The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Maithili pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see ((IPA-mai)) and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Maithili phonology, for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of Maithili.


IPA[1] Devanagari[1] ISO 15919 [1] English Approximation
b ba butter
bha clubhhouse
d[2] da deal
[2] dha redhead
ja jazz
dʑʱ jha hedgehog
ɖ ḍa American English bird
ɖʱ ḍha American English birdhouse
ɡ ga green
ɡʱ gha loghouse
ɦ ha head
k ka sky
kha car
l la leaf
m ma much
n na not
ɳ ṇa somewhat like grant
ɲ ña enjoyable
ŋ ṅa bank
p pa sport
pha pencil
r ra American atom
s sa sue
t[2] ta still
[2] tha tip
ca catch
tɕʰ cha choose
ʈ ṭa carts
ʈʰ ṭha trip
Marginal Consonants
ɕ [3] śa somewhat like ship
ɸ~f फ़[4] fa face
j [5] ya yak
ɽ ड़[6] ṛa somewhat like garter
ɽɦ ढ़[7] ṛha ṛ and h, somewhat like warhead
ʂ [8] ṣa somewhat like shot
ʋ~w [9] va vary
x ख़[10] k͟ha Scottish loch
z ज़/ध़[11] za zen
ʑ झ़[12] zha somewhat like vision
IPA Devanagari ISO 15919 Grierson English Approximation
a ॴ, बऻ a[13] ă palm (General American)
आ, बा ā[14] father
æ ऍ, बॅ æ trap
e ऎ, बॆ e somewhat like dress
ए, बे ē somewhat like play
ə[15] अ, ब a[13] about
əː अ२, ब२
ā[14] ä somewhat like nurse (not rhotic)
[16] ई, बी ī feed
ɪ[16] इ, बि i kid
o ऒ, बॊ o somewhat like cloth
ओ, बो ō story
ɔ , ब ô å choice
[16] ऊ, बू ū mood
ʊ[16] उ, बु u wood
Syllabic vowels
[17] ऌ, बॢ[18] bottle
ɹ̩[19] ऋ, बृ[18] bird
ɹ̩ː[20] ॠ, बॄ[18] r̥̄ longer r̥
aːi̯ ऐ, बै
aːu̯ औ, बौ
əi̯ [21], बꣿ ai somewhat like face
əu̯ ॵ, बॏ au goat
Short Vowels
IPA Devanagari Grierson English Approximation
ă ॳ, बऺ a Shorter variation of short vowels
ĭ इऺ, बिऺ i
ŭ उऺ, बुऺ u
Vowel Diacritics
IPA Devanagari ISO 15919 Grierson English Approximation
◌̃ ◌̃ nasal vowel faun

([ãː, õː], etc.)

h ahead
IPA Devanagari ISO 15919 English Approximation
ˈ◌ stress

(placed before stressed syllable)

◌ː doubled vowel

(placed after doubled vowel)

Halanta[22] (placed after last consonant)


  1. ^ a b c In the letter series beginning with क, क = क् + अ; ka = k + a. Thus 'क' has the inherent vowel 'अ', giving 'क' without added vowel sign using diacritics (The halanta "्" is removed). But the IPA shown here has the consonant 'k' only & does not include the vowel 'a'.
  2. ^ a b c d /t/ and /d/ are mostly pronounced as dental stops [t̪] and [d̪], with the tongue touching the teeth, but alveolar pronunciation is also common.
  3. ^ Often merged with [s].
  4. ^ Almost always merged with फ.
  5. ^ Replaced with [dʑ] in initial position in Sanskrit words and whenever it is after [r] followed by central vowels ([ə] and [a]). Replaced with vowel [e] in between central vowels.
  6. ^ Allophone of [r] in most times. Allophone of intervocalic [d].
  7. ^ Often pronounced as [rʰ]. Allophone of intervocalic [dʰ].
  8. ^ Merged with [s].
  9. ^ [v], [w] and intermediate [ʋ] are allophonic in Maithili. Often pronounced as [b] between central vowels. In Perso-Arabic words, replaced with vowel [o] in initial position. Pronounced as [bh] in English words.
  10. ^ Commonly, pronounced as [kh]. Found in Perso-Arabic loanwords. Also, a remnant of Sanskrit jihvamuliya.
  11. ^ Commonly pronounced as [dʑ]. Found in Perso-Arabic loanwords.
  12. ^ A conditional allophone of [y], when between [h] and a central vowel. Also, present in Perso-Arabic loanwords, in which pronounced as [j].
  13. ^ a b /ə/ and /a/ both are represented in ISO 15919 as 'a'.
  14. ^ a b /aː/ and /əː/ both are represented in ISO 15919 as 'ā'.
  15. ^ /ɐ/ occurs as a conditioned allophone of /ə/ in initial position of a word.
  16. ^ a b c d /iː, ɪ/ and /uː, ʊ/ are neutralised to [i], [u] at the end of a word.
  17. ^ Usually pronounced as [lĭ].
  18. ^ a b c In Sanskrit words (tatsama).
  19. ^ Usually pronounced as [rĭ].
  20. ^ Usually pronounced as [ri].
  21. ^ Not visible in most systems. A Unicode character U+A8FE.
  22. ^ Used to show that the consonant doesn't have any inherent vowel,