Hasan Pasha
Bornc. 1517
Died4 July 1572
Piratical career
TypeOttoman Admiral
AllegianceOttoman Empire
Years activec. 1545-1572
RankAdmiral٫ Kapudan pasha
Base of operationsMediterranean
Battles/wars

Hasan Pasha (c. 1517 – 4 July 1572) was the son of Hayreddin Barbarossa and three-times Beylerbey of the Regency of Algiers.[1] His mother was a Morisca[2] or a “Moorish woman from Algiers”.[3] He succeeded his father as ruler of Algiers, and replaced Barbarossa's deputy Hasan Agha, who had been effectively holding the position of ruler of Algiers since 1533.[4]

Ruler of Algiers

Hasan Pasha became ruler of Algiers when his father was called to Constantinople in 1545. Barbarossa died peacefully in the Ottoman capital in 1546.[4]

In June 1545, Hasan Pasha occupied the city of Tlemcen, where he set a Turkish garrison, and put pro-Ottoman Sultan Muhammad on the throne, however Tlemcen was lost to the Spanish in 1547 who had captured the city. [5][6][7][8] In 1548, he was replaced as Beylerbeyi of Algiers by the Ottoman Admiral Turgut Reis, who was nominated by Suleiman the Magnificent.[4]

Hasan Pasha again became ruler of Algiers and defeated the Saadians in Tlemcen in an alliance with a local Kabyle Kingdom. He was recalled in 1552, on the reason that he was one of the causes of the conflict between the Turks and Morocco. He was replaced by Salah Rais, who nevertheless marched on Fez and captured the city in early 1554, when the Moroccan ruler Mohammed ash-Sheikh rejected cooperation with the Ottomans.[9]

Hasan Pasha was again named beylerbey of Algiers in June 1557, in order to continue the fight against the Moroccan ruler, who had formed an alliance with the Spanish against the Ottomans.[9] He fought another battle in Tlemcen against the Saadians and defeated them before having Mohammed ash-Sheikh assassinated in October 1557.[9]

Ornate Ottoman cannon cast in Algiers on 8 October 1581, soon after the rule of Hasan Pasha, by founder Ca'fer el-Mu'allim. Length: 385 cm, cal:178 mm, weight: 2910 kg, stone projectile. Seized by France during the invasion of Algiers in 1830. Musée de l'Armée, Paris.
Ornate Ottoman cannon cast in Algiers on 8 October 1581, soon after the rule of Hasan Pasha, by founder Ca'fer el-Mu'allim. Length: 385 cm, cal:178 mm, weight: 2910 kg, stone projectile. Seized by France during the invasion of Algiers in 1830. Musée de l'Armée, Paris.

Hasan Pasha invaded Morocco in early 1558, but he was stopped by the Moroccan north of Fez at the Battle of Wadi al-Laban, and had to retreat upon hearing of Spanish preparations for an offensive from Oran.[9] He reembarked from the port of Qassasa in northern Morocco, and from there returned to Algiers to prepare a defense against the Spaniards.[9]

After the Ottoman victory in the Expedition of Mostaganem (1558), Hasan Pasha was recalled again to Constantinople, apparently because of conflicts with his troops.[9]

He again became Beylerbey of Algiers in 1562, and led the unsuccessful Sieges of Oran and Mers El Kébir in 1563.[9]

Commander-in-Chief of the Ottoman Navy

In 1567, he was recalled to Istanbul and named, Kapudan pasha or Commander-in-Chief, of the Ottoman Navy.[1] like his father before him.

Hasan Pasha was at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.[10] He died in Constantinople in 1572.[1]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Imber, Colin (August 1997). Ebu's-Suʻud: The Islamic legal tradition. Stanford University Press. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-8047-2927-7.
  2. ^ Houtsma, M. Th. (1993). E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936. E. J. Brill. p. 873. ISBN 90-04-09796-1.
  3. ^ Berber Government: The Kabyle Polity in Pre-colonial Algeria. P.199. Hugh Roberts Bloomsbury Publishing,
  4. ^ a b c Konstam, Angus (19 August 2008). Piracy: The complete history. Osprey Publishing. p. 85ff. ISBN 978-1-84603-240-0.
  5. ^ History of Islam: Classical period, 1206-1900 C.E Masudul Hasan
  6. ^ The Emperor Roger Bigelow Merriman
  7. ^ History of North Africa: Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, from the Arab Conquest to 1830, Volume 2 Charles André Julien Routledge & K. Paul
  8. ^ Abun-Nasr, Jamil M. (28 August 1997). A History of the Maghrib in the Islamic Period. Cambridge University Press. p. 155ff. ISBN 978-0-521-33767-0.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Abun-Nasr, Jamil M. (28 August 1997). A History of the Maghrib in the Islamic Period. Cambridge University Press. p. 157ff. ISBN 978-0-521-33767-0.
  10. ^ Konstam, Angus (19 February 2003). Lepanto 1571: The greatest naval battle of the Renaissance. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-409-2.
Preceded byHayreddin Barbarossa Pasha of Algiers 1545–1552 Succeeded bySalah Rais Preceded byYahyia Pasha Pasha of Algiers 1557–1561 Succeeded byAhmed Bostandji Preceded byAhmed Bostandji Pasha of Algiers 1562–1566 Succeeded byMuhammad I Pasha