Raises Its First Light Combat Helicopter Squadron".
  65. ^ a b "CCS Approves Procurement of 15 Light Combat Helicopters (LCH) Limited Series Production (LSP) from HAL for IAF (10) & IA(05)". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 30 March 2022. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  66. ^ Jackson, Paul; Peacock, Lindsay; Bushell, Susan; Willis, David; Winchester, Jim, eds. (2016–2017). "India". IHS Jane's All the World's Aircraft: Development & Production. Couldson. p. 309. ISBN 978-0710631770.
  67. ^ Bedi, Rahul. "Aero India 2019: Thales to supply rocket launchers for HAL combat helos". Jane's Defence Weekly. No. 21 February 2019. Archived from the original on 22 February 2019.
  68. ^ "LCH". Hindustan Aeronautics Limited. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  69. ^ "Ardiden 1H1 Shakti, the engine of the Indian Dhruv helicopter". Safran. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  70. ^ "Hindustan Aeronautics Limited places order with Thales for 2.75-inch rocket launchers to equip Indian armed forces". Thales. 21 February 2019. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  71. ^ "LCH (Light Combat Helicopter)". Forges de Zeebrugge. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  72. ^ Siddiqui, Huma (17 January 2019). "HAL's Light Combat helicopter becomes India's 1st to carry out air-to-air attack firing Mistral missile". Financial Express. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  73. ^ "HELINA missile test-fired again on Day 2, this time from high-altitude regions". The Indian Express. ENS. 13 April 2022. Retrieved 12 July 2022.
  74. ^ Pubby, Manu (19 February 2021). "User trials of indigenous HELINA anti-tank missile complete, to be ordered by forces". The Economic Times. ET Bureau. Retrieved 12 July 2022.