Hanumangarh
City
Bhatner fort is located in Hanumangarh city.
Hanumangarh
Hanumangarh
Hanumangarh
Hanumangarh
Hanumangarh
Hanumangarh
Coordinates: 29°35′N 74°19′E / 29.58°N 74.32°E / 29.58; 74.32Coordinates: 29°35′N 74°19′E / 29.58°N 74.32°E / 29.58; 74.32
CountryIndia
StateRajasthan
DistrictHanumangarh
Founded byKing Bhupat
Government
 • BodyMunicipal Council
Elevation
177 m (581 ft)
Population
 (2011)[1]
 • Total150,958
Language Punjabi bagari hindi
 • OfficialHindi[2]
 • Additional officialEnglish[2]
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
335512(Hanumangarh Junction) 335513(Hanumangarh Town)
Telephone code01552
Vehicle registrationRJ-31
Websitehanumangarh.rajasthan.gov.in

Hanumangarh is a city in the Indian state of Rajasthan, situated on the banks of the river Ghaggar also identified as Ancient Sarasvati river, located about 400 km from Delhi. It is the administrative seat of Hanumangarh District. The city was once called Bhatner (alternatively spelled Bhatnair) because it was founded by king Bhupat in 255 AD. It remained in the control of the Rajputs of Bhati clan and faced a historic siege by Timur in 1391, during which the Bhatti Rajput king Rao Dulachand lost the fort for a short time.[3] The fort was later occupied by Rao Jetsa of Bikaner.[4]

History

Indus Valley Civilization

Indus Valley Civilization sites in the district number over 100 villages along Ghaggar-Hakra River (Palaeochannel of Sarasvati River), such as Karanpura. Remains found at Kalibangan and Pilibanga in 1951 reveal that this area was a part of nearly 5000 years old civilization. The remains of human skeleton, unknown scripts, stamps, coins, utensils, jewelry, toys, statues, wells, bathrooms, fort, streets, markets, etc. were found. The remains found at these places have been kept at Museum at Kalibangan and National Museum, New Delhi.

Medieval

It has yielded a number of terracotta decorative tiles in the late Kushan Empire style along with a number of coins. Two terracotta capitals at the depth of 15' from the top of the mound with stepped pyramids along their edges have been discovered.[5] In 1398,Timur the Great invaded the Delhi sultanate and on his way he attacked Ganganagar Fort(Bhatner at that time) defended by its ruler Rao Daljit and his cousin with only 10,000 men Timur wrestlled the fortifications and slained or enslaved all of the Garrison along with their citizens.

Colonial era

Main articles: Bhatner and History of Bikaner

Hanumangarh was the kingdom of Bhati rajputs and hence its earlier name was Bhatner. Maharaja Surat Singh Rathore (b.1787 – d.1828) of Bikaner State won this fort on Tuesday. Since Tuesday is the auspicious day of the Hindu deity Hanuman, Surat Singh renamed Bhatner to "Hanumangarh" - the Fort of Hanuman the Hindu-deity. A 1700-year-old Bhatner fort is situated in the middle of Hanumangarh Town, the description of which can be found in Ain-i-Akbari.[6] A famous Bhadrakali temple is situated near the town on the banks of Ancient Sarasvati river(Ghaggar river).[5]

Demographics

A view of Bhagat Singh Chowk at Hanumangarh Junction.
A view of Bhagat Singh Chowk at Hanumangarh Junction.

According to 2011 Indian Census, Hanumangarh had a total population of 150,958, of which 79,709 were males and 71,249 were females. Population within the age group of 0 to 6 years was 18,094. The total number of literates in Hanumangarh was 102,149, which constituted 67.7% of the population with male literacy of 73.6% and female literacy of 61.1%. The effective literacy rate of 7+ population of Hanumangarh was 76.9%, of which male literacy rate was 83.8% and female literacy rate was 69.28%. The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes population was 25,486 and 2,463 respectively. Hanumangarh had 30022 households in 2011.[1]

As of 2001 India census, Hanumangarh had a population of 129,654. Males constitute 69,583 of the population and females 60,071. The sex ratio was 863 females to 1000 males. Population in the age range of 0–6 years was 18,669. 83,923 people were literates in Hanumangarh which is 64.7% of the total population. The effective literacy of people 7 years and over of age was 75.6%.[7]

Railway Junction

A view of railway station at Hanumangarh Junction.
A view of railway station at Hanumangarh Junction.

Hanumangarh Junction railway station is a major railway station on Jodhpur-Bathinda line; Sadulpur, Rewari, Jaipur, Sriganganagar, Anupgarh, (Canaloop). Earlier both meter gauge and broad gauge lines passed through this station and now all lines passing through here have been converted to broad gauge. There is also a Diamond Railway Crossing. In 1982, the broad gauge started from Bhatinda to Suratgarh via Hanumangarh. On 1 October 2012, Hanumangarh-Sadulpur metergauge track closed and it was converted into broad gauge. 3 Hanumangarh to Sri Ganganagar passenger trains are running on the broad gauge track. This track provides smooth rail traffic between two strategically important cantonments at Jaisalmer (Rajasthan) and Udhampur (J&k) via Hanumangarh, Sriganganagar and Firozpur.[8]

Tehsils

There are 7 following tehsils in the district Hanumangarh: Hanumangarh, Sangaria, Pilibanga, Nohar, Bhadra, Rawatsar and Tibbi.

Language

Hindi is the official language and English is additional official.[2] Bagri language is the major language in Hanumangarh.[9] Punjabi language is also used as a second language in most areas of the district in northern part of Rajasthan.[citation needed]

Government Nehru Memorial PG College in Hanumangarh town.
Government Nehru Memorial PG College in Hanumangarh town.

Places of interest

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References

  1. ^ a b "Census of India: Hanumangarh". www.censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
  2. ^ a b c "52nd REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIA" (PDF). nclm.nic.in. Ministry of Minority Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
  3. ^ Hooja, Rima (2006). A History of Rajasthan. Rupa and company. p. 371. ISBN 9788129108906. Bhatner was taken in 1391 by Timur from the Bhati Rajput King named Dulachand
  4. ^ Sir William Wilson Hunter (1885), The imperial gazetteer of India, Volume 2, Trübner & Co., 1885, ... The Bhatnair fort ... on the direct route of invasion from Central Asia to India ... taken by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1001 ... attacked by Timur ... probable that Timur left a Tatar Chagitai noble in charge, who was expelled by Bhatis from Marot and Phulra ... Bhatnair, now called Hanumangarh ...
  5. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 February 2014. Retrieved 8 January 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ "Bhatner Fort". Archived from the original on 1 July 2012.
  7. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
  8. ^ "Hanumangarh to Shri Ganganagar: 9 Trains, Shortest Distance: 66 km - Railway Enquiry". indiarailinfo.com.
  9. ^ Lakhan Gusain 2000. Bagri Grammar. Munich: Lincom Europa (Languages of the World/Materials, 384)