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The Hammudid dynasty (Arabic: بنو حمود, romanizedBanū Ḥammūd) was a Berberized Arab Muslim[1][2] family that briefly ruled the Caliphate of Córdoba[3][4] and the taifas of Málaga and Algeciras and nominal control in Ceuta.[1]

The dynasty

The dynasty is named after their ancestor, Hammud, a descendant of Idris ibn Abdallah, founder of the Idrisid dynasty and great-grandchild of Hasan, son of Fatimah and Ali and grandson of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.[5] When Sulayman ibn al-Hakam carved out Andalusian land for his Berber allies, two members of the Hammudid family were given the governorship of Algeciras, Ceuta and Tangier. The Hammudids thus gained control of the traffic across the Straits of Gibraltar, suddenly becoming a powerful force. Claiming to act on behalf of the dethroned Hicham II, the Hammudid governor of Ceuta Ali ibn Hammud al-Nasir marched upon Córdoba in the year 1016, where he was crowned Caliph.

In 1056, the last Hammudid Caliph was dethroned, losing Málaga to the Zirids of Granada,[6] who had previously been the Hammudids' most important supporters. The Hammudi family was then forced to settle in Ceuta.

References

  1. ^ a b Viguera-Molins 2010, pp. 26–27.
  2. ^ Bosworth 2004, p. 15.
  3. ^ Lane-Poole (1894), p.21
  4. ^ Altamira, Rafael (1999). "Il califfato occidentale". Storia del mondo medievale. II. pp. 477–515.
  5. ^ Hammudids, A. Huici Miranda, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. III, ed. B. Lewis, V.L. Menage, C. Pellat and J. Schacht, (Brill, 1986), 147;"HAMMUDIDS, dynasty which reigned over various towns in Muslim Spain from 407/1016 till 450/1058. Sulayman al-Musta'm [q.v.], on his second succession to the caliphal throne in Shawwal 4O3/ May 1013, had to distribute large fiefs among the Berbers who had raised him to power. He allotted to 'Ali b. Hammud the governorship of Ceuta and to his brother al-Kasim that of Algeciras, Tangier, and Arzila. The two were genuine Idrisids [q.v.], their great-grandfather Hammud being the great-grandson of Idris II."
  6. ^ Collins 2012, p. 203.

Bibliography

— Royal house —Hammudid dynasty Preceded byUmayyad dynasty Caliphs of Córdoba 1016–10231025–1027 Succeeded byUmayyad dynasty(Restored) New title Taifa kings of Málaga 1026–1057 Annexed to the Taifa of Granada New title Taifa kings of Ceuta 1009–1055 Succeeded by Barghawāṭa New title Taifa kings of Algeciras 1039–1058 Annexed to the Taifa of Seville