The charts below show how the International Phonetic Alphabet represents Romance Ligurian pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see ((IPA-lij)) and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
b bödisson, Bàrboa bill
d veddro, cadello dill
[1] gianco, ongia, giærâva Jill
ʎ coniggio, figgeu, muâgia Jill or billion[2]
f safran, feliçitæ, stuffa fill
ɡ preghêa, mëgo, gregâ grill
k ancheu, credensa, quæxi skill
l lann-a, gallo lid
m mënda, famme mill
n n pinna, n nest
ŋ nn-a, donn-o[3] nest or ring[2]
ŋ tenpo, savon, gianda[3] ring
ɲ âgna, scignôro onion
p capriççi, päpêto spill
ɾ ɹ ingreize, rebelêa, spar atom (American English) or barrel[2]
s s sêuxoo, paçiensa, pastiççê, nissêua sell
ʃ pescòu, pastiççê, sfròuxo sell or shell[2]
ʃ sciô, léscico, scerpa shell
t çittæ, töa, roêta still
masccio, ociâli, cêuve chill
v levòu, vailezzo veal
z z zenéize, mazzo, spozoéi zeal
ʒ desmentegâ, asbasciâ, deslengoâse zeal or leasure[2]
ʒ xo, scixèrboa, chixêximo leasure
 
Semivowels
IPA Examples English approximation
j scciapeuia, leitûga, ziàrdoa, socjêtæ young
w ægoa, ciammòu, quâgia well
Vowels[4]
IPA Examples English approximation
Short vowels
a mäveggia, babà, grasso brother
e ebrêo, öxello, avédise bait
ɛ bello, caffè, fænn-a[4] bet
i infinïo, piccin beet
ɔ o[1] votta, òspitòu, Ouröpa bald, but shorter
ø béuisccio, cheuscia, euggezzâ bird (RP), but shorter
u môro, nasción, rotto bull
y cuggiæ, fumme, virtù cute (Scotland)
Long vowels
mäveggia, cicchettâ, ociâli father
ej ebrêo, gêxâ, çëxetta bail
ɛː sæa, coæ, bæxinâ bear (RP)
abaçîa, barbacïo, moî bead
ɔː stöia, öxello, dizö bald
øː nissêua, dêuviemmo, faxeu bird (RP)
môro, servitô, dôçeménte fool
lettûa, dûo, aogûri feud (Scotland)
 
Suprasegmentals
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈ sciughêa [ʃyˈɡeːa] primary stress
ˌ brûxabaracche [ˌbɾyːʒabaˈɾakːe] secondary stress
. létia [ˈleti.a] syllable break
ː Sann-a [ˈsaŋːa] half-long consonant[5]

Notes

  1. ^ a b Sounds listed on the right column occur in certain peripheral dialects.
  2. ^ a b c d e The latter realizations are most common in peripheric areas, such as Ventimiglia or southern Piedmont. In particular, [ʃ] and [ʒ] are occurrences of /s/ and /z/ before consonants In the Tabarchino dialect of Carloforte.
  3. ^ a b Like most other Northern Italian languages, Ligurian nasals never assimilate their place of articulation to that of the following consonant, unlike in Standard Italian. [ŋ] is used in all nasal plus consonant clusters, and it may contrast with /n/ only before vowels (e.g. nn-a /ˈpeŋa/ 'sorrow' vs pénna /ˈpena/ 'quill').
  4. ^ a b All vowels can occur in both stressed or unstressed positions except short /ɛ/, which is always stressed.
  5. ^ Consonant and semivowel lengthening optionally occurs in paroxytones between a stressed short vowel and a vowel, and is represented in IPA by either doubling the consonant or through the ⟨ː⟩ marker (e.g. euggio [ˈøddʒu]/[ˈødːʒu]).

External links