The Harenna Forest is located in a highland forest region of the Bale Mountains, in the Oromia Region of southeastern Ethiopia.
It is one of the few remaining natural forests in the country.
Bale Mountains contain four distinct ecoregions of the Afromontane ecozone:
The Harenna Forest is known for its native plants, mammals, amphibians and birds, including many endemic species.  One such endemic species is the tree Maytenus harenensis, which is also classified by the IUCN as vulnerable due to the threat of logging.
The Harenna Forest was once habitat to packs of the endangered painted hunting dog, Lycaon pictus. However, the presence of this canid is now in question here due to the population pressures of expanding human presence. The central Sanetti Plateau is home to the largest population of the rare and endangered Ethiopian wolf.